PTE April Prediction file

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PTE April Prediction file

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  1. Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.

 

  1. Lincoln’s apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.

 

  1. Living room is the most used part that withholds most of the traffic coming in and out of the house. It is highly recommended that the flooring should be strong enough that it can endure all such amendments done with your furniture or to the increasing and decreasing ratio of visitors. For this purpose, you can opt for hardwood flooring. Being classy and sophisticated in look it is the perfect choice for your living room whenever you are remodeling your home.

 

  1. Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of the European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.

 

  1. Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open darts shown no-breeding records on islands, and are also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other areas where species is not meant to be seen are plain pale green, with pale green hatching where records are usually sparse.

 

  1. Orientalists, like many other nineteenth-century thinkers, conceive of humanity either in large collectives or in abstract generalities. Orientalists are neither interested in nor capable of discussing individuals; instead, artificial entities predominate. …very wide labels every possible variety of human plurality, reducing it in the process to one or two terminal collective realities.

 

  1. Pluto lost its official status as a planet yesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there had been passionate debate at the General

 

 

 

 

Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet – and whether Pluto met the specifications the audience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.

 

  1. Solar energy is an excellent source of supplying power to homes and companies and by utilizing solar power you’re not merely protecting the environment from becoming polluted but also you are saving the rest of the earth’s natural resources. Capturing solar energy does not contribute to any pollution and does not harm the atmosphere. One of the factors why many individuals are still hesitant to make use of solar power is because it is expensive. The need of big location of space is another reason why people aren’t taking into consideration solar power.

 

  1. Tesla actually worked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison’s machines and when he asked for the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say, “Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor.”

 

  1. The beginning of the twenty-first century will be remembered, not for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole new age of globalization – a ‘flattening’ of the world. The explosion of advanced technologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources have connected all over the planet, leveling the playing field as never before.

 

  1. The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytic side of brain. The right hemisphere controlled the left parts of the body, and the left hemisphere controlled the right side.

 

  1. The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant species reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.

 

  1. The Japanese tea ceremony is a ritual tour influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.

 

  1. The semiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electric systems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However, this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, which is why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.

 

  1. The southerners did not accept Lincoln as a president because of certain reasons, based on historical grounds. Southerners wished to protect their rights in the government and become more independent from the north. They considered president elections to be unfair. Moreover, they thought that their own rights would be ignored and limited. All this caused the separation of the southern states and marked the beginning of the Civil War.

 

  1. The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.

 

  1. This book is no ordinary book, and should not be read through from beginning to end. It contains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on the choices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission will hinge on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.

 

  1. This is what needs to happen on climate change: the world needs to put a price on carbon emissions and let the market respond. If politicians pretend this can be done without pain, it will probably result in another five to ten years of pretending to take action.

 

  1. Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said, “Our parents were very lenient”.

 

  1. Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three categories, retailers enjoyed healthy increases across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers were also advised higher.

 

  1. When countries assess their annual carbon emissions, they count up their cars and bus stations, but bushfires are not included. Presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year. In both 2004 and more recently, the figure has even been over one million hectares.

 

  1. While blue is one of the most popular colors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that, when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.

 

  1. Yellow is the most optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies will cry more. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest color on the eye, so it can be overpowering if overused.

 

  1. First-year university students have designed and built a groundbreaking electric car that recharges itself. Fifty students from the University of Sydney’s Faculty of Engineering spent five months cobbling together bits of plywood, foam and fiberglass to build the ManGo concept car. They developed the specifications and hand built the car. It’s a pretty radical design: a four-wheel drive with a motor in each wheel.

 

  1. The core of the problem was the immense disparity between the country’s productive capacity and the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S. farmers and wage earners.

 

  1. The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.

 

  1. This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started the study by asking, ‘How much stress have you experienced in the last year?’ They also asked, ‘How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors, people in your community?’ And then they used public records for the next five years to find out who died.

 

  1. Although Botswana’s economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country’s future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors, it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who needed them, and by March 2004, Botswana’s infection rate has dropped significantly.

 

  1. Once you’ve picked a general topic for your paper, you need to come up with a thesis. Your thesis is the main focal point of your paper and it’s the position you’ll take on your particular topic. Formulating a strong thesis is one of the most important things you need to do to ace your paper.

 

  1. A thesis is a claim that you can argue for or against. It should be something that you can present persuasively and clearly. The scope of your paper, so keep in mind that page count. If possible, your thesis should be somewhat original.

 

  1. Competence in mathematics was another trouble spot. More than half said that their real task school’s graduates are deficient in mathematics, more than 10% of respondents said college’s graduates are deficient in the subject, while 70% said they are adequate.

 

  1. The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure. Once restaurants are established in such environments they can do little about their location. All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises. Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.

 

  1. A national study into fraud by bookkeepers employed at small and medium-sized businesses has uncovered 65 instances of theft in more than five years, with more than $31 million stolen. Of the cases identified by the research, 56 involved women and nine instances involved men. However, male bookkeepers who defrauded their employer stole three times, on average, the amount that women stole.

 

  1. Since its inception, the UN system has been working to ensure adequate food for all through sustainable agriculture. The majority of the world’s poorest people live in rural areas of developing countries. Theydepend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. This makes them particularly vulnerable to man-made and natural influences that reduce agricultural production.

 

  1. The main production of soft drink was stored in 1830’s & since then from those experimental beginning, there was an evolution until in 1781 when the world’s first cola-flavoured beverage was introduced. These drinks were called soft drinks, only to separate them from hard alcoholic drinks. Today, soft drink is more favourite refreshment drink than tea, coffee, juice etc.

 

  1. Since 2003, borrowing for education advanced faster, in percentage terms, then all other types of consumer debt that includes mortgages, auto loans and credit cards, data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York show. As of the fourth quarter, student loans represented 10.5 percent of a record $13.1 trillion in household debt, up from 3.3 percent at the start of 2003.

 

  1. The next wave of leaders in industrial manufacturing will build an ecosystem that capitalizes on the promise of analytics and connectivity to maximize efficiency for themselves and their customers. They will map out their strategies and prioritize measures that will bring the most value to their business, starting now with pilot projects, and building greater strengths in data analytics with cross-functional teams of experts.

 

 

38.Flags can be unifying to a country, and many times are. A country that can look to its flag flown high above the landscape in times of trouble and remember that the country will go on. People that have never met before can feel unity towards one another knowing that they’re part of the same country and fly the same flag.

 

  1. Banksia scabrella, commonly known as the Burma Road banksia, is a species of woody shrub in the genus Banksia. It is classified in the series Abietinae, a group of several species of shrubs with small round or oval inflorescence. It occurs in a number of isolated populations south of Gerald ton, Western Australia, with the largest population being south and east of Mount Adams.

 

  1. It is difficult to tell whether the speaker approves of Hemingway’s lifestyle or not. He was famously macho and spent a lot of time hunting wild animals, going to wars and getting into fights. All these things got into his books, and the speaker thinks that this is not necessarily a good thing as it means that too many people prefer to read about his life than read his books.

 

 

 

 

  1. Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups: cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to describe a cloud in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow. It is by observing how clouds change color and shape that weather can be predicted, and as long as it is the first three of cloud to keep their normal shape there won’t be any rain.

 

  1. Charles Darwin published his paper “On the Origin of Species” in 1859. It is one of the most well-known pieces of scientific literature in human history. In the paper, Darwin proposes the theory of natural selection. He states that for any generation of any species, there will always be a struggle for survival. Individuals who are better suited to the environment are “fitter”, and therefore have a much higher chance of surviving and reproducing. This means that later generations are likely to inherit these stronger genetic traits.

 

  1. Such cross-protection is usually seen between two animals. But Gore studies the same sort of mutualism in microbes. He and his team demonstrated the first experimental example of that cross-protective relationship in drug-resistant microbes, using two strains of antibiotic-resistant E. coli bacteria: one resistant to ampicillin, the other to chloramphenicol.

 

  1. Written examinations are a fact of life for most high school and university students. However, recent studies have shown that this traditional form of assessment may not be an accurate indicator of academic performance. Tests have shown that many students experience anxiety during exam weeks, which leads to poorer results. As a result, some learning institutions are replacing exams with alternative assessments such as group work and oral presentations.

 

  1. In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. The information that they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher says.

 

  1. The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure. Once restaurants are established in such environments they can do little about their location. All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises. Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.

 

  1. Hundreds of millions of American people eat fast food every day without giving it too much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.

 

  1. A national study into fraud by bookkeepers employed at small and medium-sized businesses has uncovered 65 instances of theft in more than five years, with more than $31 million stolen. Of the cases identified by the research, 56 involved women and nine instances involved men. However, male bookkeepers who defrauded their employer stole three times, on average, the amount that women stole.

 

  1. Avalanche is rapidly descending large mass of snow, ice, soil, rock, or mixtures of these materials, sliding or falling in response to the force of gravity. Avalanches, which are natural forms of erosion and often seasonal, are usually classified by their content such as a debris or snow avalanche.

 

  1. According to recent research, sunshine and warm weather have a positive effect on our moods. The British Journal of Psychology has published a report in which it claims that anxiety levels fall when temperatures rise, while increased exposure to sunshine makes us think more positively about our lives.

 

  1. As to the Industrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that it has succeeded in inaugurating in a number of countries a level of mass prosperity which was undreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of Industrial Revolution, there were substantial divergences among writers.

 

  1. While blue is one of the most popular colors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that, when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.

 

 

 

 

  1. When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included — presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and more recently, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.

 

  1. When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included — presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and more recently, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.

 

  1. For any marketing course that requires the development of marketing plans, such as marketing management, marketing strategy, and segmentation support marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guides students through the step by step creation of customized marketing plan. While offering commercial software to aid in the process.

 

  1. How quickly is the world’s population growing? In the United States and other developed countries, the current growth rate is very low. In most developing countries, the human population is growing at 3 people per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, human population is grown to reach 9 billion within your lifetime.

 

  1. Hundreds of millions of people eat fast food every day without giving it much thought, they just unwrap their hamburgers and dig in. An hour or so later, when the burgers are all gone and wrappers were tossed in the bin, the whole meal has already been forgotten.

 

  1. How do we imagine the unimaginable? If we’re asked to think of an object -say, a yellow tulip — a picture immediately forms in our mind’s eye. But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of negative number?

 

  1. The southerners did not accept Lincoln as a president because of certain reasons, based on historical grounds. Southerners wished to protect their rights in the government and become more independent from the north. They considered president elections to be unfair.

 

 

 

 

Moreover, they thought that their own rights would be ignored and limited. All this caused the separation of the southern states and marked the beginning of the Civil War.

 

  1. Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open darts shown no-breeding records on islands, and are also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other areas where species is not meant to be seen are plain pale green, with pale green hatching where records are usually sparse.

 

  1. Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of the European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.

 

  1. The Ford Company provides plenty of opportunities for its employees. It guarantees not only comfortable and appropriate working conditions, but also many other advantages. Therefore, becoming a part of the Ford Motor company is always profitable and beneficial. Moreover, it is important to mention that Ford Motors provides its employees with effective and useful services and takes care of their well-being.

 

  1. At the end of this year, we will launch the cup class boats. So these will be about twice the power. The sailors are down in the cockpits, unlike today. A lot of power is being generated by these four grinders that are providing hydraulic power, and that energy is being used to control the flying surface, the hydrofoil and is also being used to control the wing and the flaps, effectively the engine, of what we have.

 

  1. Studying abroad is a very popular option for students who come from a wealthy family. Most people believe that overseas experience provides a deeper understanding of cultures and develops communication skills.

