Retell Lecture

RL Real Exam Questions

  1. Air pollution


„ The lecture was discussing the difference between air pollution in 1950s and recent years. She explained that in 1950s, factories were the main source of air pollution releasing visible black smoke and fog, which caused many diseases and even death; however, they stopped after imposing clean act regulation. She also mentioned that these days, the source of air pollution has been changed and people are still struggling with new invisible pollution released from cars and Lorries because people are more vehicle dependent.


  1. Thermodynamics


„ The lecture was discussing thermodynamics, which is about transferring of heat, temperature, and their relation to energy and work. The speaker mentioned that most of the thermodynamics laws are firmly constant and unchangeable; however, there are some exceptions. He mentioned that these exceptions happen when kinetic energy of molecules takes into account, which is about the random motions of atoms. In conclusion, the lecture described some of the thermodynamic processes.



  1. Monkeys and Typewriters theorem


„ The lecture was discussing the monkey and typewriter theorem, which express people belief that if a monkey hitting random key of typewriter, a complete work of Shakespeare takes more than 600 million years, while computer can do this within a day. The speaker conclude that this assumption is just possible in mathematics not in reality.



  1. Joseph Lister


„ The lecture was discussing a non-famous academic person inventing medicine used to prevent infection during operation process. The speaker mentioned that Lister successfully found carbolic acid in order to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients.


  1. Frogs


„ The lecture was discussing experiments conducted in different regions which show that frog’s metamorphosis have existed for many years. The speaker exemplified the case that frogs have more limbs or less limbs, the number of mutated frogs is increasing, which has become a global issue. In conclusion, human beings are worrying about the quality of water, which may have impact on human’s health.






  1. Schizophrenia


„ The lecture was discussing schizophrenia epidemiology. The speaker mentioned that one-half of all hospital bed, one out of ten thousands of people are diagnosed by schizophrenia. She explained that millions of people in US are suffering from Schizophrenia once or twice during their life, while the age is different for men and women. In the end, he concluded that although schizophrenia seems to be a mental disorder, its risk factors are as the same as diabetes.





  1. Community service


„ The lecture was discussing the importance of providing training for community service workers in India. The speaker mentioned the community workers require some advice about some diseases, particularly HIV. Some large organizations and hospitals provide some consultation preventing from spreading diseases, however seminars are not necessarily and suitable in some cities.



  1. Winston Churchill


„ Winston Churchill was a British statesman, known as prime minister the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Some of his peacetime decision was disastrous as restoring the Gold standard in 1924. Churchill saw himself as a champion of democracy and was profoundly aware of his role and destiny.


  1. Watching TV


„ The lecture was discussing the impacts of TV on children under 3 years old. The speaker mentioned that children under 2 years old are not recommended to see TV and more than two years should watch less than 1 hour. He explained that in the first 2 years of life, the brain is tripled in size and its extraordinary period of brain growth. He also added although children can learn to speak language fluently, if they are not exposed to certain sounds early years in life, they will never sound like a native speaker. He concluded that the more television that children watch before age 3, the more likely they have attentional problems at school age and also later in their life.



  1. Truck space


„ The lecture was discussing a shuttle designing to be a space truck used as a multi-purpose vehicle. The speaker mentioned that the main application of this incredible vehicle is launching satellites, repairing them and bringing them back in orbit or even the earth to repair. In the end, he concluded that this space truck is used internationally to build an international space station.






  1. Development of physics


„ The lecture was discussing three major developments of physics in 19th-century. Firstly, it is energy conservation law, which means the total energy of isolated system remains constant. Secondly, the law of Thermodynamics which are related to temperature, energy and entropy characterizing thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. In conclusion the last one is Kinetic theory means that to accelerate a body of a given mass energy is needed.



  1. Eukaryotes & prokaryotes


„ The lecture was discussing two different types of cells with different functions, which are eukaryotes, and prokaryotes. The speaker mentioned that human body cells are eukaryotic, and bacteria are an example of prokaryotes. He explained that Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled which organized different functions during the organelles, while this structure is not exist in prokaryotes. In the end he conclude that the biggest difference between two different types of these cells is that Eukaryotes have nucleus.



  1. Similarities between language and cognitive skills


„ The lecture was discussing the similarities between language and other cognitive skills. The speaker mentioned that it is wrong to exaggerate the similarities between cognitive skills and language, because they stand apart in several ways. First of all, using language is universal, even children can speak at east on language. Secondly, not everyone can be proficient in mathematics skill or even painting wall. Since everyone can speak one language it seems to be simple, however it is one of the most complex cognitive abilities.



  1. Hallucination


„ The lecture was discussing the different types of hallucination. The speaker mentioned most of the people who are diagnosed by schizophrenia experiencing hallucination. The speaker explained that there are two types of hallucination including auditory or visual. He exemplified that auditory people may hear voices and sound around themselves and visible counterparts see movement in their peripheral. In the end, he concluded that experiencing both hallucinations is common in schizophrenia.


  1. Creativity


„ The lecture was discussing the definition of creativity, which is the phenomenon of generating new valuable ideas. The speaker mentioned that there are three Ps representing people, process and product, which the process is the key. He explained that existing things are assets as sometimes new idea comes from the existing things. In the end, he concluded human can survive due to the creativity.






  1. Making Error

„ Thinking of doing the right thing or wrong thing. For example, if a task is well designed, people are likely to do the right things, otherwise they are prone to make mistakes. Distractions: People will forget they are in the middle of doing something. For example, we usually forget to take the original copy after using the copy machine if something disrupt the thinking process. There are two strategies to avoid making mistakes. The chance of making mistakes depends on the quality of task design so you could polish the instructions. If the task is well designed, people are likely to do right things. People are likely to make mistakes. Remember to avoid distractions. The people who do photocopying might leave the original copy in the machine if the thinking process is disrupted.

  1. DNA


„ The lecture was discussing the genes development. The speaker mentioned that DNA has two lines and genes provides proteins.


He also explained that each cell has two million proteins, however we cannot conclude which cell perform what types of function. He clarified although cognitive skills development is the main differences between present and our ancestors, only a small number of genes are different between present and our ancestors from 5000 years ago. He also concluded people piss exactly in the same way of our ancestors.


