Writing

Summarize Written Text

1) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

 Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or in crevices within the reef, the Nurse sharks seem to prefer specific resting sites and will return to them each day after the nights hunting. By night, the sharks are largely solitary. Nurse sharks spend most of their time foraging through the bottom sediments in search of food. Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, mollusks, tunicates and other fish such as spiny lobsters, crabs, shrimps, sea urchins, octopuses, squid, marine snails and bivalves and in particularly, stingrays.

Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch, although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way, Nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral.

2) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

 

Thompson and his colleagues scanned the brains of 23 sets of identical twins and 23 sets of fraternal twins. Since identical twins share the same genes while fraternal twins share about half their genes, the researchers were able to compare each group to show that myelin integrity was determined genetically in many parts of the brain that are key for intelligence. These include the parietal lobes, which are responsible for spatial reasoning, visual processing and logic, and the corpus callosum, which pulls together information from both sides of the body.

 

The researchers used a faster version of a type of scanner called a HARDI (high-angular resolution diffusion imaging) —think of an MRI machine on steroids — that takes scans of the brain at a much higher resolution than a standard MRI. While an MRI scan shows the volume of different tissues in the brain by measuring the amount of water present, HARDI tracks how water diffuses through the brain’s white matter — a way to measure the quality of its myelin.

 

“HARDI measures water diffusion,” said Thompson, who is also a member of the UCLA Laboratory of euro-Imaging. “If the water diffuses rapidly in a specific direction, it tells us that the brain has very fast connections. If it diffuses more broadly, that’s an indication of slower signaling, and lower intelligence.”

 

3) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

 

Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the “coffee experience” has become a staple of our modern life and culture. This is according to the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), an international non-profit scientific society of professionals engaged in food science, food technology, and related areas in academia, government and industry that is based in the US.

While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee consumption on human health has been contradictory, a study in the in the June issue of the journal Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, which is published by IFT, found that the potential benefits of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health outcomes considered.

Researchers at Ulster University in the UK systematically reviewed 1,277 studies from 1970 to date on coffee’s effect on human health and found the general scientific consensus is that regular, moderate coffee drinking (defined as three to four cups per day) essentially has a neutral effect on health, or can be mildly beneficial. The authors noted causality of risks and benefits cannot be established for either with the research currently available as they are largely based on observational data. Further research is needed to quantify the risk-benefit balance for coffee consumption, as well as identify which of coffee’s many active ingredients, or indeed the combination of such, that could be inducing these health benefits.

4) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

Madeline Gannon is a researcher, teacher at the Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture and Ph.D. candidate in Computational Design — but that’s not all. She is on a mission to open up the infinite design possibilities of 3D printing to the world.

Currently you have to have a lot of technical background in order to participate in creating things for 3D printers, Gannon says. There is still a huge knowledge barrier for how we create digital models. As the technology has advanced, prices have plummeted, and now anyone can buy a 3D printer for a few hundred dollars, Gannon notes. However, not just anyone can create original designs for 3D printed artefacts.

To put true creative power into the hands of any ordinary 3D printer owner, Gannon has developed an innovative new system called “Tactum.”

Design within Reach: Tactum is a new type of software that lets users create their own unique designs for 3D printers by simply touching a projected image. Using their innate hand gestures, someone using Tactum can poke, rub and otherwise manipulate the projected image that will become their 3D printed object, and see it instantly change shape in response. In keeping with the goal of democratizing the process, Gannon designed her first series of Tactumartefacts on a surface that everyone can access freely and manipulate instinctively, that being the human body. My goal was to bring the digital out to the physical world and out onto your body, says Gannon.

Along with a companion project called Reverb — which translates these user-created designs into printable meshes — that impulse has resulted in a spectacular diversity of bracelet and necklace designs, ranging from smooth landscapes, intricate textures and chaotic free forms to delicate geometries derived from the 19th century art of chronograph.

5) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

Many people who have written on the subject of allowances say it is not a good idea to pay your child for work around the home. These jobs are a normal part of family life. Paying children to do extra work around the house, however, can be useful. It can even provide an understanding of how a business works. Allowances give children a chance to experience the things they can do with money. They can share it in the form of gifts or giving to a good cause. They can spend it by buying things they want. Or they can save and maybe even invest it.