 

While this may be true, not all of these new experiences are useful for finding a job. Employers tend to value interpersonal skills and industry knowledge more than cultural background.

 

  1. Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to collect, study, exchange and display plants for research and for the

 

 

 

 

education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are primarily engaged in the breeding, preservation and display of native and exotic fauna in captivity.

 

  1. Researchers gathered 160 uncaffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you’d get from two cups of coffee.

 

  1. Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open darts are shown no-breeding records on islands, and are also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other areas where species are not meant to be seen are plain pale green, with pale green hatching were records are usually sparse.

 

  1. The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic diversity, and deprive humanity or potential medical and biological rest so extinction of language takes with it a wealth culture, art and knowledge.

 

 

 

 

REPEAT SENTENCES:

 

  1. The test selected materials from all chapters in this course this semester.

 

  1. Students are afraid of writing an essay, because they have learned nothing about it.

 

  1. The glass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal structure.

 

  1. You should include your name and identification number in the application form.

 

  1. The context(contest) includes both the land history and the human history.

 

  1. In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

 

 

 

 

7.The course registration is open early March for new students.

 

  1. I didn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration.

 

  1. I missed yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?

 

  1. Each year, our research team examines the top 100 grossing films in the United States.

 

  1. To answer this question, we interviewed dozens of industry insiders and asked them about it.

 

  1. We all know this is a temporary solution. But what else can we do?

 

  1. I hope this lecture gives you some idea of the kinds of things we can do with future robots.

 

  1. Every summer, my family and I travel across the world, 3,000 miles away to the culturally diverse country of India.

 

  1. The learning zone is when our goal is to improve.

 

  1. Today we’re going to focus on the most important meal of the day, breakfast.

 

  1. The twin-engine aircraft should have been able to successfully take off even after losing an engine.

 

  1. I will be home around 6PM tomorrow evening

 

  1. All students must report to the examination hall at 9 AM

 

  1. A lot of agricultural workers came to the East End to look for alternative work.

 

  1. A periodical is a publication that is issued regularly.

 

  1. All essays and seminar papers submitted must be emailed to your tutor.

 

  1. All students are encouraged to vote in the forthcoming elections.

 

  1. Does the college refectory offer vegetarian dishes on a daily basis?

 

 

 

 

  1. During the next few centuries, London has become one of the most powerful and prosperous cities in Europe.

 

  1. Essays should be typed with double space on white paper.

 

  1. Fees are heavily discounted and bursaries are available for delegates.

 

  1. He was not the only one to call for a legal reform in the 16th century.

 

  1. Higher number of patients were infected than during previous outbreaks of the illness.

 

  1. However this method is problematic in terms of accuracy.

 

  1. I will now demonstrate how the reaction can be arrested by adding a diluted acid.

 

  1. If you want to quit the student union, tell the registrar.

 

  1. I’ll start with a brief history of the district, and then focus on life in the first half of the 20th century.

 

  1. In the last few weeks, we’ve been looking at various aspects of the social history of London.

 

  1. In the past, students were required to complete two long written assignments.

 

  1. International students can get help with locating housing near the university.

 

  1. It Is quite clear that the rising prosperity does not make people feel more content.

 

  1. Knives and forks should be placed next to the spoons on the edge of the table.

 

  1. Make sure you correctly cite all your sources.

 

  1. Italy’s famous volcano Mount Etna may be fed mostly by hot water and carbon dioxide.

 

  1. Professor Baker is unacquainted with the idea of representative democracy.

 

 

 

 

  1. Demands for his dismissal have gathered momentum in recent weeks.

 

  1. The rescuers were beaten back by strong winds and currents.

 

  1. In New Zealand, the Maori people maintain a strong cultural tradition

 

  1. The surveyor’s report didn’t highlight anything untoward.

 

  1. Our research attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of the different drugs.

 

  1. Were you just trying to trap her into making some admission?

 

  1. They identified six plants as having potential for development into pharmaceutical drugs

 

  1. We have a very communicative approach to teaching languages

 

  1. Our company promises to preserve the anonymity of all its clients.

 

  1. Prospective buyers should study the small ads in the daily newspaper.

 

  1. The £5 banknote was first issued at the end of the 18th century.

 

  1. It might be more prudent to get a second opinion before going ahead.

 

  1. The American continent’s geography severely limited the lines of attack.

 

  1. The real issue is not globalisation, but the rise of emerging countries.

 

  1. Does the fact that your players are part timers help or hinder you?

 

  1. The resort is surrounded by extensive national and regional parklands.

 

  1. There was a general impression that tomorrow meant a fresh start.

 

  1. By contrast, the comparable figure for the Netherlands is 16 per cent.

 

  1. Legislation to that effect created fierce controversy both in parliament and outside.

 

  1. The company intends to squeeze further savings from its suppliers.

 

 

 

 

  1. They appointed a new manager to coordinate the work of the team.

 

  1. The plane is overdue and has been delayed by the bad weather.

 

  1. The countries of Eastern Europe immediately started to dominate.

 

  1. The air pollution exceeds most acceptable levels by 10 times or more.

 

  1. An agency, however, typically has much wider substantive policymaking authority than a court.

 

  1. The five survivors eventually reached safety, ragged, half-starved and exhausted.

 

  1. Adolescent suicide is rarely an impulsive reaction to immediate distress.

 

  1. Predilection towards children is conniving them, which is adverse for their growth.

 

  1. The part of the story is the story of my father.

 

  1. The professor will talk the summary in the lecture.

 

  1. The Romans left in 410 at the beginning of the fifth century.

 

  1. The seminar will be on the last week of the quarter.

 

  1. A hundred years ago, Albert Einstein first published his theory of general relativity.

 

  1. All essays and seminar papers submitted must be emailed to your tutor.

 

  1. All lectures’ handouts are downloadable on the university website.

 

 

  1. By clicking this button, you agree with the terms and conditions of this website.

 

  1. Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.

 

  1. During the period, heavy industry grew rapidly in the north of the country.

 

 

 

 

  1. Elephant is the largest land living mammal.

 

  1. Higher fees cause the student to look more critically at what universities offer.

 

  1. His academic supervisor called in to see him last night.

 

  1. I am pleased to report that many topics have been involved in this lecture.

 

  1. In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faculty committee.

 

  1. It’s important to keep this medicine in the fridge.

 

  1. Many medical volunteers no longer access to medical literature.

 

  1. Nearly half of the television production are given away for education program.

 

  1. Our professor is hosting the business development conference next week.

 

  1. She doesn’t even care about anything but what is honest and true.

 

  1. Student loans are now available for international students.

 

  1. Students are not allowed to take journals out of the library.

 

  1. That country’s economy is primarily based on tourism.

 

  1. The lecture on child psychology has been postponed until Friday.

 

  1. The test selected materials from all chapters in this course this semester.

 

  1. Students are afraid of writing an essay, because they have learned nothing about it.

 

  1. The glass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal structure.

 

  1. You should include your name and identification number in the application form.

 

 

 

 

  1. The context(contest) includes both the land history and the human history.

 

  1. In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

 

  1. The course registration is open early March for new students.

 

  1. I didn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration.

 

  1. I missed yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?

 

  1. Number the beakers and put them away before tomorrow.

 

  1. Columbia is a world leading coffee exporter.

 

  1. Please explain what the author means by sustainability.

 

  1. She doesn’t care about anything but what is honest and true.

 

  1. The leading scientists speculate that numerous planets could support life forms.

 

  1. The theoretical proposal was challenged to grasp.

 

  1. The office opens on Mondays and Thursdays directly follow the freshman seminar.

 

  1. The library is located on the other side of the campus behind the student centre.

 

  1. Could you please pass the handouts to the students that are in your

 

row?

 

  1. Number the bricks and put them away before tomorrow.

 

  1. The library is located on the other side of the campus behind the student centre.

 

  1. Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.

 

  1. Student residents’ accommodation is very close to the academic building which is in a walking distance.

 

  1. Don’t forget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.

 

  1. Rules of breaks and lunch time vary from one company to another.

 

  1. Your watches are fast; you need to reset it.

 

  1. Research has found that there is no correlation between diet and intelligence.

 

  1. Please carefully study the framework and complete the survey.

 

  1. It is clear that little accurate documentation is in support of this claim.

 

  1. Haemoglobin carries oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body.

 

  1. This number went up very slowly over several centuries.

 

  1. The number of people in the world tripled during the last century.

 

  1. In just 12 years, the global population raised from just six to seven billion.

 

  1. There are several interesting blocks you can refer for your academic writing

 

  1. I am taking biology, physics, statistics, and emerging technology classes this semester.

 

  1. What is the requirement for the masters of biochemistry course at the University of Melbourne?

 

  1. There are several technologies available in the market for video conferencing such as Skype and Google hangouts.

 

  1. According to the professor, the biodiversity of a rainforest is very rich and currently endangered.

 

  1. Does anyone know how to use the new constitutional voting system?

 

  1. There was a big bushfire and everyone in the town got evacuated.

 

  1. Vitamin C is clinically proven to boost your immune system!

 

  1. I think it’s very important to protect our eyes because we don’t want anything damaged.

 

  1. If someone leaves a party to start a new one it can be pretty controversial.

 

  1. Well, it’s impossible to burn coal and not make pollution.

 

  1. Aussie kids are constantly adding to that pile using social media apps like Instagram.

 

  1. Some social media companies are working to make it easier for kids to figure out how to use their apps safely and responsibly.

 

  1. I’ll be getting taught at a mainstream school which will be very exciting.

 

  1. One thing that people might not know about distant education is that students never miss a day of school even if they are sick.

 

  1. 8 in 10 of the students said that they spend more time in front of a screen than recommended by experts.

 

  1. On the 2nd of December 1911, Douglas Mawson set sail for Antarctica.

 

  1. Some online companies and social media sites are not attempting to sort the fake news from the real stuff.

 

  1. To try to understand all this better, a number of satellites already monitor the sun.

 

  1. A recent report by the World Meteorological Organization said, ‘2016 is set to become the hottest year on record’.

 

 

  1. At the moment, 193 countries have signed the Paris agreement.

 

  1. When people breathe in too many polluted particles, it can cause serious, even life-threatening, health conditions.

 

  1. The twin-engine aircraft should have been able to successfully take off even after losing an engine.

 

  1. Students who selected two to three courses may need an extension.

 

  1. Could you pass the material to students that are in your row?

 

  1. A lot of people who have up until now been spending money having a good time now need to be more careful with their money.

 

  1. What distinguishes him from others is the dramatic use of black and white photography.

 

  1. Our university has strong partnerships with industry as well as collaborative relationships with government bodies.

 

  1. Acupuncture is a technique involved in traditional Chinese medicine.

 

  1. We would like a first draft of the assignment by Monday.

 

  1. The agricultural sector in that country has heavily subsidized.

 

  1. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

 

  1. Higher fees cause the student to look more critically at what universities offer.

 

  1. It’s important to keep this medicine in the fridge.

 

  1. She doesn’t even care about anything but what is honest and true.

 

  1. Tomorrow’s lunchtime seminar on nuclear engineering has been postponed.

 

  1. The food at the Thai restaurant was very spicy.

 

  1. The sunset over the valley was a spectacular sight.

 

  1. Every photograph knows how important sunlight is to get good pictures.

 

  1. Excuse me sir, do you know the way to the North Church?

 

  1. Every student in this class will need to submit their cover sheet prior to the release of the assignment.

 

  1. The salt used in this dish was imported from Egypt.

 

  1. The pyramids have been standing for over thousands of years and draws tourists from all over the world.

 

  1. Spring is just around the corner, hold on!

 

  1. Fish oil is a good source of omega 3 for your body.

 

  1. The fireworks last night was spectacular.

 

  1. The great ocean road is a scenic route which stretches on for miles.

 

  1. Parents of children who are found outside of school can be punished under the law.

 

  1. Companies want to protect their brands from negative comments.

 

  1. Some employees spend two hours a day on social networking sites.

 

  1. 178. Potential customers can see what employees say online.