  1. Learning more than one language


„ The lecture was discussing the importance of learning language. The speaker mentioned that there is a controversial debate among people that learning second language is beneficial in some ways. He mentioned that firstly it would enhance communication skills. Secondly, it is advantageous in terms of employment because it is one of the valuable skills that employers looking for. In conclusion, second language is one of the most valuable skills in the fact-changing world.


  1. Sea trouble


„ The lecture was discussing about the article that clarified what happen in the ocean and seas during the last decades. She also explained that we managed to consume almost 90 percent of big fish like swordfish and sharks during the last decade. She also mentioned that human changes the nature of the ocean and now they try to back the atmosphere to the oceans. In conclusion she emphasized that the ocean is in trouble and it is not a minus problem.


  1. Nutrition guideline


„ The lecture was discussing the best simple nutrition guideline, which is offered by American Cancer Society. She explained that first guideline is eating more plant sources food, second is limiting animal and high fat source of food, third is keeping the normal weight by increasing physical activity level and the fourth is limiting the alcohol and beverage consumption. She also added some information about a five a day recommendation, which means five serving of various fruit and vegetables, should be consumed per day. In conclusion, she told these guidelines could reduce the risks of cancer.






  1. Wind power


„ The lecture was discussing the wind turbine device, which can convert wind into mechanical energy as a main source of power to generators and pumps. He explained that the amount of generated power is based on wind speed, number of sails and the angle of the sails. He discussed that if the blade was flat; they just bent, while if they had an appropriate angle, wind can turn them. In the end, he concluded that he wants to build a small windmill to generate electricity.



  1. Grand project in Paris


„ The lecture was discussing about a grand project in Paris in 1890, which was commissioned by Napoleon and directed by Husman. The speaker mentioned that Nap instructed the Husman to bring air and light to the center of city and also plant more trees, build boulevard and drain sewages to make the city more clean and beautiful. The reason for doing this was that Paris had many problems such as overcrowding, diseases, and crimes. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the constructions that napoleon had done.


  1. Welsh Language


„ The lecture was discussing about welsh language in the year 2005. The speaker talked about a recent survey which indicated that many people were able to read, write and speak this language, however, there is a number of people who were able to understand this language but cannot write and read. He explained that welsh speaking percentage improved from 2% to 30% from 1987 to 2005. In conclusion, the lecture was related to a current survey, which showed that there has been a significant increase in the number of people who could speak welsh language.



  1. Boys and Girls performance


„ The lecture is about how boys and girls score marks in English and Math. He mentioned that girls perform better than boys in English around 10 percent higher, however, there is no clear difference for math exam. He discussed their performance highly depends on their cognitive, physical and social factors. He explained that they develop the cognitive knowledge during pre-schools. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the performance of girls and boys in math and English exam.


  1. Expenditure in UK


„ This lecture is about the education expenditure of UK, compared with other European countries. The speaker mentioned that UK has only spent 1% of its total GDP on the tertiary education, which was insufficient as compared with other European countries such as Finland and Denmark. He discussed the expenditure of Spain is close to UK however, Denmark and Finland spent much more than the other European countries. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the education expenditure of UK in compare to the other countries.


  1. Darkness between galaxies


„ The lecture is about darkness between galaxies. The speaker mentioned that the gaps between galaxies are not dark. He explained the reason why we cannot see is that our eyes are not able to detect the infrared light. He discussed that the darkness between galaxies still remain mysterious to us. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the reason behind the darkness between galaxies.



  1. Brain Development



„ The lecture is about brain development. The speaker mentioned that different brain regions with different functionalities appear to develop on different times. He discussed that low development such as sense and touch begins at the embryo phase and stop around 1 year, and last for longer. He explained that high development such as cognitive would take longer time and low development will have impact on the future high development. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the steps that will take place in the process of brain development.

  1. Remote technology


„ The lecture is about the development of remote technology. The speaker mentioned that remote technology plays a pivotal role in observing fish reactions without being physically there. He discussed that these detectors could be installed underwater to monitor fish reaction to feeding. He concluded that this technology also helps to identify the water quality as well as change the feeding strategy when fish do not react to the feeding.



  1. Rat Experiment


„ The lecture is about rat experiments with low and high LG. The speaker mentioned that some mother rats spend a lot of time for licking, grooming and nurturing their off springs, while others seem to ignore them. He discussed that highly nurtured off springs tend to grow up to be calm adult, while some others who received little nurturing has proven to be anxious. He finally concluded that the offspring of high LG rats have better ability to deal with stress and alcohol, but low LG did not.


  1. Economic Development


„ The lecture was discussing about the economic development in Latin America. The speaker mentioned that in the past 20 years, there is significant increase in the economic development at about 80 percent, however, after globalization and reform, there is a considerable decrease from 80 percent to 10, which made the economic unsustainable. He explained that there are plenty of others who begin to ask the question whether the reform is positive or negative. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the development of economic in Latin America.






  1. Opening borders


„ The lecture is about border opening. The speaker mentioned that developed countries should open borders for other countries, therefore people from developing countries could visit the developed countries, which would consequently lead to an improvement in the economy of less developed countries. He explained that that this would also result in promoting peace and freedom in developing countries. In conclusion, the lecture was related to how border opening can benefit the countries.


  1. Multi dimension



„ The lecture is about multi dimension, which are required to describe a position. He talked about four major dimensions, which are Longitude, Latitude, Altitude and Time. Longitude is required for describing a position on equator. If describe a position on the earth, latitude and longitude is required. Longitudes, latitude, and altitudes denote for a position over the earth. She explained that when describing a position in the space, time will be taken into account. In conclusion, the lecture was related to how different dimensions describe a position.


  1. Childbirth rate in Europe


„ The lecture is about childbirth rate in Europe. The speaker mentioned that in the recent years, European females have no interest to give birth to the babies. This particularly is the case for people under age of 30. He explained that these phenomena have had serious detrimental effects on development of males. He finally concluded that low birth rate causes some family issue and unemployment.


