Summarize Spoken Text (SST)

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SST Real Exam Questions

  1. Biology

„  The lecture was about biology, which studies life and living organisms. Although all the creatures such as humans, butterfly, and dolphin look different, they are tightly interconnected. They all rely on DNA and RNA, which are used to pass and store energy. In the end, the speaker stressed that cells are the foundation of building organs, and they react similarly to use and convert energy.  

  1. Talent shortage
  • The lecture was about the main reasons for the talent shortage. The speaker explained an increase in the retirement of baby-boomers, which has led to a significant decrease in the number of skilled people. Also, the collapse of loyalty has deteriorated the situation because people would change their job because of higher income. In the end, there was a conflict between what education produces and what business needs.
  1. Typhoid Fever – Mary Mallon
  • The lecture was about Mary Mallon’s life, who moved to New York in 1893. She was working as a cook for wealthy families, but she infected her employee’s family members to typhoid fever. Although Mary was diagnosed with Typhoid fever with minor symptoms, which could transit through water and food, she always denied her sickness. She arrested and hospitalized by public health authorities. Hence, she died after nearly thirty years living in isolation. In the end, the speaker concluded that Mary had infected 21 people, and one of them died with more severe symptoms.


  1. Prescription medicine


  • The lecture was about the advertisement for prescription medicine. The speaker stressed about a significant increase in the number of medicine advertisements, and people will buy a product if they have seen its advertisement. Although these advertisements might be technically accurate, they are misleading in the tones. In the end, the speaker concluded that buying medicine is not like buying soap and TV is a mass marketing.


  1. Sound receptor


„ The lecturer explained the Sound receptor, which is a little spiky device to translate an ear vibrational energy into fluid and physical motion. Meanwhile, it can hurt an eardrum. He delineated that it is very impressive that the physical motions of sound can be translated to electric signals in the ear. Hence, the speaker invited MIT students to learn more about this remarkable device and genetic neuron.


  1. Cocoa beans

„ During the Aztec and Maya era, Cocoa bean was used for various aims. Cocoa was consumed as a hot and cold beverage with different flavors and additional ingredient. Moreover, Cocoa bean was also counted as a currency and for tax payment, and it was used for religious and medical purposes such a propitiating God or skin care. Furthermore, it was a popular drink at wedding ceremonies, and it was a sign of wisdom.


  1. Seed & pesticide in India


  • The debt today is so high, it’s two hundred thousand rupees, three hundred thousand rupees of peasant who have no capital. They who know within a year or two, when they accumulate that kind of debt. They never able to pay back. Where is the debt coming from?


It’s coming from a seed that is costing a hundred thousand to two hundred thousand rupees per kilogram, depending on what you got. Seed that used to be free, used to be theirs. Pesticides each time, they more they use, the more they have to use, 12 sprays, 15 sprays, 20 sprays. Pesticides used in just the last five years in the land areas of India has showed up by


2000 percent. That’s why the free market and globalization have brought and since we are talking about peasants, who have no money, who have no capital, they can only by expensive seeds and expensive pesticides by borrowing. And who lend that money? The seed companies that sell the pesticides, which are the same companies that sell the seeds, as you know, are now also the major creditors.


  1. Mr. Green – Amory Lovins


„ The lecturer talked about Amory Lovins, an American consultant experimental physicist, and he has been active at the nexus of energy, resources, economy, environment, development, and security in more than 50 countries for over 40 years. Also, he pays attention to energy saving and how to use energy in a more efficient and sustainable way. Hence, the speaker concluded that he built a house with plenty of energy-saving concepts.


  1. Government Use Trick


„ The lecture is about the government information disclosure. Citizens should be well informed about their rights and people take it granted in liberal and western democratic countries. However, the government uses tricks to deliberately hide the information and mislead the people in the wrong direction and people are deliberately hidden from the truth. Governments always interfere with social affairs and deny those events that have occurred. In the end, the speaker concluded that politicians use tricks in the policymaking-rule book to cover up their mistakes.






  1. Language distinguish or Small Language extinction


„ The lecture was about small language extinction. Now language accelerates to, and little languages are disappearing at an accelerated rate that has never been before in history. The main reason for the distinction is urbanization where people are moving to cities and urban area to find more work opportunities, and being influenced by mainstream language. The ideal place for little languages to survive is in isolated areas.