 

  1. The feeling of disgust is related to the stomach.

 

  1. Disgust helps us to avoid diseases and viruses.

 

  1. We acquire disgust through our genes and culture.

 

  1. The presentation on “disgust” will be in the great hall.

 

  1. Anyone who feels ill should visit our medical centre.

 

  1. 184. Next week’s assignment will be similar to last week’s.

 

  1. The Student’s Union governs the use of the Sports Centre.

 

  1. We can use machines to scan brain activity as it happens.

 

  1. Oceans cover two-thirds of the earth’s surface.

 

Retell Lectures and Summaries spoken texts:

 

 

  1. Large Hadron Collider

 

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest particle accelerator lies in a tunnel. The LHC is a ring roughly 28km around that accelerates protons almost to the speed of light before colliding them head-on. Protons are particles found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand-million-millionth of a meter in size. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons. Electric and magnetic fields are the key to a particle accelerator.

 

 

  1. Visual Description

 

The lecture talks about forms of description. We use different methods to describe a situation, and sometimes we have to use visual description, particularly when we do not witness the scenario. The speaker introduces his own experience that when he asked his mother about the Second World War, he would like his mother to describe vividly. On describing the shelter, he asked her what the shelter looked like and when she went to the shelter. From her response the speaker could get more visual evidence to write his book.

 

  1. Randall Jarrel (only the transcript)

 

Randall Jarrell, the great American critic and poet, once defined the novel as, “an extended piece of prose fiction with something wrong with it”. Now, nothing is perfect and you don’t have to look very hard to find something wrong – or perhaps just something you don’t like – about any work of fiction you care to name. Where, we might ask, does the editor come into this? And is it beneficial to an author to have an editor who is also a novelist? You would think that being a writer themselves, familiar with the process of writing a novel and its demands, they would be able to get inside the head of the author, and be sympathetic and understanding of what needs to be done. This is not an unreasonable assumption to make. However, is it not possible that there is an opposite side to this? Editors might, from their experience as writers, possibly

 

 

 

 

unconsciously, try to make over the submitted novel as they themselves would have written it. The ideal, one supposes, is for the editor to see the book through the author’s eyes, but if they apply their own creative talent to the job they might end up seeing it too much through their own eyes and, in this way, take no account of the author’s original intentions.

 

  1. Dissociation of Personality

 

The powerful influence of Stevenson’s text on the discourse of dissociation is strikingly apparent in the work of American physician and psychologist Morton Prince. Rieber credits Prince with pioneering “the phenomenon of popularizing MPD as embodied in a spectacular case”. Prince’s Dissociation of a Personality (1905) tells the story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, a pseudonym for Clara Norton Fowler, who, according to Prince, “is a person in whom several personalities have become developed”.

 

 

  1. Children Obesity

 

There are 20% of children in USA today have overweight problems. As a result, heart diseases have become more and more common among children. The smallest is 5 years old. Cases of heart attack and other health problems are happening earlier. This has to be solved because overweight will lead to more serious situations, such as Type 2 Diabetes, kidney failure and strokes.

 

  1. Government Blogging

 

We usually see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger creates the content, and the readers interact or challenge the author. But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House. Because people will become more coarse and ride online, especially in the comment area. Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic. So the government will have to administrate the comment. Once the government starts administrating the comment, citizens may find the government manipulating what should be said and what should be shown, which contradicts the original intention.

 

 

 

 

  1. Heroic Tales (transcript)

 

Superhuman strength during a crisis, today we’re going to recount heroic tales of superhuman strength when we faced to disaster some people are said to incredible physical power to lift a car when accident victim move giant rocks or like big Jon of song single handedly hold up to collapse a beam to other miners escape, our such stories true there are many anecdote supporting the idea but we are going to detect fact base look at whether or not it truly is possible, for advertent charge person to temporary gain massive strength, in term of terminology such a temporary boost physical power we will be called historical strength, the story almost is form of one person lifting a car of one another in one case in Colorado in 1995 police officer arrived to a single car accident were

 

  • indeed up on top of baby girl and sneaking into the mud the officer lifted the car the mother pull the girl out. In 2009 a man in Kansas left a mercury sedan of 6-year-old girl who trapped into their beneath and back top of her 1960 a Florida mom lifted … that neighbor can pull up her son would gone trapped when was working under car and its jacks collapsed, Helicopter from crashed in 1998 pending the pilot on the shallow water and his barely friend, nick name tiny run over lifted one ton helicopter enough for the pilot pull up. and of course the list goes on. and each of these cases some aspects of… probably played some role in reduce the magnitude to fit something more believable, and even lifting many cars by several. still lifted most of by substantial strength.

 

Main Points:

 

heroic tales, superhuman strength, incredible physical exercise, different stories, many anecdotes evidences/ supporting the idea, fact-base look, adrenaline charged person, massive strength, terminology, temporary boost of physical power, historical strength, lift car off another, stories, leverage, buoyancy, not repeatable, ability, temporary exercise superhuman strength.

 

  1. Science and Scientists

 

Science fiction. Science is all about evidence. Differences between science and scientists, and he said he likes scientists rather than science. Because scientists can do research and propose questions to find out what is true.

 

 

 

 

science is like furniture. In this dialog, the male is discussing about a science fiction. Science is all about evidence. He is talking about the difference between science and scientists, and he said he likes scientists rather than science. Because scientists can do research and propose questions to find out what is true. Science is like furniture

 

  1. Making Machines

 

(with a picture of different medical machines, wounded hand stitched by medical thread) The lecture mainly talks about how humans use materials around us to make our life better. Firstly, we use materials to make simple machines and improve out health and life expectancy. The when life expectancy increases, we have more time to study and invent more complicated machine and further increase quality of life. Machine to scan and monitor brain activities.

 

 

  1. Overfishing

 

Agriculture and fishing in history. Fish, shrimp, and seaweed were the major sources of food, especially in Asia. One thirds of human’s food supply was from the ocean and rivers. But now the food source from the ocean is decreasing, due to overfishing.

 

 

 

Main Points:

 

Aquaculture – fish farming – developing and developed countries – global trade in seafood – aquaculture production – growing their economies through sustainable fish production, will provide close to two thirds of global food fish consumption by 2030 as catches from wild capture fisheries level off and demand from an emerging global middle class, especially in China, substantially increases.

 

  1. Conditions for species to survive

 

This lecture talks about the general conditions of how animals can survive and reproduce, how they maintain their bodies under water, how they tolerate different temperature and seasons, how they use their habitats, and how about their daily activities and behaviours. For example, if the specie is put into the fridge, it will die, which highlight the

 

 

 

 

11.1 Laugh as a therapy

 

The speech is about benefits of laughing, especially in adversity.

 

People realized the importance of laughing a long time ago and there are different understandings about humour in different regions.

 

There were war jokes about the Berlin Wall spreading among east regions for 30 years during the second World War that could ease the harm of the war

 

 

As humour, laughing can help people get through bleak and boring time. As a therapy, laughing can effectively improve people’s self-respect and identity.

 

  1. Coffee industry in Vietnam

 

The lecturer talks about the changes that have taken place in coffee production in Vietnam.

 

In the past 10 years the coffee production in Vietnam increased from 6 billion to 30 billion.

 

The huge demand in Europe and America has helped Vietnam to become the second largest coffee producer, which had a great impact on Colombia’s production.

 

The output in central America has significantly decreased and people are also going through changes in coffee drinking habits.

 

  1. Public Tertiary Education expenditure in EU

 

This lecture compares the public expenditure on tertiary education in European countries.

 

UK spent 1.4% of its GDP on tertiary education, which was insufficient compared to other European countries such as Finland, Denmark. The spending of Spain is dose to that of the UK. Countries like Denmark and Finland spent much more than other European countries, which is about 2% of their GDP.

 

EU countries on average spend 4.6% of GDP on tertiary education.

 

 

 

 

  1. Minority languages die:

 

Globalization and urbanization have resulted in the disappearance of many languages.

 

Many small languages are disappearing at an unprecedented rate.

 

The reason is that as people are moving to urban areas they are influenced by the mainstream language and give up speaking their mother tones.

 

 

The ideal place for small languages to survive is in isolated areas.

 

  1. Dimensions

 

There is a PPT, on which are given five labels: 1-longitude, 2-latitude, 3-

 

altitude, 4-time, 5-event: where/when

 

The number of variables used to specify a position. Use one number: longitude to define a location. This is called one dimension; Any location on Earth’s surface is described by two numbers–its latitude and its longitude. This is two dimension; Over the surface, we use three numbers: longitude, latitude, altitude (three dimension), In the space, we use four numbers: longitude, latitude, altitude, and time (four dimension)

 

Only in four dimensions, we can explain the space. where does it happen and when does it happen?

 

  1. Latin America Economic Growth

 

This lecture mainly talks about the economic development in Latin America. In the past 20 years, the Latin American economy grew about 80%. However, after the globalization and reform, the growth rate slow down from 80% to 10%. Therefore, the speaker mentions the economy after reform become unsustainable. And some people start to consider whether the reform is positive or negative for the economic development.

 

  1. Business Entity:

 

The essence of business entity is exchange. You exchange your goods to other goods.

 

 

 

 

The goal of marketing is transfer products from suppliers to consumers to meet the demands of customers.

 

Capital gain is very important because only if by making profits, company would reinvest and produce more.

 

  1. Population Growth Mega City

 

The lecture is about population growth and resource consumption from 1990 to 2000.

 

 

In 1900. the population was about 1.5 billion and it increased to 6 billion in 2000. The increase of energy consumption was much more significant which is increased by 16 folds. Due to the urbanisation, cities, which only account for 2% of the land, have 50% of the total population and consumes 75% of the resources.

 

At the end, the lecturer emphasizes that people not only use every resource on the planet but also produce tons of wastes.

 

  1. Government Powers:

 

This lecture first states that the need to modify government power from federal to state level, which is a philosophical question.

 

Then it is followed by the disputes in the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. The Republican Party thinks the government should share its power with its states and people, while the Democratic Party claims that government should hold the strong power and entitlements.

 

  1. Interpreters and Translators:

 

The lecture compared and contrasted the similarities and differences between interpreters and translators. Firstly, translators have to translate written texts whereas interpreters deal with verbal communication. Secondly, translators are required to write comprehensively in the foreign language, but interpreters have to speak both languages professionally. Lastly, qualification and experience requirements are different.

 

 

 

 

  1. Urbanisation:

 

The lecture accentuates the dynamic associated with urbanization as development. The progress of cities demands more people which is only attainable when the productivity of the countryside increases dramatically. The decreased need for labouring in the countryside as a result of increased productivity compels people to move to cities, search jobs and provide the labour force to the market.

 

  1. Why not burn coal/soot emission:

 

  • Soot is black, and is second to CO2 in terms of warming.

 

  • Its lifetime is shorter, so if we reduce soot, we can make changes in months.
  • The amount of warming from soot is about one quarter from CO2

 

  • There will be immediate effects in reducing warming in areas where soot emissions were large.

 

  1. What forms clouds

 

 

Main points:

 

  • Every cloud drop is a particle

 

  • At sea, sea-spray, sea-salt are forming clouds

 

  • But when you go inland, different sources form clouds more effective than others
  • They reflect the light back to space, so keeping things much cooler

 

  • Also when more pollution is putting into the cloud, it affects weather pattern

 

  1. Frog deformity (RL)

 

 

  • frog with normal limbs.