  1. Australia’s changing role


„ The lecture is about Australia’s changing role. The speaker mentioned that Australia has changed its role in trading with the world. He discussed that in the past Australia was isolated from UK and USA, but it has now become a famous destination due to rise of Asian countries especially china. He explained that Japan is ranked in the first position and China will become the number one in the future. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the role of Australia in trading with world.


  1. Universe civilization


„ The lecture was discussing universe civilization. The speaker mentioned that the universe produces 100 of planets annually, however, only an average of seven planets are suitable for high civilization. He discussed that most of planets are not suitable for living since they are either so cold or hot. He explained that only 20 percent of planets can support human to survive. In conclusion, the lecture was related to the possibility of living in the other planets.



  1. Immigration effects

„ The lecture was discussing the immigration effects. The speaker mentioned that these days, the immigrants who work in industrialized countries, are able to save and send money to their home country about 200000 dollars. However, they money that they receive from their government is about 100000 million dollars.


  1. Earth’s last climate shift


„ This lecture talks about the earth’s last climate shift. The speaker first mentioned that climate is defined as consistent pattern of weather over the significant periods of time and changes when energy balance of the earth is disturbed. Then he said the system is complex and it would involve several different mechanisms operating at the same time. Finally, one example is mentioned that when volcanos erupt, they disperse particles into upper atmosphere and cools the earth’s surface.


  1. The business essence


„ The lecture was discussing the essence of business entity, which is exchange. He explained that you exchange your goods to other goods. He also mentioned that the goal of marketing is transfer products from supplier to consumers to meet the demands of customers. In the end, he concluded that Capital gain is very important because only if by marketing profits, company would reinvest and produce more.


  1. Light speed


„ Many scientists tried to calculate and measure the speed of light last century but until someone (name) designed a method (name) to figure it out. Then we have light speed. Later, experiments found this is still not accurate.



  1. The economic structures change of Europe


„ The lecture is mainly About a change in economy structures in Europe. After industrial revolution around the 19th century, the machinery was widely used in the manufacturing, so the production in factories increased. As a result, circulation of goods became faster, and this led to more accumulation of social wealth. Because of this, the population of middle class expanded and this resulted in the additional accumulation of wealth.


  1. Black Hole


„ The lecture provides a virtual video of a black hole; it can be seen that middle area of the video is dark, which is a black hole. We can see stars, planets and other heavy bodies are spinning around the boundaries of the black hole. On the right side of the video, it can be observed that some planets cannot escape from the black hole and are being drawn in. We can also observe a bright ring around the black hole because that is the edge of the black hole so that the light can escape from it. Lastly, the lecture mentioned that different theories could be experimented in the black hole and further research should be conducted to better understand the facts of the black hole.

  1. Human behaviors


„ The lecture talks about human behaviors. There are so many psychologists are interested in explaining that human behavior. The internal and external factors can affect human behavior. The personal factors are internal, and the environmental factors are external. The personal factors include people’s belief and their thinking. The environmental factors include temperature, air pressure and so on. In conclusion, human behaviors are determined by himself and environment.


  1. Climate change


„  There are some adverse effects of climate changes to agricultural productions because some lands are unsuitable for growing crops. There will be millions of people facing hunger in Africa in the future. Climate change will result in less production and less food. It is difficult for developing countries to deal with climate change due to their financial status and other issues. There are many people living in hunger especially in Africa. The climate change has devastating effects on world economy. The tropical areas on earth are dry and hot, and are originally not suitable for food production. The change of the climate leads to extreme weather conditions such as flood and hurricane, which exacerbates the food production. As a result, it leads to a continuous decline in food supply annually around 10-17%. And this trend is perceived to be continue in the future by 2070. The regions suffering the most will be some African countries.


  1. Media


„  Some media exaggerate the truth while reporting, although some news happens globally they should be reported locally. People from different countries have the different understanding about news, which depends on whether they have relevant knowledge or not.


  1. Australian Migration


„  Australia’s location is essential for the world’s export; its international trade is also vital as Australia has a broad territory. Australia is the most urbanized country in the world, 58% of people are living in major Australian cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. Perth is the largest isolated city in the world, and there are two leading companies such as Telstra and Qantas which are based in Perth.


  1. Narratives


„ The comics I show you with lots of people chatting around in a room is a form of description. We use different kinds of methods to describe a situation. Sometimes we have to use visual description, mainly when we do not witness the scenario. I was born during the Second World War, and my hometown is XX, for example when I asked my mother about the war, I always ask her you have mentioned this or that when you talked to me … when asked her about the shelter, I asked her what the shelter looks like and when did you go to the shelter. From her response, I could get more visual evidence as I can to write my book.






  1. Children Overweight


„  The lecture talks about the overweight problem. There are 20% of children today have the overweight problems, which bring the heart diseases are more and more common in children, the smallest is five years old. This situation makes the heart attack and other health problems become earlier and earlier. This issue needs to be solved because the overweight problems will result in more severe situations such as diabetes type 2 and blindness.


  1. Metal and heat


„  This lecture talks about metal’s response to the heat. At the beginning of the speech, the speaker mentioned that people used to think that metal is supposed to blend under the heat, but sometimes it doesn’t behave so because atoms in the metal have random processes. The heat can accelerate the processes but won’t change the essence of random, so it could violate what we used to think.


  1. Dissociation of Personality


„  The powerful influence of Stevenson’s text on the discourse of dissociation is strikingly apparent in the work of American physician and psychologist Morton Prince. Rieber credits Prince with pioneering “the phenomenon of popularizing MPD as embodied in a spectacular case”. Prince’s Dissociation of a Personality (1905) tells the story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, a pseudonym for Clara Norton Fowler, who, according to Prince, “is a person in whom several personalities have become developed”.


  1. Loggerhead Turtles


„  Geomagnetic cues help young loggerhead turtles navigate the open ocean during their epic 8,000-mile journey between leaving their natal beaches in Florida, and returning 5-10 years later to breed. Researchers have just worked out how they do it.


Hatchling loggerhead sea turtle is tethered via a soft cloth harness, or “bathing suit,” to an electronic tracking system that monitors its steering in response to different magnetic fields.