  1. International environmental legislation and law


„ The lecture was about new environmental law, which is launched by the British government to control the humans’ impact on the environment. The law enforcement was an aggressive regulation innovation aiming to improve the environment both locally and globally. Companies applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability. However, managers were unsatisfied, as they would pay more money to meet law requirements and ensure the health of their employees making them less competitive in the market.


  1. Modification of governments or democracy



„ The lecturer explained the modification of governments. He/she stated that there is a need to modify government powers, and this can be achieved by devolution. One aspect is devolution, transfer power from the federal government to state government. He also highlighted the different opinions holding by both Democratic and Republican Parties. While the Democratic Parties claim that the big power and entitlements should be held by the government, the Republicans believe that the power should be shared between states and people.


  1. Computer and artificial intelligence



„ This lecture is about artificial intelligence. Before computer invention, people have been talking about computers symbolic representation of them as a human brain that is similar to the computer processor, which acts as the brain for the computer. In term of operation. The human brain is a symbol processor. Both the human brain and computer are similar since human works with symbols and computer manipulate bits and bytes. Computer reply on analyzing messages into work, similar to the human brain. It then followed by addressing the human’s brain mechanism, which operates based on symbols. Finally, from speed and accuracy aspect, the computer has high potential to develop intelligence.


  1. Famous novelist



„ The lecture was about a famous novelist who started writing in 1951. She wrote non-fiction novels, and she has detours 10-12 years until she was inspired and encouraged by a renowned novelist from Mississippi. Although she took detours along the way, she never gave up because she truly believed in what she was doing. In the end, in 1992, the first chapter of her novel named the Secret Life of Bees was finished.






  1. Globalization



„  The lecture was about the main definitions of globalization. There are various definition and meaning, and three of them would be mentioned. First of all, it would mean international communication and trading between countries, which consequently leads to significant growth in traveling and the relationship of international companies. Secondly, the speaker stressed the importance of having an integrated economy strategy, which increases the interdependence between the economies of different countries. Finally, he explained the transaction, consuming and producing goods.

  1. Competition faced by LSE


„ The lecture was about fierce competitions faced by LSE University. The speaker mentioned that there are two main factors there. The first one is to speak English, and the other is the funding of government. He also argued that there are five main kinds of competitions: for students, academic staff, research funding, research contracts, Pound against other currencies. Finally, the lecture provided some information about the competition faced by LSE.


  1. Stanford university conference



„ A lecture held by Stanford University stressed the importance of management and leadership in the business school. Learning management and leadership was introduced as the educational purposes by the lecturer. Students should be responsible and accountable for the quality and management performance and identify how it could happen appropriately and learn how it could be properly achieved. In the end, the speaker concluded that accomplishments should be attained by people themselves instead of depending on the others.


  1. Student loan



„ The lecture was about a woman faced with massive repayment of student loans. She explained that she is 43 years old and has ten thousand dollar student debt from her school, which is three times more than she paid for her car. She also mentioned that her children went to financial classes to use the governmental support. In conclusion, she clarified that although 4-year college study helps to find her current job, it would be better to study in an affordable college. Although she believed having a college degree plays a pivotal role in finding a job, she claimed this could happen at a high cost. She explained that her kids would join the class of citizens who cannot rely on their parents’ income. In the end, she concluded that her debts would pale in comparison to her future career.


  1. CEO opinion in companies



„ The lecturer explained a survey to identify the CEO opinion on a company’s operations. The speaker stressed the main question of the survey, which was which area of activity, is the essential part of the company. He also mentioned that 58 percent of CEO agreed on IT, which is the most time-consuming and complex part of any organization. Finally, he described the other two aspects, marketing, and financial management.







  1. Population growth and resource consumption



„ The lecture was about population growth and resource consumption. It first stated that the population has increased from 1.5 million to 6 million between 1900 and 2000. It then followed by addressing the increase in the energy consumption, which is about 16 folds. In the end, the speaker concluded that megacities have 50 percent of the population, but they consume 70 percent of energy sources and produce tons of waste.


  1. Marshmallow test



„ The lecture was about a Marshmallow test to measure the ability of children against temptation. It first stated that the kids who could resist to not eating the candy for a long time are more likely to achieve high competency later in life. This ability is not necessarily innate and highly depends on the environment. In the end, the speaker concluded that previous experiences could delay the gratification longer.