 

  • frog with limb deformities.

 

  • frog with limb deformities in some

 

locations

 

 

 

 

Main points:

 

  • It is discovered that many parts of America, frogs have wrong numbers of limbs, that is either missing limbs or with extra limbs
  • This phenomenon is pretty easy to find but it is a lethal condition.

 

  • Many of these happened in the public drinking water, so that there are many public health issues to be explored.

 

  1. Genes in 500 years Main points of real test:

 

  • The DNA in the picture has two lines, and genes provide protein

 

  • Each cell has two million proteins. but we cannot conclude which cells perform what type of functions.
  • Development of genes shows genetic difference on cognitive ability between present and ancestor. It also highlighted only a small number of genes are different between present and people from 5000 years ago.

 

  • The way of modern people 92 is no difference with our ancestors in half million years ago. because the genes didn’t change much.

 

 

 

 

  1. Monitor underwater fish (RL) Main points of real test

ANTARES is a type of remote monitoring technology.

 

A camera is placed in a cage and the cage is put underwater.

 

It observes fish reaction underwater without having to physically be there; monitor the environment change underwater. the water temperature and the water quality.

 

 

Also, the camera can monitor how the fish underwater react to the feeding and help people to change the feeding strategy when fish do not react positively.

 

  1. Green-Amory Lovins (SST) Main point of real test:

 

Amory Lovins is an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge. but he is not an academic person. He has a consulting company and lives in a house which is built in the mountain. He has thought and used a lot of ways to save energy and solve problems with existing technologies for 30 years. People tend to regard him as genius and crazy Mr. Green

 

  1. HTML

 

When90’s comes around, more and more people could get online.

 

Thanks to UK, the invention of HTML allowed people to create a wide variety of works.

 

During the first decade, people created things like web pages and lessons without fears, religion, motivation or profitability

 

Because people can feel a sense of enjoyment through their creation 30. Vitamin D

 

Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from dietary.

 

 

 

 

It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.

 

However, people have been migrating from the equator to other places where they need to put clothes on.

 

Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin are less exposed to sunshine.

 

  1. Australian export

 

  • The lecture talks about the comparison of Australian exports to China, Japan and the US.
  • Australian exports used to be isolated from North America and UK

 

  • China is the second largest exporter after Japan.

 

  • In recent years, the rise of China has changed the world situation, and influenced Australia as well.
  • Australia should take advantage of China’s rise.

 

  1. Brain development

 

  • The lecture talks about human brain development which contains language and cognition.
  • The sensing pathways which include vision and hearing starts when babies were born and peaks at 3 months old, subsides around 4 years old.

 

  • The language skill increases from new born and peaks at 9 months old, and subsides around 4 years old.
  • The higher cognitive function starts the earliest before babies were born, but peaks later at 1-year-old, and subsides around 16 years old.

 

  1. Darkness between galaxies

 

  • This is a photo of thousands of galaxies, which is the largest photo so far taken by NASA.
  • It is copyright free. It took more than a month to produce this photo by using Hubble Ultra-Deep Field.
  • The deepest mystery of galaxies is the darkness of galaxy, because galaxies are not dark actually.

 

 

 

 

  • But why is the sky dark at night? This is the question that scientists are trying to understand.

 

  1. Bomb calorimeter

 

  • Bomb calorimeter is used to calculate how much energy is contained in food.
  • The thermometer can calculate the energy contained in the food.

 

  • Bomb calorimeter can measure the heat of the food but cannot measure the digestible energy that people intake.

 

  1. High LG and Low LG

 

  • Differences in stress reactivity of adult rats are determined by maternal licking and grooming (LG) during infancy.
  • L means licking and G means grooming.

 

  • The experiment tested on high and low level of licking and grooming that mother rats give to their children, to test out its effect on the children’s stress reactivity.

 

  • High LG will bring modest stress reactivity, which can reduce the risk for poor development and diseases.
  • Low LG will increase the stress reactivity, which can increase the risk for heart disease, type II diabetes, alcoholism, affective disorders and brain aging, etc.

 

  1. Napoleon III Renovation of Paris

 

  • This lecture talks about the renovation of Paris in the 1890s, which was a vast public program directed by Haussmann, commissioned by Napoleon the Third.

 

  • Napoleon the third told Haussmann to bring air and light to the center of to make the city safer and more beautiful.
  • The renovation removed the unhealthy neighbourhood and it includes building roads, parks and squares, planting more trees and the construction of new infrastructure.

 

  • Finally, the speaker mentions that the reason for doing this is that the old Paris had many serious problems such as overcrowding, disease and crime.

 

 

 

 

  1. Pavlov’s Classic Conditioning Experiment

 

  • The professor uses Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment to demonstrate the reward process and how motivation works.
  • First, a dog salivates in response to seeing food, which is called unconditional responses.
  • Conditioning means we ring the bell every time when the dog sees food.
  • Thus, the dog will salivate in response to a ringing bell, which is called conditioned response.
  • This experiment is called Classical Conditioning and this is how motivation works.

 

  1. Air Pollution

 

  • Increasing combustion which leads to greenhouse gases emissions is the major cause of global warming and climate change.
  • But soot emissions are another bigger threat to human’s health which makes people live shorter.
  • It is not to say that we should ignore carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases.
  • It is that soot emission is one quarter more harmful to health than carbon dioxide is.
  • Also, the reduction of soot emission is the quickest and easiest way to tackle global warming in short-term. Infinite monkey theorem
  • If you give a monkey a typewriter, it may type six letters.

 

  • But if you give the monkey pen and paper, it may only make some sketches.
  • As long as we give the monkey infinite time, there is a chance that the monkey can type out a whole article.

 

  1. Visual Description

 

  • The comic I show you with lots of people chatting around a room is a form of description.
  • Sometimes we have to use visual description, especially when we cannot witness the scenario.
  • I was born during the Second World War. I always asked my mom about the war. I often asked my mom “you have mentioned this or

 

 

 

 

that when talked to me.” I will ask her about what the shelter was like and ‘when did you go to the shelter’.

 

  • From her response I could get more visual evidence, so that I can experience as if I were there. This is how I can write my book.

 

  1. The Increasing Productivity

 

  • The development of technology has shortened the production time and increased productivity.
  • Thus the unit cost has gone down, so that products are becoming more affordable.
  • Take example, in the past, the cost of compute production was relatively high because the price of semiconductors was expensive.
  • With increased advance technology, the cost of computer parts (semiconductor) declined, and the productivity has increased, so the single selling price of computer has become cheaper.

 

  1. Poverty in Rural Areas

 

  • The lecture describes the migration from rural to urban.

 

  • In the past, there was only 7% people living in urban areas. Now there is a population migration in 19xx.
  • It is important to make sure that population in rural areas access to sanitation and education.

 

  1. Dissociation of a Personality

 

  • Morton Prince was an American physician and psychologist, his book “Dissociation of Personality” was the best-seller at that time. It tells a story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, who was suffering from MPD (Multiple Personality Disorder)

 

  • Miss Beauchamp has several personalities, namely B1, B2 and B3. There was hidden memory in these 3 personalities.
  • Miss Beauchamp was B2. B2 knows about B1, B3 knows both B1 & B2, but B1 knows nothing about B2 or B3.
  • The strongest personality account for most of the time and it will take over the others and become the main personality at the end.
  • This case and theory give great help to crime investigation.

 

 

 

 

  1. Teaching

 

  • Students are motivated by the needs to learn and that’s how we can teach.
  • Teaching can demonstrate current researches to students. Teaching can bring intelligence together, find problems in the research through the teaching process.

 

  • Teaching’s goal is to stimulate and to motivate. Teaching is to find new ideas and new ways to do things.
  • This is how to become a good professor.

 

  1. The Large Hadron Collider

 

  • The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest and the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It is used to recreate the conditions of space after the big bang at the start of the universe.

 

  • LHC is operated in a tunnel of 27km long. It can create 1.4 million times of collisions per second.
  • Each particle beam collision will generate 7 TeV (teraelectron volt), which is the largest energy manmade collision of particle beams.
  • The LHC’s main magnets operate at a temperature of 1.9 K (degree Kelvin) over the absolute zero, which is even colder than the temperature of the outer space 2.7 K (degree Kelvin).

 

  1. Food Labelling

 

  • Traffic light colors (red, amber and green) are used to represent food healthy standard.
  • Different colors represent different information and categorize food types, so that people would know what to eat when they need some certain type of nutrients.

 

  • It is the retailer’s responsibility to label food properly so that consumers can choose exactly what type of food they need.
  • In this way, consumers can be aware of food with less salt or less fat.

 

 

 

 

  1. Biomedical Engineering

 

  • Human used to utilize simple machines to understand themselves and improve wellbeing.
  • Later, engineers developed more complicated machines to expand human’s life expectancy.
  • So that we can have more time to create more advanced machines.

 

  • For example, now we have ECG to study the different parts in our body and how they work, without going into the body.

 

  1. Freedom of Speech in Britain

 

  • In the 18th century, the British policy encourage freedom of speech.

 

  • People can talk about anything like politics, military, and the government in public space, in a coffee houses or on the streets.
  • In coffee houses, people can read newspapers, criticize on politics.

 

  • That period of time marked the significant peak for public freedom.

 

  1. How Human Use Materials.

 

  • How humans use materials around us to make our life better.

 

  • First we use materials to make simple machines to cure wounds, and so that to improve our health and life expectancy.
  • When life expectancy increases, we have more time to study and invent more complicated machine, and further increase the quality of life.

 

  • Such as machines to scan and monitor brain activities.

 

  1. The Best Rice

 

  • There is a Green Revolution in Mexico in 19xx

 

  • The rice is called IR8, its gene is modified and it is selected from a range of crops. It is the best rice.
  • It increases 10 times yield compared with traditional rice. (mentioned lots of “years” and “numbers”)
  • It is now used worldwide and feed the world population.

 

  1. Indian HIV Training.

 

  • This lecture talks about the health trainings for community service workers

 

 

 

 

  • Trainings and consultation will be provided to help them understand the scope and how to prevent diseases such as HIV.
  • Large workshops and seminars are held quarterly in India. These trainings will be provided by big hospitals and professionals.
  • But these target groups are hard to reach or contact because they live in remote areas and the team has to cross the river.

 

  1. Government Blogging

 

  • We normally see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger/author creates the content and the readers interact or challenge the author.

 

  • But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House.
  • Because people will become coarser and ride online, especially in the comment area.
  • Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic.

 

  1. Superman & Superpower

 

  • Today we are going to recount some heroic stories. Some human beings can execute super human strength like lifting a car. But are these stories true?

 

  • They are actual anecdotal.

 

  • This kind of strength is called hysterical strength, or superhuman strength.
  • From scientific perspectives, humans will temporarily have superhuman strength sometimes, especially when they are facing crisis, danger and fear.

 

  • But after that period, they cannot do the same things ever again.

 

  1. Earth and Mars

 

  • This lecture compares the conditions on the earth and Mars, as well as the habitability of Mars.
  • There are some similarities such as polar caps, atmospheres and water climate.
  • But Mars and the earth also have lots of difference. Even the most inhabitable areas on the earth are way different from those on Mars.

 

 

 

 

  • The lecture also describes different forms of water (hydrology) on the surface and underground of the earth and Mars.

 

  1. Water on Mars

 

  • In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.

 

  • The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.
  • The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.

 

  • Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.