Saving helps children understand that costly goals require sacrifice: you have to cut costs and plan for the future. Requiring children to save part of their allowance can also open the door to future saving and investing. Many banks offer services to help children and teenagers learn about personal finance.

A savings account is an excellent way to learn about the power of compound interest. Interest rates on savings can be very low these days. But compounding works by paying interest on interest. So, for example, one dollar invested at two percent interest will earn two cents in the first year. The second year, the money will earn two percent of one dollar and two cents, and so on. That may not seem like a lot. But over time it adds up.

6) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

In such an environment, warfare is no longer purely directed against the military potential of adversarial states. It is rather directed at infiltrating all areas of their societies and to threaten their existences. The comparatively easy access to weapons of mass destruction, in particular relatively low-cost biological agents, is of key concern. Both governmental and non-governmental actors prefer to use force in a way that can be characterized as “unconventional” or also as “small wars”. War waged according to conventions is an interstate phenomenon. The “small war” is the archetype of war, in which the protagonists acknowledge no rules and permanently try to violate what conventions do exist. The protagonists of the “small war” observe neither international standards nor arms control agreements. They make use of territories where they do not have to fear any sanctions because there is no functioning state to assume charge of such sanctions or because the state in question is too weak to impose such sanction. This type of war does not provide for any warning time. It challenges not only the external security of the nation states and the international community but also their internal safety.

7) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage. (Today Practice Question)

We see stars all around, so why doesn’t their combined light add up to make our night sky–and surrounding space, for that matter–bright? German physicist Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers put the same puzzle this way in 1823: If the universe is infinite in size, and stars (or galaxies) are distributed throughout this infinite universe, then we are certain to eventually see a star in any direction we look. As a result, the night sky should be aglow. Why isn’t it?

In fact, the answer is far more profound than it appears. There have been many attempts at explaining this puzzle, dubbed Olbers’ Paradox, over the years. One version implicated dust between stars and perhaps between galaxies. The idea was that the dust would block the light from faraway objects, making the sky dark. In reality, however, the light falling on the dust would eventually heat it up so that it would glow as brightly as the original sources of the light.

Another proposed answer for the paradox held that the tremendous red shift of distant galaxies–the lengthening of the wavelength of light they emit due to the expansion of the universe–would move light out of the visible range into the invisible infrared. But if this explanation were true, shorter, wavelength ultraviolet light would also be shifted into the visible range–which doesn’t happen.

8) Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence in 5-75 words. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage. 

It was once assumed that all living things could be divided into two fundamental and exhaustive categories. Multicellular plants and animals, as well as many unicellular organisms, are eukaryotic—their large, complex cells have a well-formed nucleus and many organelles. On the other hand, the true bacteria are prokaryotic cell, which aresimple and lack a nucleus. The distinction between eukaryotes and bacteria, initially defined in terms of subcellular structures visible with a microscope, was ultimately carried to the molecular level. Here prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have many features in common. For instance, they translate genetic information into proteins according to the same type of genetic coding. But even where the molecular processes are the same, the details in the two forms are different and characteristic of the respective forms. For example, the amino acid sequences of various enzymes tend to be typically prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The differences between the groups and the similarities within each group made it seem certain to most biologists that the tree of life had only two stems. Moreover, arguments pointing out the extent of both structural and functional differences between eukaryotes and true bacteria convinced many biologists that the precursors of the eukaryotes must have diverged from the common ancestor before the bacteria arose.

Although much of this picture has been sustained by more recent research, it seems fundamentally wrong in one respect. Among the bacteria, there are organisms that are significantly different both from the cells of eukaryotes and from the true bacteria, and it now appears that there are three stems in the tree of life. New techniques for determining the molecular sequence of the RNA of organisms have produced evolutionary information about the degree to which organisms are related, the time since they diverged from a common ancestor, and the reconstruction of ancestral versions of genes. These techniques have strongly suggested that although the true bacteria indeed form a large coherent group, certain other bacteria, the archaebacteria, which are also prokaryotes and which resemble true bacteria, represent a distinct evolutionary branch that far antedates the common ancestor of all true bacteria.