PTE Writing Summary Written Text
- Architecture Art – New question
Architecture, the art of building in which human requirements and construction materials are related so as to furnish practical use as well as an aesthetic solution, thus differing from the pure utility of engineering construction. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involved the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is on one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.
- Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) – New question
Asda has become the first food retailer in the country to measure how much customers can save by cutting back on food waste, thanks to a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) with the University of Leeds. The idea behind the KTP was for the university, using Asda’s customer insight data, to apply its research to identify, investigate and implement ways of helping customers to reduce their food waste. This was tone of the first times that a major retailer had tried to deliver large-scale sustainability changes, with the two-year project seen as a way for Asda to position themselves as true innovators in this area.
The campaign focused on providing customers with advice on everything from food storage and labelling, to creative recipes for leftovers. Meanwhile, in-store events encouraged customers to make changes in their own homes. In fact, two million customers have said they will make changes to how they deal with food waste in their own homes, leading to an average saving of 57 pounds per customer, as well as a reduction in waste.
A key aspect of a KTP is that an associate is employed by the University to work in the firm and help deliver the desired outcomes of the KTP. As part of the collaboration with Asda, Laure Babbs was given the task of driving forward the sustainability changes in the retailer. As result of the success of her work, Laura eventually became a permanent member of the team at Asda.
- Fallow fields for farming
With a good system of crop rotation, and especially with the addition of any sort of fertilizer you may be able to come up with, it’s possible to grow crops on a plot of land for upwards of 2-3 years at a time with good results. Ultimately, though, you must let the land rest if you hope to continue farming there in the long-run. Allowing a plot of land to rest for a period of time is known as letting the field go fallow, and there are several reasons for this.
Allowing a field or plot to lie fallow means that you don’t grow anything new on it, don’t harvest anything and don’t graze any animals on the land for at least a year. Sometimes a field will lay fallow for two, there or even four years, but the traditional standard on many farms was to let a field lie fallow once every 2-3 years.
This fallow period allows the land to replenish many of its nutrients. The root networks of various grasses or groundcovers (like clover) have a chance to expand and grow, which further strengthens the soil and protects it from erosion.
During the fallow period, there are many beneficial flora and micro-fauna, including cyanobacteria, which live in the soil. These microorganisms continue to be active at the root level, steadily improving the quality of the soil so that when you come back in a year or two, you can begin planting food or cash crops anew.
- Observation other people
According to researchers, the invisibility cloak illusion stems from the belief that we are much more socially observant than the people around us. This means that, while we watch and wonder about other people as much as possible, we often think that people around us are less aware. This illusion occurs because, while we are fully aware of our own impressions and speculations about other people, we have no idea what those other people are thinking unless they close to share with us, something that rarely happens except in exceptional circumstances.
To better understand what is happening, it is important to consider the groundbreaking research by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman on cognitive biases. When people make judgments about other people in social situations, they often depend on specific biases such as the availability heuristic, i.e., that we attach more significance to thoughts that come to mind easily. This is why we consider thoughts about other people as being more important than thoughts about inanimate objects. And so, as we look around us, we tend to focus our thoughts on the people we see and what they happen to be doing. Which is why people-watching can be so addictive.
What adds to the sense that we are relatively invisible to others is that people tend to be as discreet as possible about their people-watching. Just because other people aren’t sharing their observations with us, it’s easy to pretend that they are not as observant as we are. Of course, people many share their people-watching observations with anyone they happen to be with but, for the most part, that only applies to something remarkable enough to comment on. For most of us, what we are seeing tends to be extremely private and not to be shared with others.
- Panda in China
According to the report, formally known as the Fourth National Giant Panda Survey, the geographic range of pandas throughout China also increased. The total area inhabited by wild giant pandas in China now equals 2,577,000 hectares, an expansion of 11.8% since 2003.
“These results are a testament to the conservation achievements of the Chinese government,” said Xiaohai Liu, executive director of programmes, WWF-China. “A lot of good work is being done around wild giant panda conservation, and the government has done well to integrate these efforts and partner with conservation organizations including WWF.”
The report, the fourth in a series of decadal (10 year) survey s conducted by the State Forestry Administration of China, began in 2011 with financial and technical support from WWF.
Much of the success in increasing the panda population comes as a result of conservation policies implemented by the Chinese government, including the Natural Forest Protection Project and Grain for Green.
The report found that 1,246 wild giant pandas live within nature reserves, accounting for 66.8% of the total wild population, and the habitat within nature reserves accounts for 53.8% of the total habitat area. There are currently 67 panda nature reserves in China, an increase of 27 since the last report.
“WWF” is pleased to witness this significant conservation achievement – the increase of both the wild giant panda population size and habitat area over last ten years, said Lie. “The survey result demonstrates the effectiveness of nature reserves in boosting wild giant panda numbers.”
1-The space travel is excellent these day, but there are many environmental problems in our planet we should tackle the problems but not travel space and spend a lot of money. Discuss this opinion.
2-It is equally important for school children and university students to be involved in the extra-curricular activities as it is good for academic studies and examinations. What’s your opinion? Use your expertise or examples to support.