 

  1. Dogs tell growl apart

 

  • In this video, when a dog approaches some food, different snarls are played back.
  • Sometimes a dog doesn’t stop from taking the bones when hearing the voices, in other cases, it will be deterred.
  • Therefore, a dog can tell different growls.

 

  1. Edmund Wilson

 

  • This lecture talks about Wilson.

 

  • He comes from a very different world and is the focal point an American culture.
  • He believes that literature is a part of life for everyone as for conversation.
  • In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary journalist.

 

  1. Course in Stanford University

 

  • The Stanford university held a speech which stressed the importance of management and leadership in business school.
  • The education purpose is to learn management and leadership.

 

  • Students should be responsible for their management performance.

 

  • The responsibility means that the accomplishments achieved by others does not indicate what you are capable of.

 

 

 

 

  1. Drug Advertisement on TV

 

  • Drug advertisement is shown on TV during prime time frequently.

 

  • The amount of money spent has doubled.

 

  • The information provided by the advertisement is technically correct, but the tone is misleading.
  • Drug may help patients to recover but life changes also have some effects.

 

  1. Conditions for species to survive

 

 

This lecture talks about the general conditions of how animals can survive and reproduce, how they maintain their bodies under water, how they tolerate different temperature and seasons, how they use their habitats, and how about their daily activities and behaviours. For example, if the specie is put into the fridge, it will die, which highlight the

 

  1. Prevention of epidemic transmitting

 

  • In the developed world, like the United States, it uses various methods to prevent epidemic transmission with a wide range of resources such as invention of antiviral drugs and vaccines and health management.

 

  • However, epidemic prevention can be a big challenge for some less developed countries since they do not have the same level of resources as rich countries do.

 

  1. Risks and safety

 

The lecture focuses on the literal definition of risk and safety. Two parts of the definition of risk include consequences of some kind of dangers, and possibilities of loss, whereas the definition of safe, though involves a circular argument, is free from harm, which is an absolute notion being either safe or not safe.

 

  1. Space time

 

  • If we want to talk about relativity, we have to talk about space-time.
  • Space-time is the four dimensional world we live in 3. We need four numbers to specify a point in space.

 

 

 

 

  • Also, the four dimensional world is the arena of physics. everything happens physically in space-time.

 

  1. Productivity and cost

 

  • Productivity is the number of output per unit.

 

  • Cost per item is the unit cost.

 

  • Prices dropped dramatically during the manufacturing process.

 

  • In particular, for computers, the average prices dropped so dramatically because of the revolution we have.

 

  1. Visual arts and WWII

 

  • The author was born from the Island or Moreton

 

  • He learnt to write letters about WWII and how to ask visual questions. which gives him more clues about the War.
  • For example, he asked about his mother what does the shelter look like. His mother depicts the details, then he would draw into pictures.

 

  1. b

 

  • Every cloud drop is a particle

 

  • At sea, sea-spray, sea-salt are forming clouds

 

  • But when you go inland, different sources form clouds more effective than others
  • They reflect the light back to space, so keeping things much cooler

 

  • Also when more pollution is putting into the cloud, it affects weather pattern

 

  1. Green-Amory Lovins (SST)

 

 

Amory Lovins is an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge. but he is not an academic person. He has a consulting company and lives in a house which is built in the mountain. He has thought and used a lot of ways to save energy and solve problems with existing technologies for 30 years. People tend to regard him as genius and crazy Mr. Green

 

 

 

 

  1. HTML

 

  • When90’s comes around, more and more people could get online.

 

  • Thanks to UK, the invention of HTML allowed people to create a wide variety of works.
  • During the first decade, people created things like web pages and lessons without fears, religion, motivation or profitability
  • Because people can feel a sense of enjoyment through their creation

 

  1. Vitamin D

 

  • Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from dietary.
  • It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.
  • However, people have been migrating from the equator to other places where they need to put clothes on.
  • Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin are less exposed to sunshine.

 

  1. Three times of Family

 

 

Nuclear family includes only a mother, a father and children. This is the most common family type in western countries.

 

Extended family includes grandparents, parents and children. Geographical proximity

 

Family: family members do not live with grandparents or parents, but keep in contact with them on a daily basis over the phone or the internet.

 

  1. Non Verbal Communication

 

This lecture talks about the non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is important that includes facial expression, gesture and posture. Therefore, we may understand people’s meaning behind the words through facial expressions and emotions. We could use nonverbal communication in presentations and interviews. Non-verbal communication includes people’s body language, which can convey your

 

 

 

 

attitude by how you deliver, as well as some other aspects such as dressing code.

 

  1. Competition

 

Competition can drive performance, and this is why departments in companies would like to rank employees’ performance. They do so because they believe people with fear or hope will perform better. All companies over the world are using this as their predominant practice. Moreover, battles between companies can also improve the quality of their services to customers, which can urge companies to be more creative.

 

 

  1. Sports Industry

 

Spots industry needs cooperation, but competition is the most important in most of other industries. For companies like Telstra and Optus, there is always competition between them and customers can be better off from the competition. But for companies in sports, there is an unusual cooperation between companies. For instance, they need to cooperate to use the stadium on Friday nights. (Anti-trust legislation)

 

  1. Sugar

 

Children have been losing childhood both in the past and now. In the 19th century, the reason of losing childhood was that children needed to work at an early age with high risks of staying around the streets. However, the reasons why children are losing childhood vary according to the change of society such as the changing aspects of gender and commercial advertisements

 

  1. Ugly building

 

The lecturer used to live in West London and every time he walked through the streets there, he saw many ugly buildings on the both sides. Those ugly buildings last hundreds of years and had long-term negative impacts on beholders by causing frustration and anger, unlike a bad book, which last just several years. Architects should learn from some buildings in Rome, which are beautiful and have last since ancient times. But

 

 

 

 

architects say beauty is an arrogant word and do not think their works are ugly, because beauty is in the eye of the beholders.

 

  1. Big Bang Theory

 

The Big Bang Theory is a stunning achievement in cosmology, and physical laws inside atom help to explain the Big Bang, which people used to think happened 10 to 20 billion years ago, but actually happened 13.8 billion years ago. The universe began with the Big Bang, after which, the universe keeps changing. The universe is about 50 billion years old, and after 40 years of studying the star bank, people have found that the oldest star is about 30 billion years old, which perfectly matches the Big Bang Theory.

 

 

  1. Description

 

There are two methods of description: symbolic language and body language. The abstraction is an important layer of computers. Computers use symbolic systems. The origin of symbolic system was developed when people try to communicate with each other. Sign language was developed, which means hand words in language. Sign language and movements could help people ask for help when they encountered rhinoceros.

 

  1. Decline of bee

 

There is a conclusion that bees are declining. The conclusion is well-documented and supported by strong scientific evidence. It is the only conclusion. The loss of pollinators could be huge and catastrophic. The positive side is that people are aware of it and taking actions to fix it.

 

  1. Moon Formation

 

To understand the earth, we need to know what and how the earth formed because there is no photograph in the past to measure size the planets. Moon is the closest to the earth. The moon is formed by a collision between Theia and moon has profound applications and influences on the earth. Without it, the lives on earth would to sophisticated creatures.

 

 

 

 

79.Music Record

 

Music recorder was invented between 1870 and 1890 to help people preserve music for future generation. Music was recorded in disk (US)/disc (UK) and played in phonographs. Recording has changed the state of music, and it’s hard to imagine how people educated music in the past. Music record is the form of existence for memory, and people may even hear the voice of death in the future.

 

  1. Theatre Study

 

 

Theatre study is a difficult subject in academy because it is a mixture of literature and personal life experience. It is neither purely literature nor purely personal life experience. t is also a collection of writers, singers and so on. To understand this subject, you need to a little bit of linguist,-sociologists and so on. If we move everything away, there are some intellectual and distinctive things left. Hence it is ongoing process in academy.

 

  1. Market economy

 

In the developed democratic country, the market economy is essential. In the 18th and 19th century, the industrial revolution had a negative effect on living standards, which reduced life expectancy. However, legislation was issued to deal with corporate coordination and business behaviours, and also to battle with environmental conditions, which helped market economy worked. Thus, nowadays, the market economy brings benefits far more than we shared 100 years ago.

 

  1. Risk

 

To understand risk analysis, we have to know the definition of risk. According to the dictionary, risk is defined in two ways: consequence and chance. And this is exactly what we will learn in this course. As for ‘safety’ and ‘safe’, the definitions in dictionaries are different from those in the field of Risk Analysis, but in this course, we just need to know ‘safe’ and ‘not safe’.

 

 

 

 

  1. Height and social status

 

In an experiment in Oxford University, students from different classes were asked to estimate a man’s height with the same outfit. The estimation would be taller when the man was introduced as a professor or senior lecturer, while it would be lower when he was introduced as a normal guy. This experiment revealed that people tend to overestimate one’s height purely based on his higher social status.

 

  1. DNA

 

 

Since the discovery of DNA, people have believed that genes have an impact only on people’s physical structure. But since 2001, researchers have found that there is a genetic responsibility to human’s physical and psychological behaviours. This discovery has changed the way we understand our behaviours, and the findings can benefit biologists, psychologists and neurologists.

 

  1. Land Use(Script)

 

Animal habitats are disappearing at alarming rates, making habitat loss the biggest threat to animals ‘existence. Deforestation and degradation from logging, animal agriculture, and the palm oil industry have levelled Massive amounts of rain forest in South America, forcing animals into ever-shrinking habitats and destroying villages. As the global human population grows, forests and grasslands around the world are cleared to build roads, housing, and shopping centre Even rural areas –are impacted as small towns and villages encroach on land that was once inhabited by wildlife. As two worlds continue to collide, the sharing of habitats creates a dangerous situation for animals as well as humans. Animals viewed as a nuisance or threat are placed in danger of being trapped or killed, threatening the existence of many species that are already vulnerable as a result of poaching and the illegal wildlife trade. Human lives are also placed at risk when they encounter elephants, tigers, bears, or other large species that feel threatened and attack in an effort to protect their territory or their young. It’s an issue that’s present around the world, and with massive human population growth placing further strain.

 

 

 

 

ANSWER SHORT QUESTIONS

 

  1. The name of the building where you can borrow books?

 

Answer: Library.

 

  1. How would you describe an animal that no longer exist on the earth?

 

Answer: Extinct

 

  1. What is H2O in chemistry?

 

 

Answer: Water

 

  1. What attitude would you have when you are in a job interview, enthusiastic or passive?

 

Answer: Enthusiastic

 

  1. What publication reports daily news?

 

Answer: Newspaper.

 

  1. What is paper made from?

 

Answer: Wood. / Trees.

 

  1. What century are we living in now?

 

Answer: The 21st century.

 

  1. What electronic device wakes you up in the morning?

 

Answer: Alarm clock.

 

  1. What will snow become after its melt?

 

Answer: Water.

 

  1. What is the table that lists chemical elements in order of atomic numbers in rows and columns?

 

Answer: Periodic Table (of Elements)

 

 

 

 

  1. Do unions work for workers or management?

 

Answer: Workers

 

  1. What is paper made from?

 

Answer: Trees/Wood.

 

  1. How many times does a biannual magazine published in one year?

 

Answer: Twice.