  1. Bomb calorimeter



„ The lecture was about bomb calorimeter used to calculate the amount of calorie. It first stated that the food chamber is used to measure the heat, whereas the water chamber could absorb the heat when food is burned. It then argued that the thermometer, and insulation are deployed to calculate the energy as well as preventing the heat loss. In the end, the speaker concluded that this device could not measure the exact amount that absorbed.


  1. Animal surviving



„ The lecture was about animal surviving and reproducing in general conditions. It was argued that animals could adjust their body temperature under water, and tolerate different temperatures and seasons. It then explained the research that indicates a frog could adjust its body temperature according to the change of water temperature. In the end, the speaker concluded that animal’s habitat, daily activities, and behavior.


  1. Urbanization and agriculture



„  The lecture was about the relationship between urbanization and agriculture. It first stated that a tremendous number of people move to the city to find more opportunities. It then followed by giving an example about agriculture, farmers could grow food in the countryside, which could benefit many families in the city. In the end, the speaker concluded that many people tend to live in the city even if they lose their jobs.






  1. Einstein theory and universe



„  The lecture was about the motion of the universe and the Einstein theory. Although people used to believe that the world is fixed and unchangeable, Einstein claimed that stars and planets are continuously expanding and changing over the time. In the end, the speaker concluded that while some people know this theory as a discovery of Einstein, Edward Hubble was the first person who proposed this theory.


„ Philosophers and scientists from 100 years ago and prior believed that the universe is fixed and unchangeable, all planets, people, earth and sky are all in one place without any change, but it was until Einstein prediction about our thick universe, and he believed everything is evolving, but Einstein hadn’t the honor to see it for himself, as Edwin Hubble has made this discovery in 1920s.


  1. Humor and laugh



„  The lecture was about the importance of laughing at people’s health. It mentioned that laughing existed in Europe a long time ago, and jokes of the Berlin wall were used as an effective therapy method. The lecturer also argued that laughing is both the simplest and cheapest method to deal with stress because it could relieve the blood pressure. In the end, the speaker stressed the importance (significance) of self-respect and identity.


  1. Sea creatures



„ The lecture was discussing sea creatures, which are the latest devices to generate power from ocean waves. First is Oyster installed on the ocean floor and generate power from closing and opening when waves pass over it. The second is Anaconda, which looks like a snake made of rubber and has 200-meter length. The last one is like Anaconda but made from steel. The speaker concluded that these three devices power generators from green sources of energy.


  1. Citizenship curriculum



„ The lecture was discussing the importance of teaching citizenship curriculum. However, it is neglected by many schools. There are only 1/5 of schools introduced the course to campus and allocated less time than other subjects. Students are more likely to feel confident when they face the changing world, and it also helps students to build up their leadership skills. Criticism about citizenship education in schools argues that merely teaching students about the theory is ineffective unless schools involve students in the process of making a decision. The competition has compelled universities to raise more funding from both the private and public sectors. In the end, he concludes that the lack of capacity and expertise are the main problem of skipping this syllabus.





  1. Vitamin D




„ The lecture is about the vitamin D concentration in people. Vitamin D is not a real vitamin but one type of pro-hormone, it is produced by the skin when skin is exposed to sunlight, then it can travel via the bloodstream to have effects on other parts of the body. There have been advancements in technologies that could measure the fat content of Vitamin D, which has shown that people often suffer from Vitamin D deficiency because of their diet or reducing the sun exposure. In the end, the speaker stressed that we should be aware of fat-soluble vitamins, which could produce intoxication. The formation of Vitamin D can be affected by climate. For example, people need more Vitamin D supplements during winter when they wear more clothes due to the lack of sunshine. Some regions where people are less exposed to sunlight don’t have enough Vd compared to those who live near the equator.


  1. Coffee industry



„ The lecture is about the changes that have taken place in the coffee industry. The speaker mentioned coffee production has increased from 6 billion to 30 billion during the ten years and America has made Vietnam the second biggest producer, which has greatly affected Columbia’s production. He discussed the output of Central America is witnessing a significant decrease; however, people’s drinking habits have also been changed. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the changes that the coffee industry has witnessed.