  1. Tanks


„ This lecture talks about two kinds of tanks. According to the speaker, there are two kinds of tanks, one named panzer tiger, the other one named T-34. The panzer tiger is better than T-34 in firepower, armor and mobility. But in the end, the T-34 defeated the panzer tiger because the number of T-34 is larger than that of the panzer tiger.





  1. Conscious Competence Model


„  The Four Levels of Learning describe how a person learns a new skill. Unconscious Incompetence: you don’t know that you don’t know something.

Conscious Incompetence: you are now aware that you can’t do the ability. Conscious Competence:


you develop skill in that area but have to think about it. Unconscious Competence: you are good at it, and it now comes naturally.


  1. The use of web 2.0

„   (with a graph on the screen demonstrating the whole speech)


The lecture mainly talks about the use of web 2.0 on helping government functions better and serve the public better.


There are three steps.

  1. The web collects information from users.
  2. Two government use the info to understand the public.
  3. Make a better connection with citizens and response to their needs.


  1. How human use materials around us


„  (With a picture of different medical machines, wounded hand stitched by medical thread) The lecture mainly talks about how humans use materials around us to make our life better. Firstly, we use materials to build simple machines and improve our health and life expectancy. Then when life expectancy increases, we have more time to study and invent a more the complicated device, and further, enhance the quality of life. Machine to scan and monitor brain activities.


  1. The increasing productivity

„   (With a line graph shown on the screen: the dropping cost of computer parts)


The lecture mainly talks about the growing productivity, which means for every input there is more output_ To illustrate the theory, the speaker talks about the computer. It is a relatively new thing, so the cost of units decreases even more.


  1. The comparison between wages, consumption, and household


„ According to the speaker, the wage increase is 5%, which is very weak. The fluctuation of use is about 15%, which seems decent. The housing debt is about 40%, which is unusual. But can be understandable alter the wage and consumption increase.






  1. English language change


„ 2nd was Challenges to change English language why can’t we changed it because it has some standardized spelling and universal education format. So it’s very hard to change the entire language. Secondly, there is variety in the English language from the number of villages and regions, so it’s wise to have a universal one.


  1. Poverty in rural and urban areas


„ Environmental problems including water pollution and the sanitation of drinking water, indoor smoke and gas emission. Poor people are especially affected especially regarding their health. The rising demand for energy consumption is likely to sustain until 2030, which will affect a range of environmental problems.


  1. Stari Most


„  Stari Most (literally, “Old Bridge”) is a 16th-century Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects the two parts of the city. The Old Bridge stood for 427 years until it was destroyed on 9 November 1993 by Croat military forces during the Croat—Bosniak War. Subsequently, a project was set in motion to reconstruct it, and the rebuilt bridge opened on 23 July 2004.


One of the country’s most recognizable landmarks, it is considered an exemplary piece of Balkan Islamic architecture. It was designed by Mimar Hayruddin, a student, and apprentice of the famous architect Mimar Sinan.


  1. Armor


„  The curator of the National Gallery of Art provides a brief introduction about the armor in their exhibition. The exhibition includes some finest examples of Renaissance armor, which were fabricated by master craftsmen and artists over a 15th-17th century.


Parade armor was made for the show, not combat. That armor represents the imperial ambition of the Spanish monarchy.


  1. Sigmund Freud



„ For better or worse, we live in a world profoundly affected by Sigmund Freud. If I had to ask you to name a famous psychologist, the answer of most of you would be Freud. He was the most famous psychologist ever and he had a profound influence on the 20th and 21st century. Some biographical information: he was born in the 1850s. He spent most of his life in Vienna, Austria, but he died in London and he escaped to London soon after retreating there at the beginning of World War Two as the Nazis began to occupy where he lived. He was one of the most famous scholars ever but he was not known for any single discovery. Instead, he was known for the development of mind, one that he developed over the span of many decades





  1. City of literature “Melbourne”


„ In 2008, Melbourne joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. Melbourne’s designation as a UNESCO City of Literature is an acknowledgment of the breadth, depth, and vibrancy of the city’s literary culture. Melbourne supports a diverse range of writers, a prosperous publishing industry, a successful culture of independent bookselling, a wide variety of literary organizations and a healthy culture of reading and engagement in events and festivals.


  1. Randomness of flipping coin


„ About a decade ago, scientists wanted to find out if the outcome of a coin flip is a matter of chance. The result of research which is conducted on a mechanical coin flipper shows a coin lands the exactly same way as it launched. The randomness in the coin toss is introduced by a human; this is because, human-generated flip has a different height and speed, and is caught at the different angle.



  1. Biological Engineering

„ The first group of people that realize we can learn from ourselves is Engineers.


They invented machines to study the human body, to cure disease and study physiology. By using those complex machines, they can study how human brains function and process. The result of their studies can be utilized to benefit human can solve problems, such as**disease, etc.



  1. Journal


„ There are two kinds of the journal: peer-reviewed and non-peer reviewed. All articles sent to publications should be testified to ensure all articles are original and high quality. For anything that is below the standard, they will be sent back to authors to amend. Both two journals can be searched and accessed from the library. Only “peer reviewed” can be used in this assignment; moreover, it has some features, include footnotes of bibliography, no advertisements, and other features.



  1. Straight Sales


„ Salary Plans are not very common; sales are usually paid a fixed salary, so the package doesn’t tend to offer motivation to salespeople, as there are no incentives for them to work harder. Combination plan is the most common plan used today; the package offers motivation to increase productivity and to achieve goals; moreover, it also provides more stability. Under Commission plan, salespeople are paid in direct proportion to sales. There is no guarantee of income, so the package tends to attract fewer candidates.





  1. Water on Mars


„  The research conducted on the habitability of Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water. There are some similarities such as polar caps, atmospheres and water climate. The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water (hydrology), such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate. Consequently, we can speculate that water used to exist in liquid form on the surface and underground of of Mars and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.


  1. Bee Dance


„ Honey bees do a waggle dance to direct other bees to the source of nectar. The dancing bees like this one can be halted by a headbutt from another bee. Now research has found that this headbutt is actually a warning signal. A feeding station was set up in the lab to mimic the a source of nectar, then foraging bees were introduced to the dangers at the station, such as competition from rival colonies. When foragers returned to the hive they stopped bees dancing. Scientists think the behavior warns dancers of a dangerous source of nectar.