 

 

  1. Which part of your leg can make it possible to bend?

 

Answer: Knee

 

  1. Use of periodic table is in which subject?

 

Answer: CHEMISTRY

 

  1. What happens to ice, when it is heated?

 

Answer: MELT

 

  1. What is the sense of ear?

 

Answer: HEARING

 

  1. What is opposite of artificial?

 

Answer: ORIGINAL

 

  1. What do you call a system of government in which people vote for the people who will represent them?

 

Answer: DEMOCRACY

 

  1. Where would you go to see an exhibition of sculpture? Answer: ART GALLERY/MUSEUM

 

  1. Would you measure the volume of bottle water in litres or Kilos?

 

Answer: LITRES

 

 

 

 

  1. What’s the joint called where your hand is connected to your arm?

 

Answer: WRIST

 

  1. Which hospital department would you go to for an x-ray: radiology or cardiology?

 

Answer: RADIOLOGY

 

  1. What do we call the piece of paper that proves you have bought the item?

 

 

Answer: RECEIPT

 

  1. How many seasons in a year?

 

Answer: FOUR

 

  1. How many hours in a day? –

 

Answer: TWENTY-FOUR

 

  1. Which ocean is located on the west of the US?

 

Answer: The Pacific Ocean

 

  1. The phrase used to describe the way that repeatedly increases and decreases or rises and falls

 

Answer: Ebb and Flow

 

  1. Sleep enjoyed in the afternoon, Siesta or Nap?

 

Answer: Siesta

 

  1. Language which is confused and unintelligible, Jargon or vocabulary?

 

Answer: Jargon

 

  1. If you want to reference all pages in a book that discuss a topic, where to find it?

 

Answer: INDEX

 

 

 

 

  1. Where do we hang our clothes, closet or drawer?

 

Answer: CLOSET

 

  1. What do we call the thread in the centre of the candle?

 

Answer: WICK

 

  1. Which symbol is used to complete a sentence?

 

Answer: FULL STOP/ PERIOD

 

  1. Which source is more reliable, magazine or journal?

 

 

Answer: JOURNAL

 

  1. Which part at the end of book can be used for further reading? An index or a bibliography?

 

Answer: BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

  1. Which one is using man power: plane, car, or cycling?

 

Answer: CYCLING

 

  1. When a company’s position improved, revenue decrease or increase?

 

Answer: INCREASE

 

  1. What is the name of the student who has not completed his course?

 

Answer: UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT

 

  1. What’s the material that we use to stick two things together?

 

Answer: GLUE

 

  1. What’s the 26th alphabet in English?

 

Answer: Z

 

  1. What type of resources does an electric device use?

 

Answer: ELECTRICITY

 

 

 

 

  1. What is vaccine used for?

 

Answer: PREVENTING DISEASE

 

  1. What is haematology related to?

 

Answer: BLOOD

 

  1. What is a person that belongs to an organization called?

 

Answer: MEMBER

 

 

  1. What instrument do you use when long-distance learning?

 

Answer: COMPUTER

 

  1. What does a sundial measure?

 

Answer: TIME

 

  1. What do you call the number of people living in a specific area?

 

Answer: POPULATION

 

  1. What do you call the middle of something?

 

Answer: CENTER

 

  1. What do you call a person that can’t hear?

 

Answer: DEAF

 

  1. What do ophthalmologist specialize in?

 

Answer: EYE OPERATIONS/ CARE

 

  1. What do dermatologist specialize in?

 

Answer: SKIN

 

  1. What are the things that hens lay?

 

Answer: EGGS

 

 

 

 

  1. Language which is confused and unintelligible, Jargon or vocabulary?

 

Answer: Jargon

 

  1. A man whose wife is dead, Is he a Widow or Widower?

 

Answer: Widower

 

  1. A place where dead bodies are kept, Cemetery or Mortuary?

 

Answer: Mortuary

 

  1. One whose business is to find out criminals, Detectives or police?

 

Answer: Detectives

 

  1. The government runs by the dictator. Autocracy or Democracy

 

Answer: Autocracy

 

  1. A great lover of books

 

 

Answer: Bibliophile

 

  1. One who tests eyesight and sells spectacles.

 

Answer: Optician

 

  1. One who kills animals and sells their flesh. Butcher or barber?

 

Answer: Butcher

 

  1. Which disease can spread by contact?

 

Answer: Contagious disease

 

  1. A man, who thinks only for himself?

 

Answer: Egoistic

 

  1. An animal living both on land in water

 

Answer: Amphibian

 

 

 

 

  1. A building for keeping and feeding horses in, Stable or Kennel?

 

Answer: Stable

 

  1. A string of beads used for counting prayers, Rosary or Garland?

 

Answer: Rosary

 

  1. Art and science dealing with rules of language, Grammar or Literature

 

Answer: Grammar

 

 

  1. Not limited by person or number. Infinite or Finite

 

Answer: Infinite

 

  1. Something that is quickly and easily set on fire and burned, Is it flammable or Non-flammable?

 

Answer: Flammable

 

  1. The one who is unable to pay his debts, In debt or Insolvent

 

Answer: Insolvent

 

  1. Name a medicine which induces sleep.

 

Answer: Narcotic

 

  1. Having a lot of fat in one’s body

 

Answer: Obesity

 

  1. A notice of death in a newspaper

 

Answer: Obituary

 

  1. Which is easier to be recycled, plastic or paper?

 

Answer: PAPER

 

  1. Which kind of mountain can erupt?

 

Answer: VOLCANO

 

 

 

 

  1. What do we call the “Times New Roman” in word?

 

Answer: Typeface/Font

 

  1. In addition to the A, E, I, O, what is the other vowel?

 

Answer: U

 

  1. What is the altitude related to, weight or height?

 

Answer: HEIGHT

 

 

  1. What is a part of the digestive system and is essential for churning food?

 

Answer: STOMACH

 

  1. Which is more expensive, gold or silver?

 

Answer: GOLD

 

  1. What is the item of footwear intended to protect and comfort human foot?

 

Answer: SHOES

 

  1. What is a standard set of letters that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle?

 

Answer: ALPHABET

 

  1. What kind of dictionary provides synonyms, antonyms and related words?

 

Answer: THESAURUS

 

  1. Inhalation of which tobacco substance or activity is dangerous?

 

Answer: SMOKING

 

  1. Which department studies the humans body part of eyes?

 

Answer: OPHTHALMOLOGY

 

 

 

 

  1. When was the tractor invented? (picture will be given)

 

Answer: 1892

 

  1. What material is used for most of vehicles and craft?

 

Answer: METAL

 

  1. Use of periodic table is in which subject?

 

Answer: CHEMISTRY

 

  1. A man whose wife is dead, Is he a Widow or Widower?

 

 

Answer: Widower

 

  1. A place where dead bodies are kept, Cemetery or Mortuary?

 

Answer: Mortuary

 

  1. One whose business is to find out criminals, Detectives or police?

 

Answer: Detectives

 

  1. The government runs by the dictator. Autocracy or Democracy

 

Answer: Autocracy

 

  1. A great lover of books

 

Answer: Bibliophile

 

  1. One who tests eyesight and sells spectacles.

 

Answer: Optician

 

  1. One who kills animals and sells their flesh. Butcher or barber?

 

Answer: Butcher

 

  1. Which disease can spread by contact?

 

Answer: Contagious disease

 

 

 

 

  1. A man, who thinks only for himself?

 

Answer: Egoistic

 

  1. An animal living both on land in water

 

Answer: Amphibian

 

  1. A building for keeping and feeding horses in, Stable or Kennel?

 

Answer: Stable

 

 

  1. A string of beads used for counting prayers, Rosary or Garland?

 

Answer: Rosary

 

  1. Art and science dealing with rules of language, Grammar or Literature

 

Answer: Grammar

 

  1. Not limited by person or number. Infinite or Finite

 

Answer: Infinite

 

  1. Something that is quickly and easily set on fire and burned, Is it flammable or Non-flammable?

 

Answer: Flammable

 

  1. The one who is unable to pay his debts, Indebt or Insolvent

 

Answer: Insolvent

 

  1. Name a medicine which induces sleep.

 

Answer: Narcotic

 

  1. Having a lot of fat in one’s body

 

Answer: Obesity

 

  1. A notice of death in a newspaper

 

 

 

 

Answer: Obituary

 

  1. Which is easier to be recycled, plastic or paper?

 

Answer: PAPER

 

  1. Which kind of mountain can erupt?

 

Answer: VOLCANO

 

  1. What do we call the “Times New Roman” in word?

 

Answer: Typeface/Font

 

  1. What is the verb form of the noun “abstention”?

 

 

Answer: ABSTAIN

 

  1. In addition to the A, E, I, O, what is the other vowel?

 

Answer: U

 

  1. What is the altitude related to, weight or height?

 

Answer: HEIGHT

 

  1. What is a part of the digestive system and is essential for churning

 

food?

 

Answer: STOMACH

 

  1. Which is more expensive, gold or silver?

 

Answer: GOLD

 

  1. What is the item of footwear intended to protect and comfort human

 

foot?

 

Answer: SHOES

 

  1. What is a standard set of letters that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle?

 

 

 

 

Answer: ALPHABET

 

  1. What kind of dictionary provides synonyms, antonyms and related words?

 

Answer: THESAURUS

 

  1. A dozen is a grouping of which number?

 

Answer: TWELVE

 

 

  1. Which century are we now?

 

Answer: TWENTY FIRST

 

  1. In the library, which books we are not allowed to bring them out with ourselves?

 

Answer: CLOSED RESERVE BOOK

 

 

 

 

REORDER: 

 

Note :All are in correct order 

 

 

1.

 

  1. At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the people of San Francisco were awakened by an earthquake that would devastate the city.

 

  1. The main temblor, having a 7.7–7.9 magnitude, lasted about one minute and was the result of the rupturing of the northernmost 296 miles of the 800-mile San Andreas fault.

 

 

  1. But when calculating destruction, the earthquake took second place to the great fire that followed.

 

  1. The fire, lasting four days, most likely started with broken gas lines and, in some cases, was helped along by people hoping to collect insurance for their property—they were covered for fire, but not earthquake, damage.

 

 

2.

 

  1. It was there that Rosa Parks, an African American woman, refused to vacate her seat in the middle of the bus so that a white man could sit in her place.

 

  1. She was arrested for her civil disobedience.

 

  1. Parks’ arrest, a coordinated tactic meant to spark a grassroots movement, succeeded in catalyzing the Montgomery bus boycott.

 

  1. Parks was chosen by King as the face for his campaign because of Parks’ good standing with the community, her employment and her marital status.

 

  1. Earlier in 1955, Claudette Colvin, a 15-year old African American girl, had been arrested for the same crime. However, King and his civil rights compatriots did not feel that she would serve as an effective face for the civil rights campaign.

 

 

 

 

3.

 

  1. A requirement of Humanities 104 is to write a persuasive paper on a topic of your choice.

 

  1. The topic you choose should be supported by a range of sources.

 

  1. The source should be cited under APA guidelines, and the final draft should be written in APA styles.

 

  1. The final draft is due one week before the final exam 4.

 

  1. New Ventures is a program that helps entrepreneurs in some of the world’s most dynamic, emerging economies– Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia and Mexico.

 

  1. We have facilitated more than $203 million in investment, and worked with 250 innovative businesses whose goods and services produce clear, measurable environmental benefits, such as clean energy, efficient water use, and sustainable agriculture.

 

  1. Often they also address the challenges experienced by the world’s poor.

 

  1. For example, one of the companies we work with in China, called Ecostar, refurbishes copy machines from the United States and re-sells or leases them for 20 percent less than a branded photocopier.

 

5.

 

  1. Employers are often reluctant to hire young people, even though there are more than 850,000 unemployed 16 to 24-year-olds and UK businesses are struggling to fill one in five vacancies because of skills shortages.

 

  1. They are skeptical about young people’s skills and their readiness for work.

 

  1. But a growing number of companies are setting up schemes to recruit young workers.

 

 

 

 

  1. They can be surprised by the results.

 

6.