  1. Pavlov’s experiments with dogs



„ This lecture talks about a phenomenon, which described how the brain works. It answers an old question of how motivation works. In an experiment, Pavlov studied a dog. When the dog hears sounds, the salivation increases with the noise. This is an experiment that tries to reveal why the brain works in this way.


  1. Dogs tell growls


„ The lecture introduces an experiment showing that dogs use different barks and growls to communicate different things. In this video, when a dog approaches some food, different snarls are played back. Researchers recorded an “alone bark,” a “stranger growl.” A dog was growling at the approach of a stranger and a “food growl” where a dog was growling to protect a plate of food. Sometimes a dog doesn’t stop from taking the bones when hearing the voices, in other cases, it will be deterred. Therefore, a dog can fell different growls. The dogs were more hesitant to approach if they heard the food growl rather than the stranger growl or the alone barks. The experiment shows that dogs could distinguish between different types of growls, and react to them accordingly.






  1. (Edmund Wilson) American literature


„ This lecture talks about Edmund Wilson, an American writer, and critic who notably explored Freudian and Marxist themes. Edmund Wilson was He influenced many American authors, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose unfinished work he edited for publication. His scheme for a Library of America series of classic national works came to fruition through the efforts of Jason Epstein after Wilson’s death. He comes from a very different world and is the focal point an American culture. He believes that literature is a part of life for everyone as for conversation. In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary journalist.


  1. Melk Monastery, Austria


„  This lecture mainly talks about Melk Monastery is not typical. There are four reasons: Firstly, it is very grand. Also, it is found in the countryside. Thirdly, it has substantial land. Lastly, it lies in Austria.

  1. Fossil Fuels


„ The lecture is about the use of fossil fuels in developing countries. There are different motivations for them to utilize fossil fuels, which include financial incentives and easy access. However, the detrimental effect of fossil fuels on the planet should not be ignored, such as climate change. As fossil fuels are running out very fast, we should look for a green source to replace it to achieve sustainable development.


  1. ATM


„ Some people forget to take their cards after receiving the money from ATM because they focus on the money only. The United Kingdom has restructured the new ATM, and cards will be released by machine before cash are dispensed. Although you would forget to take your money, it is more catastrophic to lose your card because it can access your account.


  1. Role of Language


„  Languages develop unconsciously when people try to communicate with each other. The rule of language is the convention. Every language is unique, valuable and not translatable since the meaning of a word in different languages is not the same. Language reflects own culture, represents personal thinking and understanding. It is important that a simple language should be documented for human beings. Different languages need to be documented as they are of human heritage.


  1. Visual culture in science


„ It is said that the visual culture is a minor, sub-culture, but a change since the introduction of a movie called Star War. Although the story/logic of the movie is stupid and aggressive, the visual/special effect is distinctive. Lastly, the speaker said the visual effect is a significant factor in the fiction movies.







  1. Tea & Coffee in London


„ Coffee is popular in London. Coffee is becoming expensive to buy. People in the coffee house have conversations, meet friends and do businesses. The use of Coffee is easy to take home. For example, a man can take a cup of coffee to his wife. Three hot drinks in the UK: tea, coffee, and hot chocolate Which one is the most favorite?


  1. Three primary Colors


„  Almost all visible colors can be obtained by the additive color mixing of three colors that are in widely spaced regions of the visible spectrum. If the three colors of light can be mixed to produce white, they are called primary colors and the standard additive primary colors are red, green and blue.


Two colors that produce white when added together are called complementary. The color complementary to a primary color is called a secondary color. The complementary or secondary colors for red, green and blue are cyan, magenta and yellow respectively. These three colors are often referred to as the subtractive primary colors. When the three are combined in subtractive color mixing, they produce black.


„ This lecture mainly talks about magic natural color. To answer where natural colors come from, Firstly, the yellow comes from many plants. Secondly, reds come from the ground, and some insects can provide reds. Finally, the only natural source of blue is indigo.


  1. Kids in Museums


„ Special museums are open for families with kids since sometimes it is hard to control kids’ behavior. There was a mom with three kids visiting the British Museum but were asked to leave because one of the kid was scared by a statue and screamed out loud. The mom was angry and complained. As a result, she receives more than 500 emails from families who had the same experience and requested the right of kids.


  1. Social Contract


„ Firstly, this lecture mentioned the definition of social contract, which refers to the interactions between people. Secondly, it mentioned the example of animals. Lastly, it said that people enjoy working together on the same project.