  1. Bilingual education


„ Parents should not use two languages to educate their children. Most parents suppose bilingual education can benefit children, but it is not always beneficial in reality. Bilingual education can easily confuse children when parents explain and talk about the same content in two different languages.


  1. Traffic Light, Food System


„  We should categorize food and drinks into three colors including the red category, yellow category and green category. Each color provides various health benefits, so labeling food with different colors can help consumers choose the right type of food as their bodies need and develop healthy diet habits. Retailers should introduce a color-coding system because traffic light labeling can guide consumers to make a wise decision while doing grocery shopping.


  1. The Large Hadron Collider


„ Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest particle accelerator lies in a tunnel. The LHC is a ring roughly 28km around that accelerates protons almost to the speed of light before colliding them head-on. Protons are particles found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand-million-millionth of a meter in size. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons. Electric and magnetic fields are the key to a particle accelerator.






  1. Tree Rings


„ Dendron- chronology indicates the years of trees through rings, but the year of tree cut could be ambiguous. The width of rings illustrates the climate situation of rain and drought that affects tree-growth. The sequence message of narrow and wide represents hidden information like Morse code. The information is even richer and more diagnosable for it provides more various possibilities than dash and dot.


  1. Healthcare Workers


„ According to the World Health Organization, 400 million people worldwide have no access to essential health care. That’s a staggering number of people. Some of those services include things like basic sanitation and clean water prenatal care and vaccinations or immunizations for children. Many things contribute to this crisis sometimes people live to remotely to get timely care if the emergency occurs even when living in a city the patient to doctor ratio can be as high as 50,000 people to just one doctor. Making it impossible for that doctor to meet the demands of health care in that area. These are valuable people made in the image of God who are physically suffering many of them without a personal relationship with Christ. So we do this with a week of hands-on training consisting of a variety of topics like basic sanitation and hygiene taking vital signs wound care and infection prevention basic birth assisting and emergency skills. Those who participate in the training then have practical skills in supplies to care for others in their community in a way that glorifies God and opens the door for sharing the gospel in a new way brought to you.



  1. The Challenge for Conservation


„  Professor Bill Adams works on relations between society and nature, particularly on rural development and conservation. Much of his work focuses on Africa. His work on the history and development of nature conservation, particularly about sustainability, is shaped by a primary interest in the power of social constructions of nature to affect the way the environment is understood, transformed and managed. His most recent book is Against Extinction The Story of Conservation.


„ Poor people should not pay the price for biodiversity protection. As for the impact, it is about whether it can achieve a win-win solution, which means we can achieve economic growth which brings wealth to cut poverty without damaging biodiversity. The argument is that if you want to protect biodiversity, you have to focus on that as a goal, by doing so, you run the risk of hurting the poor and inconveniencing or reducing economic growth. The lecturer used developed countries or industrialized countries to see this argument. For example, a government wishing to start drilling for oil in place which is full of wildlife and wildlife conservation society is urging them not because it is wilderness refuge.




75 Education Equality or Quality


„  When Australians engage in debate about educational quality or equity, they often seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both at the same time. Curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail to do so because they increase breadth or differentiation in offerings in a way that increases differences in quality. Further, these differences in quality often reflect differences in students’ social backgrounds because the ‘new’ offerings are typically taken up by relatively disadvantaged students who are not served well them. Evidence from New South Wales will be used to illustrate this point.


The need to Improve the quality of education is well accepted across OECD and other countries as they seek to strengthen their human capital to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improved equity is also important for this purpose, since the demand for high—level skills is widespread and the opportunities for the low—skilled are diminishing.


Improved equity in education is also important for social cohesion. There are countries in which the education system seems primarily to reproduce existing social arrangements, conferring privilege where it already exists and denying it where it does not. Even in countries where the diagnosis might be less extreme, the capacity of schooling to build social cohesion is often diminished by the way in which schools separate individuals and groups.




„ Your body’s composed of trillions of cells – lots of different types of cells that make up different organs and other parts of your body. Your body is also where 10 times that number of bacteria call ‘home sweet home.’ But don’t be afraid – these bacteria do more good than harm to you. And besides, just in case you wanted to strike up a conversation with your tenants, you and your bacteria do have a few things in common.


All cells share some common characteristics that make them living things. All organisms are composed of cells, the basic fundamental unit of life. They contain DNA as a heritable genetic material, and they can reproduce. They transcribe DNA into RNA and translate RNA into proteins on ribosomes. They can also regulate transport across a cell membrane and require chemical energy for some cellular processes.


Organelles are the biggest difference between bacteria and cells that make up the human body Organelles






  1. Chest x-ray



„ This lecture talked about the bio-medical science and technology engineering. The picture of the X-Ray was for a physiologist to study in the office. We can see the position of the lung, bones, organs, ribcage, heart, and also the vessel in the heart. This act allows us to see what’s inside our body.


  1. Absolute zero



„ Absolute zero is the point at which the fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion. Absolute zero is not achievable and does not exist. But scientists are putting a lot of effort in designing experience and trying to achieve or create absolute zero. The reason they do so is not for a predetermined and they are not focusing on the goal of the experiment. Define in this experiment is to find and prove whether something you don’t know that exist or not and this is the beauty of science that scientists fall in love with.


  1. The Myth of the Overqualified Worker



„ If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants with too much experience—a near certainty in this weak labor market—you should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers. Don’t reject those applicants out of hand. Instead, take a closer look.


New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don’t quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic—empowerment—can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.


The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a “perfect fit” for someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, overqualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-center reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal.


But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills that are needed to supply the growing service sectors.


If managers can get beyond the conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants is a great opportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University in Oregon found that overqualified workers’ feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making. At stores where employees didn’t feel empowered, “overeducated” workers expressed greater dissatisfaction than their colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit. But that difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.