 

  1. the superpower has international text which means having control power and political power

 

  1. it’s including

 

  1. In terms of green superpower

 

 

  1. In addition to the green energy superpower companies should meet

 

above global average… emission and….

 

7.

 

  1. Researchers surveyed more than 2,000 young people about their eating habits in 1999;

 

  1. When they surveyed the same group five years later, most of the teenagers were eating fewer fruits and vegetables.

 

  1. The study, which appeared in the February issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, looked at eating habits among adolescents in junior high and high school in Minnesota.

 

  1. The researchers, led by Nicole Larson of the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, found two dips in the intake of fruits and vegetables during the teenage years.

 

8.

 

  1. Mayoral control of schools can be effective.

 

  1. Mayor-controlled districts have seen improved student achievement across all subjects and student groups.

 

  1. Moving to a mayor-led district can also help spur innovation and advancement.

 

  1. In cities with lagging student achievement, getting more engagement from mayors or increasing their authority over schools could be part of the solution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.

 

 

  1. We already know that children engage cognitively when they watch TV and can learn from well-designed educational TV programs.

 

  1. However, learning from video isn’t the same as learning from direct experience, and until age 2 or 3 years, children appear to have difficulty learning from media that are not interactive.

 

  1. Older preschoolers also have trouble learning from media when they’re tested on more difficult tasks.

 

 

  1. This may be because video is presented in two dimensions.

 

  1. Also, video lacks many cues that support learning; for example, people and characters in videos can’t react to a learner’s facial expressions or respond to a learner’s questions.

 

10.

 

  1. All animals have a strong exploratory urge, but for some it is more crucial than others.

 

  1. It depends on how specialized they have become during the course of evolution.

 

  1. If they have put all their efforts into the perfection of one survival trick, they do not bother so much with the general complexities of the world around them.

 

  1. So long as the ant eater had its ants and the koala bear had gum leaves, then they are satisfied and the living is easy.

 

  1. The non-specialists, however, the opportunists of the animal world, can never afford to relax.

 

11.

 

  1. When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-house for the poor”, they were merely expressing a suggestion.

 

 

 

 

  1. “Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar, – an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a “far-out” idea.

 

  1. Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it been done before?

 

  1. Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief

 

executives, governments, NGOs, foundations: Are there any takers?”

 

12.

 

 

  1. It was a time when managers had to take a critical look at every aspect of their production process and make improvements where necessary.

 

  1. As a result, some people believe it is now time to re-assess many companies in terms of the standards they agreed to some years ago.

 

  1. In the late 1900s. Food manufacturers were challenged by the organic community to ensure they were using ingredients that had been produced in natural healthy ways.

 

  1. Whether these systems have been maintained seems questionable, particularly as contracts depend so heavily on efficiency and quick sales.

 

  1. Over the last half-century, organic farming has become a driving force in the world’s food market.

 

13.

 

  1. More recent missions to Mars include the hugely successful Mars Pathfinder, which landed a small ‘rover’ called Sojourner on the surface to explore a region where there may once have been life.

 

  1. Sojourner has now been effectively switched off, but lasted almost twelve times its expected lifetime.

 

  1. Similarly the lander, which imaged several areas around the landing site (dubbed the Carl Sagan Memorial site) and took atmospheric measurements, lasted a good deal longer than expected.

 

 

 

 

  1. The only unfortunate thing to have arisen from the mission is the naming of the rocks at the landing site (including everything from Scooby Doo to Darth Vader).

 

14.

 

  1. People always think it is easy to organize a meeting; however, there are many potentials can hinder the starting time.

 

  1. This is especially true when employees are working with a large number of partners.

 

 

  1. Employees may meet troubles such as contacting and organizing a date and time, arranging accommodations, etc.

 

  1. In addition, sometimes you have to find children facility or other health care for the meeting participants.

 

15.

 

  1. Many students sit in a tutorial week after week without saying anything.

 

  1. Why is that?

 

  1. Maybe they do not know the purpose of a tutorial.

 

  1. They think it is like a small lecture where the tutor gives them information.

 

  1. Even if students do know what a tutorial is for, there can be other reasons why they keep quiet.

 

 

 

 

16.

 

  1. Citizens commonly identify with their nation in the context of major sporting events: imagining the nation is easier when there is a national team playing another nation (Hobsbawm, 1990).

 

  1. Rugby in Wales is a particularly strong example of this phenomenon, being perhaps the main thing that unites people in Wales.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In many ways rugby in Wales defines what Wales is and what people in Wales share.

 

  1. From outside Wales, too, it is the rugby that commonly defines the nation – with the sport providing both widespread interest and one of the few positive associations of outsiders’ perceptions of Wales.

 

17.

 

  1. Humans appear to be the only species which is able to translate their communication into another medium, and in this case the medium provides a semi-durable record of the elements of the communication.

 

 

  1. So reading is a very special ability that we have.

 

  1. Reading also is special because, unlike language, most children have to be taught to read, write and spell.

 

  1. So though we may be predisposed to being able to read and usually have the abilities necessary to master reading, it is something that most of us only accomplish through the direct help of others.

 

18.

 

  1. Earlier this year, researchers from Duke University went to Gabon to monitor that country’s dwindling elephant population. They took along three drones, which they planned to use to count the elephants, follow their herds, and map their migrations.

 

  1. Only things didn’t exactly go as planned.

 

  1. The elephants noticed the drones, which hovered anywhere from 25 feet to 300 feet above them. And it wasn’t just that the elephants noticed them; in many cases, the elephants were clearly agitated. Some of them took off running. In at least one case, an elephant used her trunk to hurl mud in the drone’s direction. “She had her baby with her,” said Missy Cummings, the director of Duke’s Robotics Lab.

 

  1. The elephants reacted so strongly, the researchers believe, because drones, it turns out, sound a lot like bees. And elephants do not like bees. At all.

 

 

 

 

19.

 

  1. It was taken over by Mittal, a Dutch-registered company run from London by its biggest single shareholder, Lakshmi Mittal, an Indian who started his first business in Indonesia.

 

  1. The takeover battle raged for six months before Arcelor’s bosses finally listened to shareholders who wanted the board to accept Mittal’s third offer. The story tells us two things about European business, both positive.

 

 

  1. First, shareholder activism is increasing in a continent where until recently it was depressingly rare.

 

  1. Second, and more important, the Arcelor-Mittal deal demonstrates Europe’s deepening integration into the global economy.

 

20.

 

  1. Mechanical engineering student Ne Tan is spending the first semester of this year studying at the University of California, Berkeley as part of the Monash Abroad program.

 

  1. Ne (Tan), an international student from Shanghai, China, began her Monash journey at Monash College in October 2006.

 

  1. There she completed a diploma that enabled her to enter Monash University as a second-year student.

 

  1. Now in her third year of study, the Monash Abroad program will see her complete four units of study in the US before returning to Australia in May 2009.

 

 

 

 

21.

 

  1. Jean Briggs has worked with the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic and has described how, within these communities, growing up is largely seen as a process of acquiring thought, reason and understanding (known in Inuit as ihuma).

 

 

 

 

  1. Young children don’t possess these qualities and are easily angered, cry frequently and are incapable of understanding the external difficulties facing the community, such as shortages of food.

 

  1. Because they can’t be reasoned with, and don’t understand, parents treat them with a great deal of tolerance and leniency.

 

  1. Its only when they are older and begin to acquire thought that parents attempt to teach them or discipline them.

 

22.

 

 

  1. Dependence, rivalry, envy, emulation: painting and photography, like members of a dysfunctional yet inseparable family, just cannot cast off lineages of influence and appropriation.

 

  1. Photography, from its appearance in 1839, looked to painting for fundamental models of depiction.

 

  1. Yet it threw the older medium into crisis, removing at a stroke painting’s unique capacity to bear witness.

 

  1. How these two media leapfrogged through the Victorian age, defining themselves against one another, is the subject of Tate Britain’s exhibition Painting with Light.

 

23.

 

  1. Mantle makes up 84 percent of Earth’s volume, and though it’s solid rock, over the course of millions of years, it behaves like a liquid.

 

  1. This leads the tectonic plates on top to slowly jostle one another.

 

  1. The buildup and sudden release of friction from this movement can cause earthquakes.

 

  1. The movement also creates gaps in tectonic plates, which reduce the mantle beneath.

 

 

 

 

24.

 

  1. My study of the history of religion has revealed that human beings are spiritual animals. Indeed, there is a case for arguing that Homo sapiens is also Homo religious.

 

  1. Men and women started to worship gods as soon as they became recognizably human they created religions at the same time as they created works of art.

 

  1. This was not simply because they wanted to propitiate powerful forces.

 

 

  1. But these early faiths expressed the wonder and mystery that seems always to have been an essential component of the human experience of this beautiful yet terrifying world.

 

25.

 

  1. A reaction that needs some type of energy to make it go is said to be endothermic. It takes in energy.

 

  1. For example, the sherbet you used for the chapter problem on page 25 is a mixture of baking soda and citric acid.

 

  1. When it is mixed with water in your mouth an endothermic reaction occurs, taking heat energy from your mouth and making it feel cooler.

 

  1. Another example of an endothermic reaction is seen with the cold packs used by athletes to treat injuries. These packs usually consist of a plastic bag containing ammonium nitrate dissolves in the water.

 

  1. This process is endothermic-taking heat energy from the surroundings and cooling the injured part of your body. In this way the cold pack acts like an ice pact.

 

26.

 

  1. I think we should be wary of the reporting of science — it is often over-dramatized in order to secure an audience — but not of science itself

 

  1. Of course, there are rare extremely scientific dishonesties, which will be seized upon by the news organizations.

 

 

 

 

  1. The role of science in modern society remains valuable.

 

  1. Mobile phones, for example. Can cause incidents if drivers insist on talking on the phone instead of looking at roads.

 

  1. But no one would argue that mobile phones cannot help to make a phone call when we are in a crisis.

 

27.

 

  1. Like religion, Manto never goes out of fashion.

 

 

  1. He lived for less than 43 years; penned 22 collections of short stories, a novel, five collections of radio plays and three collections of essays.

 

  1. Manto mattered. the truth was there was nobody who could ignore him.

 

  1. It has remained the same, around 60 years after he breathed his last in Lahore.

 

  1. An icon for some, an iconoclast for vast multitudes, Manto stays in circulation.

 

28.

 

  1. Because of great demand, more and more employees are putting themselves into limit.

 

  1. They go to work very early, from 7:00 am to 8:00 am

 

  1. And they went home very late, some even overwork

 

  1. Many managers find the employee’s performance column is decreasing

 

  1. They (managers) should avoid this phenomenon, because this is not good for the company.

 

 

 

 

29.

 

(Only the gist, not the original text.)

 

  1. Students may don’t know how to achieve high marks in exams.

 

  1. Actually, you don’t have to write down everything you know.

 

  1. Before writing, you should figure out what the question is after, and what is not relevant.

 

 

  1. And then you will have an idea of what you should write.

 

  1. For example …

 

30.

 

V 1:

 

(Only the gist, not the original text.)

 

  1. The invention of electronic devices is a huge step and advancement of humans.

 

  1. Such as washing machine, video game players, etc.

 

  1. But how to deal with these e-waste has become a problem.

 

  1. The amount of e-waste has been growing by 3% to 5% every year.

 

V 2:

 

  1. The global market for electrical and electronic equipment continues to expand, while the lifespan of many products becomes shorter.

 

  1. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia.

 

  1. In Europe e-waste is increasing at three to five percent a year, almost three times faster than the total waste stream.

 

  1. Consequently, large amounts of “e-waste” are constantly generated worldwide, posing an increasing global challenge for their disposal.