  1. The utilization of robots


„ The lecture talks about robot application and developing of robots which applied to car manufacturers in the factories. Many robots service in the home for the general purpose. The special purposes change. The robot can replace human doing many heavy and hard works. Instead of robots for general use, robots for particular purposes such as vacuum cleaner. Robots have been purchased by many bachelors. The number of the robot will increase rapidly in the next few years, and 25000 robots have been sold out in a year.








New (97/06)

  1. Similarity between music and language

„ Transcript:


Every human in culture we know the music and language, these are universe, genuine human universe when they go way back in our specie’s history. So the question what these two things might have been common has occurred a lot of people when it’s two of them both involve complex sequences that afford in time both forms in communication, it’s interesting, philosophers since Plato going back over 2000 years, scientists including Darwin who wrote about possible evolutionary links between music and language in his book “The Descent of Man”, an artist including Leonard Bernstein who gave a set of lectures Harvard in the 70s about possible connections between the grammar of music and the grammar of language according to Noam Chamsky theories.


So it’s a persist question and I think it continuously at from scientists today, because they are just in basic obvious similarities. For example, both music and language have rhythm by which I mean systematic patterns of timing, accent and grouping. They both have melody, meaning structure patterns of pitch over time. And they both have syntax, mean … elements like notes, words and principles where combining those elements of sequence sentences are just random sequences verbs, music is nowadays compositions of far from random sequences of notes, their principles. And they both convey emotion or affect using sound, you can tell somebody’s emotions … their voices, you can get a lot of emotional information about music is conveying happiness, sadness or mixed emotions …happy.


  1. Space time


„ If we want to talk about relativity, we have to talk about space-time. Space-time is the four dimensional world we live in We need four numbers to specify a point in space. Also, the four dimensional world is the arena of physics, everything happens physically in space-time.


  1. Water purification


„ We use science to solve problems to change the world, so we should choose harder questions to answer such as water purification and human health improvement and health standards across the world and social private. We are fortunate because we can buy bottled water but this is not the case if you are not living in a developed country. This is still a global issue, and we want to find solutions to this problem. CBAM is a foundation working on this problem and focusing on human health and mainly working on the issues of clean water resources in individual and collaborative research. Hence, the nanotechnology would be used to find corresponding solutions.






  1. Socialism


„ The lecture demonstrated the origin and concept of political ideology in terms of right and left wing. The concepts of the socialism and communism began in the eighteenth century. Socialism originated in 1880s, communism originated in 1840s. Whereas they become conceptualized since ideologies after the French Revolution. The left side of the speaker podium in the national assembly became the political left wing which tended to be aggressive, while the right wing represented conservative and old regime.


  1. Wildlife in Africa


„ The lecture demonstrated research regarding the relationship between food and income in Africa. Their main livelihood is from wildlife, especially the fish which can provide a high level of protein. Although most of the people grew fish to live, they were still suffering from the poverty. Therefore, their income is closely associated with food.


„ Wildlife is important for people’s livelihood, especially fish. Billions of people in the world rely on fish as their main food source, the source of protein, and source of income. As the food source, fish is beneficial to health, whereas a source of income, it alleviates poverty. It is expected that fish industry will become the prime source of foreign income.


  1. Happiness


„ The survey of happiness, followed a pattern and contained large samples of the different regions, country, and even worldwide. According to the lecture, the core factors which result in people feel happy include health, marriage, employment status, and that other factors also consist of the environment, quality, and instinct. However, the later provides more critical influence on happiness.


  1. Taking wrong drugs


„ People usually take wrong drugs for several reasons, especially when kids accidentally take wrong drugs. Since it is extremely dangerous, the parents should prevent this occurrence by using the lidded and closed box. Moreover, they choose wrong medication because of the wrong prescription which results in the allergic reaction in some situations, and that the different resistance and duration of drugs also can be the causations.


  1. Bad architecture


„ The lecture demonstrated a book regarding the design of architecture. An awful design of the building is negatively influential on the mood of people, and that it results in frustration and anger. Nonetheless, architects have different perspectives on beauty which is an arrogant word since it is in the eye of the beholder, and thus it is difficult for architects to realize a bad architectural design.