  1. Government Blogging



„ We usually see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger creates the content, and the readers interact or challenge the author. But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House. Because people will become more coarse and ride online, especially in the comment area. Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic. So the government will have to administrate the comment. Once the government starts administrating the comment, citizens may find the government manipulating what should be said and what should be shown, which contradicts the original intention.


  1. Linguistics



„ Actually a woman in the class I’m teaching at Sydney at the moment, a career woman, expressed this very nicely, although she was talking about something else, she was distinguishing expertise from authority. And certainly linguists because of our training we do have expertise in certain very narrow areas of language, but we don’t have the authority over what to do with that knowledge or what to do with other knowledge that the community produces.


I guess for me the bottom line is languages are lost because of the dominance of one people over another. That’s not rocket science, it’s not hard to work that out. But then what that means is if in working with language revival we continue to hold the authority, we actually haven’t done anything towards undoing how languages are lost in the first place, so in a sense the languages are still lost if the authority is still lost.


  1. Hans Krebs



„ The lecture was about Hans Krebs, who published paper in 1937 showing the sequence of chemical reaction by which energy is released in individual cells. Krebs is a perfect example of how scientists who is determined can overcome all kinds of human obstacles. During his teenage years, he was constantly discouraged by his father by being told that he possesses mediocre intelligence and was less likely to have achievements in his life. Later on when he studied biochemistry at the Otto Warburg, he was again told that he was only mediocre and he would never be a great scientist. Despite the fact that people all hear how important it is for parents to encourage their children, sometimes children will do great things no matter.


  1. practicing (with a picture of a little girl playing Violin)

„ If you want to master a skill, you have to practice and make it perfect. For example, if you want to learn to play the violin, you need practice. If you practice every day and solitary practices…


You have to understand your weakness during the practice. For example, when you learn mathematics, and you find you are not good at geometry, then you will have to practice more on geometry. Even for those who are talented, they also need to practice.


*practicing 10 thousand times

*Playing Violin

*Solitary practices

*becoming an expert







  1. Britain Press


„ Britain Press industry in the 18th century (with a painting of men in printing house)

  • Britain press


  • sophisticated press industry *newspapers and pamphlet


  1. clouds



„ Absolutely. There’s a lot of interest in what forms those clouds. Why are those clouds there, why do they stick around? At the center of every cloud drop is a particle. You can’t grow a cloud drop without having a particle there for the water to condense on. The key questions that people have not directly addressed until very recently is what actually forms those clouds. And so the ones that you’re looking at over the ocean, it turns out sea salt is a very effective nucleator for forming clouds, so there’s a really good chance that those are loaded with sea salt.


But as you go inland you start to have pollution come from all different kinds of sources, and so different sources form clouds more effectively than others and we’re trying to unravel which sources are actually contributing to the clouds. The clouds are incredibly important players in climate change in that they reflect the light back to space, and so they’re keeping things much, much cooler than they would be if they weren’t there. They also play a huge role in regional weather. So we’re actually starting to see shifts where having more pollution input into the clouds is affecting weather patterns, and in particular it’s actually reducing the amount of precipitation, so we’re starting to see drought in areas with super high levels of air pollution.


86 Soot



„ Soot, which comes from combustion of many different things, is black so it’s a strong absorber. In fact it’s second only to CO 2 in terms of warming, so it’s actually ahead of methane, which you hear a lot about. The interesting thing about soot and aerosols’ impact on climate is that their lifetimes are so much shorter. So if we can reduce the soot we can make changes within months versus tens of years. It’s not to say we should ignore the CO 2 and the greenhouse gases but it could buy us some time while we actually do the right strategies to reduce the greenhouse gases.


87 Superhuman strength



„ Today we’re going to recount heroic tales of superhuman feats of strength, when in the face of disaster, some people are said to have summoned up incredible physical power to lift a car off of an accident victim, move giant rocks, or like Big John of song, single-handedly hold up a collapsing beam to let the other miners escape. Are such stories true? There are many anecdotes supporting the idea, but we’re going to take a fact-based look at whether or not it truly is possible for an adrenalin-charged person to temporarily gain massive strength.






88 Green Revolution



„ In 1943 what became known as the green revolution began with Mexico unable to feed this growing population shouted for help. Within a few years the Fourth and Rockefeller Foundations founded the international rice research institute in Asia and by 1962 a new strain of rice called IRAs was feeding people all over the world.


IOH was the first really big modified crop to make a real impact on world hunger. In 1962 the technology did not yet exist to directly manipulate the genes of plants and so IRH was created by carefully crossing existing varieties. Selecting the best from each generation further modifying them and finally finding the best. Here’s the power of modified crops. IR8 with no fertilizer straight out of the box produce five times the yield of traditional rice varieties in optimal conditions with nitrogen it produced 10 times the yield of traditional varieties. By 1980 IR36 resisted pests and grew fast enough to allow two crops a year instead of just on doubling the yield and by 1990 using more advanced genetic manipulation techniques. IR72 was outperforming even IR36. The green revolution saw worldwide crop yields explode from 1960 through 2000.


89 Night sky darkness



„ You might think that space appears dark at night because that is when our side of Earth faces away from the Sun as our planet rotates on its axis every 24 hours. But what about all those other far away suns that appear as stars in the night sky? Our own Milky Way galaxy contains over 200 billion stars, and the entire universe probably contains over 100 billion galaxies. You might suppose that that many stars would light up the night like daytime!


Until the 20th century, astronomers didn’t think it was even possible to count all the stars in the universe. They thought the universe went on forever. In other words, they thought the universe was infinite.


Besides being very hard to imagine, the trouble with an infinite universe is that no matter where you look in the night sky, you should see a star. Stars should overlap each other in the sky like tree trunks in the middle of a very thick forest. But, if this were the case, the sky would be blazing with light. This problem greatly troubled astronomers and became known as “Olbers’ Paradox.” A paradox is a statement that seems to disagree with itself.


To try to explain the paradox, some 19th century scientists thought that dust clouds between the stars must be absorbing a lot of the starlight so it wouldn’t shine through to us. But later scientists realized that the dust itself would absorb so much energy from the starlight that eventually it would glow as hot and bright as the stars themselves.