3-As urban population growing, city roads are busy and public areas such as parking is packed. People feel that city space is overcrowding. What solutions can you think of for this problem?
4-Scientists have been debating the impact of nature and nurture on people’s personality and behaviour. Which one do you think has a greater influence on people’s personality and behaviour?
5-Nowadays in some schools, textbooks have been replaced by notebook computers. Are you supportive to this phenomenon? Give your reasons and support with your own experience.
6-Lots of scientists agreed that human activities increase global temperatures. Do you agree? Please give solutions for global warming.
7-Cashless society is becoming a reality. More and more people are using credit cards for payment, and less people use cash. How realistic do you think it is and what do you see in its potential benefits or problems?
8-The statement “business and commercial organizations in any kind need to work hard to help environmental challenges that faced by the whole world” to what extent do you agree wit this? Talk about your view.
9-The experience of work is more important than having a qualification. Do you agree or disagree?
10-Wealthy nations are required to share their wealth with poorer countries. What is your opinion?
11-In globalization, it is impossible to succeed if you cannot speak a foreign language. Do you agree or disagree?
12-Large shopping malls are replacing small local shops in cities and towns. In your own experience, is it a positive development?
13-The time people devote in job leaves very little time for personal life. How widespread is the problem? What problem will this shortage of time cause?
14-Nowadays, it is increasingly more difficult to maintain the right balance between work and other aspects of one’s life, such as leisure time with family members. How important do you think is this balance? Why do people find it hard to achieve?
15-Some people claim that digital age has made us lazier, others claim it has made us more knowledgeable. Discuss both opinions, use your own experience to support.
16-For children, use films to study is as important as study literature. What is your opinion on this statement? Give your reasons and use examples to support.
17-Some people claim that instead of having to prepare for huge numbers of exams in school, children should learn more. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Use your own experience to support your ideas.
18-As cities expanding, some people claim governments should look forward creating better networks of public transportation available for everyone rather than building more roads for vehicle owning population. What’s your opinion? Give some examples or experience to support.
19-The advanced medical technology will expand human’s life. Do you think it is a blessing or a curse?
20-Textbooks should be replaced by online resources and modern technological innovations. Agree or disagree, talk about it with your experience.
21-Many workers like nurses and teachers should get more pay, especially in recent years people in finance/film actors and company leaders were paid a larger amount of sum. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the above statement and what’s your opinion?
22-Whether or not experiential learning (i.e. learning by doing) can work well in formal education. Do you think experiential learning is beneficial in high schools and colleges?
23-Some people argue that experience is the best teacher. Life experiences can teach more effectively than books or formal school education. How far do you agree with this idea? Support your opinion with reasons and/or your personal experience.
24-Should be held legally responsible for the actions of their children. Do you agree with this opinion? Support your position with your own study, experience or observations.
25-Some universities deduct students’ work if assignment is given late. What is your opinion and suggest some alternative actions?
26-In order to study effectively, it requires comfort, peace and time. So it is impossible to combine learning and employment at the same time. Do you think this is realistic in our life today? To what extent do you agree with this statement? Support your opinion with examples.
27-Nowadays, it is increasingly more difficult to maintain the right balance between work and other aspects of one’s life, such as leisure time with family members. How important do you think is this balance? Why do people find it hard to achieve?
28-Teenagers should receive lessons on principles of personal finance, such as investing and debt. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
29-Some people indicate that certain kind of music can promote learning for young children, while many researches showed that results are mixed. What is your opinion? Use your own experience and observation.
30-The world’s governments and organizations are facing a lot of issues. Which do you think is the most pressing problem for the inhabitants on our planet and give the solution?
31-Advertising may make people buy something they don’t need or cannot afford, but also they can convey information to increase their life quality. What is your opinion?
32-Students can obtain information of academic knowledge from different sources, such as from online, from printed books, or discussion with peers. Which one is the most reliable source?
33-Governments should not put too much attention on arts, such as theaters, xxx and xxx. Governments should allocate more funds to areas of concern. Do you agree with this opinion or not? Use your own experience to support your idea.
34-More people consider ‘national happiness index’ as a better measurement for a country’s success than the country’s economic growth. What do you think about the idea? What can be used to measure ‘national happiness’?
35-What do you think are the strengths and weakness of the education system in your country. Use your own experience to support your idea.
36-Young people should not do things like driving or voting. Young people under 25 years old are not responsible enough and lack of like experiences. Discuss and give your opinion with examples.
37-University tuition fees are increasing. Some argue that higher education should be made free. To what extend do you agree?
38-Some schools believe that children should learn typing rather than a good handwriting. How far do you agree with that? Show reasons with your experience.
39-Some people argue that young people should concentrate on study or work, some people think it is better to put energy in activities designed to broaden their experience, such as international travel and volunteering. Support with examples or cases.
40-Internet or media is bad for young people because they make the young generation poor in communication and forming relationships. Do you agree with this opinion? Please use examples or your personal experience to support your idea.
41-How do you think that the design of building has impacts, either positively or negatively, on where people live and work?
42-There are more men or women in certain jobs and there’s nothing we can change about it. Do you agree with that?
43-In social situations, some people believe that it is better to be a good listener than a good talker. Do you agree or disagree?
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