  1. Genes



„ The lecture demonstrated the correlation between human behavior and physical features. Genes are not the only factor in determining the physical appearance such as height and hair, but also the behavior can change it. According to the recent research, the psychological features can be altered by person’s habits which resulted in tremendous interests among the variety of scientific fields such as biology, psychology, sociology, and neuroscience.


  1. Children’s Depression


„ The lecture demonstrated children’s depression which was discovered in the sixteenth century. Specifically, the disease results in increased risk of life on children who suffer it, and that it also causes diabetes and heart illness. Hence, the perspectives on children’s depression have been changed significantly among specialists, whereas it still requires resolution since kids behave and respond differently to medical treatment.





  1. Two types of spectacles



„ Normally, however, spectacles are a part of an assemblage of items giving us an overall look. In fashion terms, they are classes of accessories, along with shoes, jewelry, handbags or watches. But in healthcare terms, they are called a medical device and, in many languages, other than English, they are often described as a prosthesis, an artificial part of the body, part of you, making you who you are and choosing your spectacles is therefore your major decision. Increasingly, people own two or more pairs for different occasions or times of the day and there is a phrase for this in the industry, it is called lifestyle dispensing. And it dates back to the 1950s. The idea is that you wear one type of spectacles in the workplace and quite other at leisure or on the beach.


  1. HTML



„ Tim Berners-Lee is an inventor who invented and designed HTML and WWW. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup language and WWW means World Wide Web. During the first decade, there were lots of extraordinary creativity and people created plenty of websites and online contents. However, they did these without advertisements, profits, or traditional and motivational incentives. They did these only because they enjoy it.






  1. Description



„ The abstraction is an important layer of computers which was originated from the symbolic system. Especially, when people try to communicate with each other, the language has been developed. Furthermore, language also facilitates the development of sign language such as hand words.


Additional keywords: Abstraction Symbol, pterosaur and bat


  1. Writing Quality History and Journal



„ The lecture demonstrated the important factors of quality academic writing. The qualities of a good history and journal are similar since they all require the resource and evidence, the attention to logic, style, and writing, and that these factors are crucial for academic and journal papers. Hence, there is no clear line between them.


  1. Why the Australian housing is so expensive


„ The lecture demonstrated the reasons why the Australian housing is expensive. As an illustration, the economy has been increased significantly during past years, and that the changes in policy of home loan contributed to facilitating the housing price. Furthermore, the rising demands due to immigration from the purchasing power also push up the price. People can borrow money to buy house.


Additional keywords: 90% 15years, accommodation cost.

  1. Implicit and Explicit Memory


„ The lecture illustrated the two major categories of memories which include explicit and implicit memory. The implicit memory is an experimental or functional form of memory which cannot be consciously recalled since people can use language naturally, whereas the explicit memory is relevant to a great deal of highly personal memories such as remembering the birthday and answering multiple questions on the test.


  1. Human Rights in UK


„ The UK was the first country to announce conservational human rights after the Second World War, and that the rights consist of positive and negative sides. Furthermore, the positive rights include the right to marry, free religion, free trade, and right to vote, while the negative rights are considered about equality of sex.






  1. Civil Society



„ In the face of disempowerment, there is surprisingly no decline in involvement of people in organization sharing wealth and opportunities. Most of these organizations are struggling with financial problems. These nonprofit sections worth more than one trillion dollars and 700000 of them are in Australia which only 37000 of them are recognized by UN which just 3500 of them received accreditation. He also explained that the best predictor of governmental success is the strength and density of these associations.


  1. Adam Smith theory


„ Adam Smith theory included manufacturing industry. Industrialization is output and outcomes as well as incomes should be equal. Adam Smith’s wealth theory, development is output, and output is equal. Adam Smith’s theory also includes handmade manufacture. Democracy in developed countries, the industrial revolution, affect an entire society, living expectancy and standard were declined. Therefore some legislation about working conditions and environmental conditions were introduced to rectify our behavior. Some damages have been reversed, and we Have more benefits compared to 100 years ago.


  1. Faults and Earthquake



„ The dislocation of the rock occurs from the earth’s surface seven kilometers to several hundred kilometers vertically down to the crust. It refers to the epicenter which located vertically to the focus or hypocenter, and the energy releases and transfers through epicenter. It will result in a seismic wave which decreased as it moved away from the epicenter.


„ The location below the earth’s crust where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter Faults are fractures in the earth’s crust. By using fault maps, we could identify the location of the earthquake.