Astronomers now realize that the universe is not infinite. A finite universe—that is, a universe of limited size—even one with trillions and trillions of stars, just wouldn’t have enough stars to light up all of space.






90 New equipment &old equipment



„ The lecture mainly discusses about new equipment and old equipment. New equipment may help to reduce business cost including salary paid to workers, but it can potentially damage the reputation if any errors occur. If both equipment operates together, we can compare the efficiency with less future potential damage to reputation, even if it can raise the depreciations.


91 New Musical Instrument



„ The Skoog is a new university accessible musical instrument. It is designed to use by children or adults with special needs or in fact be used by anyone. It’s soft, it’s easy to play, it’s robust and it can be customized to suit anyone’s abilities. The Skoog helps students with special needs by allowing them to get involved in making music themselves. It’s an instrument that they can play it and they can take ownership of and start creating their own sounds and music. Traditional instruments are the shape and size and made of the materials they are because of the sound that they need to make. If you want to make a sound like a plucked string, you need a string and it needs to be under tension, whereas with a Skoog, because it’s a mixture of software and a sensor, then thus the computer can handle making the sound. And so we can design an object that’s designed to be touched and designed to be played with. In developing the screen and working with kids in the schools and in the classrooms, it’s really helped us make the Skoog something that’s usable by the children themselves. They’ve informed us massively on how it needs to work and they’ve given their opinions on colors and designs. And just the feedback they’ve given to us has been just marvelous. It’s just so enriching and it’s really inspiring to actually work with these kids, particularly when you can provide them with an ability to start to playing their own music as opposed to just taking part through listening and listening to other musicians and really learning from.


92 Shy Fish Prefer to Follow Other Shy Fish



„ When you think of a leader, you may think of an individual who is above all bold. But a new study of fish called sticklebacks shows that shy individuals actually prefer to follow fish that are similarly timid. Researchers had trios of sticklebacks with known personalities play follow the leader. The fish were placed in a tank that had some plastic plants at one end and some food hidden at the other. In some of the groups, a bold fish and a shy fish acted as leaders, while another shy fish followed. And in other groups, it was a bold fish that did the following. The researchers recorded whether the follower sallied forth more frequently with the fish that was behaviorally similar or the one that was different. What they found is that shy fish were more likely to emerge from undercover when an equally wary fellow was already out there. Bold follower fish did not seem to care which leader they followed. Of course, no matter which fish a stickleback chose to stick with, the bold fish did lead more expeditions over the course of the experiment than their more retiring friends. That’s because the bold fish initiated more trips, regardless of who might be tailing them. The findings are in the journal Biology Letters. The researchers write that “when offered a choice of leaders, sticklebacks prefer to follow individuals whose personality matches their own, but bolder individuals may, nevertheless, be able to impose their leadership, even among shy followers, simply through greater effort.” We may soon see if such tendencies also hold true in humans, when Americans decide who they’ll follow in November. Unless, of course, something fishy happens.






93 caterpillars

„ The Earth’s temperature is rising. And as it does, springtime phenomena—like the first bloom of flowers—are getting earlier and earlier. But rising temperatures aren’t the only factor. Urban light pollution is also quickening the coming of spring. “So temperature and light are really contributing to a double whammy of making everything earlier.” Richard ffrench-Constant, an entomologist at the University of Exeter.


He and his colleagues compiled 13 years of data from citizen scientists in the U.K., who tracked the first bud burst of four common trees. Turns out, light pollution—from streetlights in cities, and along roads—pushed bud burst a full week earlier. Way beyond what rising temperatures could achieve. This disruptive timing can ripple through the ecosystem.


“The caterpillars that feed on trees are trying to match the hatching of their eggs to the timing of bud burst. Because the caterpillars want to feed on the juiciest and least chemically protected leaves. And it’s not just the caterpillars, of course, that are important. But the knock-on effect is on nesting birds, which are also trying to hatch their chicks at the same time that there’s the maximum number of caterpillars.” So earlier buds could ultimately affect the survival of birds, and beyond. The findings are in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.


The world’s becoming increasingly urbanized, and light pollution is growing—which ffrench-Constant says could trick trees into budding earlier and earlier. But smarter lighting—like LEDs that dial down certain wavelengths—could help. “Perhaps the exciting thing is, if we understand more about how light affects this bud burst, we might be able to devise smarter sort of street lighting that has less red components, and therefore less early bud burst.” Thus keeping springtime an actual springtime phenomenon.


94 Smartphone apps

„ Computer scientist Shwetak Patel and his team are developing new sensing systems. The initial focus was really around energy and water monitoring. They built a new generation of smart sensors that monitor electronic interference on a home’s power line or water pressure changes in the plumbing. Most of this technology has already found industrial applications, and Patel and his team turned their attention to adapting the technology for personal health monitoring. ‘So how do we take this noise and make it into a signal interest was hard to us, hard to us in the core of what we did for many years and we’re taking that work and applying it to other domains.’ They’re looking to take advantage of all the functionality built in our smartphones. With the users’ permission, this app can use the microphone built into most smartphones to listen to background noises, such as coughing searching for patterns that suggest a trip to the doctor might be an order. ‘We’ve constructed these models that try and understand how sound works, how it, what its patterns are and we give it a whole bunch of examples of different kinds of audio, things like people talking, things like people laughing, sneezing and of course coughing.’ This app uses a phone’s camera to check hemoglobin levels in blood by analyzing the color of capillary fluid through the skin. ‘Generally, what happens is if you’re anemic, your bloods maybe a little less red and we take advantage of that by putting your finger over a camera of a phone, the camera of the phone can actually see the coloration of the blood.’ and this test uses the camera to tell parents worried about jaundice in newborn infants. ‘Now, jaundice is something that doctors who have seen tons of babies. He just can figure out on a very basic level of it. Is this baby, do they need to get treatment or are they in a good condition, while the first-time parent has no idea necessarily what jaundice might look like.’ The researchers say the built-in sensors found in smart phones are already commonplace, but their applications and their implications for our health and well-being may be more far-reaching than we ever imagined.






95 melatonin



„ I’m just going to take on the stuff where left off. The whole I want to now talk about it’s called melatonin. The synthesis is in the Pineal Gland, which is very small. It is the size of a pin in your brain. The corpus is the site of the soul, and it is where melatonin is made. And it has a rhythm as well. And in the sense, it is the opposite of the callosum. It peaks at night. We call it as the darkness hormone. In every species that we studied, melatonin occurs at night. And it’s hormone that prepares you for the things, that your species, does at night. So, of course, in humans we sleep, but animals, like rodents, they are awake. It’s hormone that is related to darkness behavior.

96 Knee Sounds




„ Inan’s experience with cracking knees goes back to his days as an undergrad at Stanford, where he threw discus. “If I had a really hard workout, then the next day of course I’d be sore, but I’d also sometimes feel this catching or popping or creaking every now and then in my knee.”A few years later, he found himself building tiny microphones at a high-end audio company. So when he got to Georgia Tech and heard the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA, wanted better tech for knee injuries, he thought: [knee-cracking recording] Why not strap tiny microphones to people’s knees, to eavesdrop as their legs bend? “What we think it is, is the cartilage and bone rubbing against each other, the surfaces inside the knee rubbing against each other, during the movements.” He and a team of physiologists and engineers built a prototype with stretchy athletic tape and a few tiny mics and skin sensors. And preliminary tests on athletes suggest the squishy sounds the device picks up are more erratic, and more irregular, in an injured knee than in a healthy one. Which Inan says might allow patients and doctors to track healing after surgery. Details appear in the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering.”The primary application we’re targeting at first is to give people a decision aid during rehabilitation, following an acute knee injury, to help them understand when they can perform particular activities, and when they can move to different intensities of particular activities

97 Building Better Cities


„ So, let me add to the complexity of the situation we find ourselves in. At the same time that we’re solving for climate change, we’re going to be building cities for three billion people. That’s a doubling of the urban environment. If we don’t get that right, I’m not sure all the climate solutions in the world will save mankind, because so much depends on how we shape our cities: not just environmental impacts, but our social well-being, our economic vitality, our sense of community and connectedness. Fundamentally, the way we shape cities is a manifestation of the kind of humanity we bring to bear. And so getting it right is, I think, the order of the day. And to a certain degree, getting it right can help us solve climate change, because in the end, it’s our behavior that seems to be driving the problem. The problem isn’t free-floating, and it isn’t just ExxonMobil and oil companies. It’s us; how we live. How we live. There’s a villain in this story. It’s called sprawl, and I’ll be upfront about that. But it’s not just the kind of sprawl you think of, or many people think of, as low-density development out at the periphery of the metropolitan area. Actually, I think sprawl can happen anywhere, at any density. The key attribute is that it isolates people. It segregates people into economic enclaves and land-use enclaves. It separates them from nature. It doesn’t allow the cross-fertilization, the interaction, that make cities great places and that make society thrive. So the antidote to sprawl is really what we all need to be thinking about, especially when we’re taking on this massive construction project.






98 Australia immigration history

„ The first inhabitants in Australia were the ancestors of the present indigenous people. Whether these first migrations involved one or several successive waves and distinct peoples is still subject to academic debate, as is its timing. The minimum widely accepted time frame places presence of humans in Australia at 40000to 43000 years Before Present, while the upper range supported by others is 60000 to 70000 years BP. In any event, this migration was achieved during the closing stages of the Pleistocene epoch, when sea levels were typically much lower than they are today. Repeated episodes of extended glaciation resulted in decreases of sea levels by some 100150 m. The continental coastline therefore extended much further out into the Timor Sea than it does today, and Australia and New Guinea formed a single landmass( known as Sahul), connected by an extensive land bridge across the Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Strait.


The ancestral Australian Aboriginal peoples were thus long established and continued to develop, diversity and settle through much of the continent. As the sea levels again rose at the terminus of the most recent glacial period some 10000 years ago the Australian continent once more became a separated landmass. However ,the newly formed 150 km wide Torres Strait with its chain of islands still provided the means for cultural contact and trade between New Guinea and the northern Cape York Penisula. During the 1970s and 1980s around 120000 southern Asian refugees migrated to Australia. During that twenty years, Australia first began to adopt a policy of what Minister of Immigration AI Grass by termed “multiculturalism”. In 2004-5, Australia accepted 123000 new settles , 19 a 40% increase over the past 10 years. The largest number of immigrants (40000 in 200405) moved to Sydney. The majority of immigrants came from Asia, led by China and India.

99 Trade-off


„ Here are Steven Sanderson Kent Redford of WCS Wildlife Conservation Society, probably pointing a finger at the poverty alleviation movement, and saying in its new incarnation it’s largely subsumed or supplanted conservation.The trend has gone unnoticed but it poses a significant threat to conservation objectives, and what they’re basically saying is if you’re interested in protecting the biosphere you ought to get on with that job you shouldn’t be distracted by the equally significant but different agendas of reducing poverty.


At the same time you’ve got to British social scientists, here Dilysrow works for the International Institute for Environment and development in London and Joe Elliott actually works for wildlife works for African Wildlife Foundation and nowadays .But she’s saying here poor people should not pay the price for biodiversity protection.


So you can see this off the nature of the debate. what is the what is the impacts that they’re all talking about well it’s about whether you can achieve a win-win solution, whether you can achieve economic growth which brings wealth in order to cut poverty without damaging biodiversity, and the argument is that if you want to protect biodiversity you have to focus on that as a goal, but if you do that you have you run the risk of hurting the poor and you also run the risk of inconveniencing or reducing economic growth. And we used in developer to develop country’s industrialized countries to seeing this argument. This axis argued about with let us say a government wishing to start drilling for oil in place X which is full of Wildlife and the Wildlife. Conservation Society is urging them not to on the grounds, that it’s a wilderness refuge. We used to that debate what I’m saying is it in the developing world there’s a third axis and it’s quite a complex one.






100 Government Blogging

„ We normally see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger creates the content and the readers interact or challenge the author.


But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House.


Because people will become more coarse and ride online, especially in the comment area.


Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic.


So the government will have to administrate the comment.


Once the government starts administrating the comment, citizens may find the government manipulating what should be said and what should be shown, which contradicts the original intention.