  1. The Definition of Risk


„ The lecture demonstrated the definitions of risk and safety. Specifically, the word of risk has two different meanings include the situation of being in danger and the consequence or the possibility of being in danger. However, the definition of safety has opposite meaning of risk, which refers to being out of dangerous situations or a condition of being safe.


„ If we look up the dictionary, there are different literal definitions of risk. The first definition is consequences of some kinds, like injuries. The second definition is possibility or chance of loss or injury. The speaker also compares the definition of safe and safety, which means being free from risk.






  1. Body fat Change



„The lecture demonstrated an experiment of body fat challenge which was volunteered by thirty-one women in a program conducted by Canadian researchers. In which they are provided with the healthy diet and asked not to change diet and regular exercise for six months so they could burn 2000 calories weekly. After six months, some people lost weight, some remain the same, while others gain weight and did not have a significant change. There are two explanations. One is that they ate a lot and cheated on the diet, and the other is they ate subconsciously and disliked the challenge.


  1. Industrialization


„ The lecture illustrated the influence of industrialization on European society in the 18th and 19th centuries. Specifically, the creation of power machines and factories provided numerous job opportunities, and it facilitated production efficiency and ability to transport raw materials. Industrialization also resulted in the urbanization movement, and that citizens prefer to live closer to the factories. Thus, the western world changed from rural and agricultural to urban industrial.


  1. Are we animals?

„ Far too many people, hmmm….often say things like animals do this but we don’t, or else


this animal does this and that animal does this, but the humans don’t do things like that. Those statements have some hidden assumption that we are not animals. When we say animals do this animals do that, we often assume that we’re not animals. If we are not animals, what are we? Are we plants or trees or flowers? No, we are not. Then okay, we are not plants, are we microorganisms, really tiny microscopic things? No, we are not. Then the natural conclusion must be we are not living things. That’s not true. Yes, we are animals and I see animals in us and I see humans in animals. So, I’m going to talk about the animal behavior and human nature. In order to understand human nature, we can look into animals’ eyes and animal behavior and find something about what made us who we are.


68 Water challenge


„ Today I want to talk about water, and the…the law that surrounds drinking water, to talk about its quality, talk about what your rights are to clean water, to also give you a sense of what key threats are to drinking water, what your exposure might be, and what we might do about it, both legally but also personally.


Water is a critical component of our environment and our bodies, your body is close to 70% water. You can go for several weeks two to three on average without food, you can only go for about four minutes without air, and you can go for maybe four or five days without water before you die. So water is absolutely critical, and one of the key arguments I want to make today is that it’s a largely neglected area of environmental law, given the rapid increase in our knowledge about chemical threats to water quality, and where those threats come from.






69 Big Bang Theory


„ The lecture is about dark energy. Dark energy Is an unknown form of energy, which is hypothesized to permeate all of space and accelerate universal expansion. Dark energy constitutes most of the total energy in the observable universe though its density is low. Two proposed forms of dark energy are cosmological constant and inconstant scalar fields. A field that is similar to dark energy and could inflate early universe is called the big bang.


„ The lecture is about the Big Bang Theory which is a cosmological model for the universe. The detailed measurements regarding the expansion are at around 13.7 billion years ago, which is far before then the first estimation of about 10 – 20 billion years. The newest found star is roughly 30 billion years old, and thus it can be matched with the current prediction regarding the expansion.


„ Our universe was in a hot dense state, then about 1.4 billion years ago, the expansion started. People usually think Big Bang happened 10-20 billion years ago but study indicated that it actually happened x billion years ago. The universe is a little older than the oldest stars, the observation is perfectly matched with the big bang theory. However, we still don’t know how the big bang happened.


70 Prevention of epidemic transmitting



„ In the developed world, like the United States, it uses various methods to prevent epidemic transmission with a wide range of resources such as the invention of antiviral drugs and vaccines and health management. However, epidemic prevention can be a big challenge for some less developed countries since they do not have the same level of resources and technology as rich countries do. Hence, it is the significant challenge in the future.


71 History of Epigenetic



„Now I like the history and one thing I want to go over briefly is a history of epigenetic research and this is from my perspective now. I got into this field in the early 90s. and what I have here is plotted publications total publications and function of time here. and on a linear graph. so what I did for this is I wanted to show that basically up untill around the year 2000. There’s an inflection point right around two thousand five right in here where it looks like basically nothing really is happening much in the field of epigenetics. To the point where it’s actually going vertical and a lot is happening in field of epigenetics. Now if you plot this rather than on linear paper semi-log paper. what you will find is that what I’m showing is an exponential growth curve for publications in the field of epigenetics. and that in the scientific community. There’s a doubling of the epigenetics papers every one and a half to two years. Last year alone we put into publication summers between fifteen and twenty thousand papers which took us 15 years from 1992 to 2005.







72 Flower temperature



„ Why the bumble bees pick some flowers over others? Researchers have known for a while that flower’s color can be a signal. Color in short hand that says to a bee: hey, I get some good quality nectar here, want to stop by for a visit. But new findings show that bees also use color to get clues about a flower’s temperature. And according to a study from a British research team published in the journal Nature, some like it hot. Bees use up a lot of energy just stay in warm on some days. In fact, they can’t even fly if they are too cold. So if one flower is warmer than another, a bee can save some of its fuel by basking on that flower while it’s doing its pollinating business. And it turns out that bumble bees consistently do choose warmer flowers over cooler ones, even when the two flowers offer up the same quantity and quality of nectar. Some plants seem to be evolutionarily adapted to be slightly warmer because the warmer ones get visited more by the chilly bees. When it comes to getting pollinated, apparently the heat is on, and that is the buzz.


73 Energy consumption



„ This is a 40-watt light bulb. If you leave it on all the time, it uses one kilowatt every day. And it’s possible to express all forms of power consumption using this unit of the light bulb. I started measuring everything around my house, around my office. And I found some surprising things. First, I plug in a phone charger. And it didn’t even register on this power meter. It uses one hundredth of a light bulb of power. So I don’t think the phone chargers can be our NO.1 phone energy consumption. Just taking one hot bath everyday uses the same energy, same power of five light bulbs on all the time, non-stop. And I found I’ve been steadily using 40 light bulbs worth of gas for heating, making hot air or hot water. And that surprises me. Transport is one of the biggest forms of energy consumption, and it uses about a third about our energy. If you drive an average car 50 kilometers a day, that corresponds to adding 40 light bulbs on all the time. Today, the average British person is using 125 light bulbs of power. That’s 125 light bulbs on all the time, non-stop. That’s huge.


74 Conclusions



„ The good thing is people began to be aware of the problem and have taken some actions. It declines, documents are the only evidence, it occurs in various species, it results in huge loss and maybe will have catastrophe, the positive thing is people began to be aware of it and are taking actions to fix it. Those conclusions are real and well documented, and they declined. Conclusions have been supported by strong evidence, which is the only one. The drivers contributed to the decline are varied depending on the species There is a possibility of a huge loss, but the positive thing is that people began to be aware of this and take some actions to fix the problems






  1. Smart Consumer



„ The consumers are smart, consumer values are important for business. They are smart in choosing the product, brand image; it is essential for the business to create value. An advertisement regarding the softest product which is also strong can fulfill demands of the smart consumer. Majority of people are using only a few seconds to decide whether to buy. This is fundamental engineering contradict. You don’t want it to be separated when you put it in the washing machine.


  1. Market economy



„ The market economy appeared in developed countries. It was documented, and scientific evidence supported it. The worker classes emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries. The market economy decreases the worker’s living standards and life expectancy, so the regulation was released to protect the benefits, and the working environment condition is far better than that 100 years ago.


other keywords: pragmatism, democracies, negative impacts of the industrial revolution, revising the damage


  1. Global warming


„ The constant presence of greenhouse gases drains into the atmosphere is harmful. Can we take risks to ignoring the prediction of global climate change? After 11 years of continuous global warming, climate change takes place on the worldwide scale.


  1. New energy


„ There should be no reasonable denial regarding the climate change as its effects were becoming apparent. Even though population bomb hypothesis, which population would outpace agriculture production, did not become a reality, we should not ignore the convincing scientific evidence of the changing climate.


  1. Face recognition



„ How can people recognize human faces? This is a hard but brilliant question. People should appreciate something. People can get visual information from faces and put a name on it. We can tell one’s identity, age, work, health condition, politics, and friends. Recognizing faces is amazing, difficult and a clever thing. In conclusion, people can get a lot out of faces.