 

 

 

 

V3:

 

  1. The invention of electronics has become a challenge.

 

  1. An Indian university persuaded IT service department to have an Electronic Recycling Collection Day.

 

  1. During these days, people are encouraged to recycle their e-waste instead of throwing them into the bin.

 

  1. On certain days throughout the year, many electronic devices like ….

 

From families and households … have been recycled…200,000 electronic products had been recycled in 2010.

 

31.

 

(Only the gist, not the original text.)

 

  1. Heart attack is the caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot.

 

  1. When the clot is formed, it will stay in the blood vessels.

 

  1. The clot in blood vessels will block blood flow.

 

  1. Without the normal blood flow, it will cause muscle contraction.

 

32.

 

  1. People always think it’s easy to organise a meeting however, there are many potentials can hinder the starting time

 

  1. This is especially true when employees are working with a large number of partners

 

  1. Employees may meet troubles such as contacting and organizing a date and time, arranging accommodation, etc.

 

  1. In addition, sometimes you have to find children facility or other health care for the meeting participants

 

 

 

 

33.

 

  1. A simple way to disprove this Innateness Hypothesis, as linguists call it, is to demonstrate that other species have the capacity to speak but for some reason simply have not developed speech.

 

  1. A logical candidate for such a species is the chimpanzee, which shares 98.4% of the human genetic code.

 

  1. Chimpanzees cannot speak because, unlike humans, their vocal cords are located higher in their throats and cannot be controlled as well as human vocal cords.

 

 

  1. It does not follow from their lack of speech, however, that chimpanzees are incapable of language, that is, a human-like grammar.

 

  1. Perhaps they can acquire grammar and speak if they could only use grammar some way other than with a voice. The obvious alternative is sign language.

 

34.

 

  1. Vegetarian eat things which do not include meat.

 

  1. The school restaurant according to their request to make the relevant food.

 

  1. Many vegetarian also attract non vegetarians.

 

  1. Many vegetarians have been successful from these foods.

 

  1. But this diet still has some risk.

 

 

35.

 

  1. It is natural to be healthy, but we wandered so far astray that disease is the rule and good health the exception.

 

  1. Of course, most people are well enough to attend to their work, but nearly all are suffering from some ill, mental or physical, acute or chronic.

 

  1. There is too much illness, too much suffering.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. We are losing every year a vast army of individuals who are in their productive prime.
  2. The average individual is of less value to himself, to his family and to society than he could be.

 

36.

 

  1. It is natural to be healthy, but we have wandered so far astray that disease is the rule and good health the exception.

 

 

  1. Of course, most people are well enough to attend to their work, but nearly all are suffering from some ill, mental or physical, acute or chronic.

 

  1. The average individual is of less value to himself, to his family and to society than he could be.

 

  1. His bad habits, of which he is often not aware, have brought weakness and disease upon him.

 

  1. These conditions prevent him from doing his best mentally and physically.

 

37.

 

  1. In May 2006 researchers a Yale University School of Medicine weighed in on the issue with a review article that looked at more than 100 studies on the health benefits of green tea.

 

  1. They pointed to what they called an “Asian paradox” which refers to lower rates of heart disease and cancer in Asia despite high rates of cigarette smoking.

 

  1. They theorized that the 1.2 liters of green tea that is consumed by many Asians each day provides high levels of polyphenols and other antioxidants.

 

  1. The compounds may work in several ways to improve cardiovascular health, including preventing blood platelets from sticking together and improving cholesterol levels.

 

 

 

 

  1. Specifically (to be more specific), green tea may prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol (the bad type), which, in turn, can reduce the buildup in arteries, the researchers wrote.

 

38.

 

  1. Despite posting healthy profits, Volkswagen shares trade at a discount to pears, due to bad reputation among investors.

 

  1. A disastrous capital hike, an expensive foray into truck business and uncertainty about the reason for a share buyback has in recent years left investors bewildered.

 

 

  1. The main problem with Volkswagen is the past.

 

  1. Many investors have been disappointed and frightened away.

 

  1. Volkswagen shares trade at about nine times the 2002 estimated earnings, compared to BMW‘s 19 and are the second cheapest in the sector.

 

39.

 

  1. Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history. Moreover, money is worth it is because we have come to accept it.

 

  1. Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it.

 

  1. The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money have to be.

 

  1. Electronic transactions are happening in closed group networks and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of internet to emerge.

 

  1. To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.

 

 

 

 

40.

 

  1. A team of scientists has discovered two Earth-like planets in the habitable orbit of Sun-like star.

 

  1. Using observations gathered by NASA’s Kepler Mission, the team found five planets orbiting a Sun-like star called Kepler-62.

 

  1. Four of these planets are so-called super-Earths, larger than our own planet, but smaller than even the smallest ice giant planet in our Solar System.

 

 

  1. These new super-Earths have radii of 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 times that of Earth. In addition, one of the five was a roughly Mars-sized planet, half the size of Earth.

 

41.

 

  1. Marquez arrived in October 1577 at the abandoned town of Santa Elena with two ships carrying pre-fabricated posts and heavy planking.

 

  1. He erected fort San Marcos in six days in defense against a Native American attack such as the one that forced the abandonment of the town a year earlier.

 

  1. The town had flourished, nearing 400 residents, since its establishment more than a decade earlier in 1566 by Pedro Menendez de Aviles who had founded La Florida and St. Augustine the year before.

 

  1. In 1571, it became the capital of La Florida.

 

 

42.

 

  1. But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.

 

  1. Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.

 

  1. Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected b watchdog groups.

 

 

 

 

  1. Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.

 

  1. V1:

 

  1. Piano keys are generally made of spruce or basswood.

 

  1. Spruce is normally used in high-quality pianos.

 

  1. Traditionally, the sharps (black keys) were made from ebony and the flats (white keys) were covered with strips of ivory.

 

 

  1. But since ivory-yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, plastics are now almost exclusively used.

 

  1. Also, ivory tends to chip more easily than plastic.

 

V2:

 

  1. In the early years of piano construction, keys were commonly made from sugar pine.

 

  1. Today they are usually made of spruce or basswood.

 

  1. Spruce is typically used in high-quality pianos.

 

  1. Black keys were traditionally made of ebony, and the white keys were covered with strips of ivory.

 

  1. However, since ivory-yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, makers use plastics almost exclusively.

 

  1. Also, ivory tends to chip more easily than plastic.

 

44.

 

  1. Researchers have developed a system that can 3-D print the basic structure of an entire building.

 

  1. Structure built with this system could be produced faster and less expensively than traditional construction methods allow.

 

 

 

 

  1. Even the internal structure could be modified in new ways; different materials could be incorporated as the process goes along.

 

  1. Ultimately, the scientist say, this approach could enable the design and the construction of new buildings that would not be feasible with traditional building methods.

 

45.

 

  1. Roads of rails called Wagonways were being used in Germany as early as 1550.

 

 

  1. These primitive railed roads consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads.

 

  1. In 1813 The ‘Puffing Billy’ was built by William Hedley to pull coal wagons at the Wylam

Colliery in Northumberland.

 

  1. In 1825, George Stephenson designe d locomotives that could pull 21 coal wagons 25 miles at 8mph – unheard of at the time.

 

46.

 

  1. Mr Bloomberg’s small -schools initiative has drawn criticism, yet the mayor, when faced with complaints, has usually forged ahead.

 

  1. Education scholars generally agree that mayors can help failing districts, but they are starting to utter warnings.

 

  1. Last summer the editors of the Harvard Educational Review warned that mayoral control can reduce parents’ influence on schools.

 

  1. And they pointed to Mr Bloomberg’s aggressive style as an example of what not to do.

 

  1. All this must be weighed up by the New York state legislature in 2009, when mayoral control is up for renewal—or scrapping.

 

 

 

 

47.

 

  1. The town of Liberal is said to have been named for an early settler famous among travelers for being free with drinking water.

 

  1. Liberal is conservative in a moderate Midwestern kind of way which is changing fast due to big National Beef Packing plant which relies on Hispanic migrants and thus four-fifths of the children in Liberal’s public-school system are Hispanic.

 

  1. This should make the town receptive to Democrats, but Mr Trump easily won the county of which it forms part.

 

 

  1. Liberal’s mayor, Joe Denoyer, who was raised in a Democratic family near Chicago and moved to Liberal in search of work.

 

  1. Mr Denoyer voted for Mr Trump by being impressed by his promise, though he thinks it unlikely that the president will keep his promises.

 

48.

 

  1. Karl Marx is arguably the most of the most famous political philosopher of all time, but he was also one of the great foreign correspondents of the nineteenth century.

 

  1. During his 11 years writing for the New York Tribune – their collaboration began in 1852 – Marx tackled an abundance of topics, from issues of class and the state to world affairs.

 

  1. Particularly moving pieces’ highlight social inequality and starvation in Britain, while others explore his groundbreaking views on the slave and opium trades – Marx believed Western powers relied on these and would stop at nothing to protect their interests.

 

  1. Above all, Marx’s fresh perspective on nineteenth-century events encouraged his readers to think, and his writing is surprisingly relevant today.

 

49.

 

  1. The top executives of the large, mature, publicly held companies hold the conventional view when they stop to think of the equity owners’ welfare.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. They assume that they’re using their shareholders’ resources efficiently if the company’s performance – especially ROE and earnings per share – is good and if the shareholders don’t rebel.

 

  1. They assume that the stock market automatically penalizes any corporation that invests it resources poorly.

 

  1. So companies investing well grow, enriching themselves and shareholders alike, and ensure competitiveness; companies investing poorly shrink, resulting, perhaps in the replacement of management.

 

 

  1. In short, stock market performance and the company’s financial performance are inexorably linked.

 

50.

 

  1. A consequence of a settled existence is that it permits one to store food surpluses, since storage would be pointless if one didn’t remain nearby to guard the stored food.

 

  1. So, while some nomadic hunter-gatherers may occasionally bag more food than they can consume in a few days, such a bonanza is of little use to them because they cannot protect it.

 

  1. But stored food is essential for feeding non-food-producing specialists, and certainly for supporting whole towns of them.

 

  1. Hence nomadic hunter- gatherer societies have few or no such full-time specialists, who instead first appear in sedentary societies.

 

51.

 

  1. Normally in Delhi, September is a month of almost equatorial fertility and the land seems refreshed and newly-washed.

 

  1. But in the year of our arrival, after a parching summer, the rains had lasted for only three weeks.

 

  1. As a result dust was everywhere and the city’s trees and flowers all looked as if they had been lightly sprinkled with talcum powder.

 

 

 

 

  1. Nevertheless, the air was still sticky with damp-heat, and it was in a cloud of perspiration that we began to unpack.

 

52.

 

  1. With all the limitations and deficiencies inherent in our educational system has to be achieved only through combined effort of teachers and community

 

  1. A value based approach must form the backbone of educational system and also the teacher education system

 

 

  1. Teacher preparation must ensure development of commitment amongst teachers

 

  1. It is tough proposition when most of the other sectors are influenced by self-interests and material pursuits everywhere

 

  1. However, teacher education needs to emphasise that teachers alone can kindle the value-based growth.

 

53.

 

  1. False memories are constructed by combining actual memories with the content of suggestions received from others.

 

  1. During the process, individuals may forget the source of the information.

 

  1. This is a classic example of source confusion, in which the content and the source become dissociated.

 

  1. Of course, because we can implant false childhood memories in some individuals in no way implies that all memories that arise after suggestion are necessarily false.

 

  1. Put another way, although experimental work on the creation of false memories may raise doubt about the validity of long-buried memories, such as repeated trauma, it in no way disproves them.

 

54.

 

  1. The fiscal deficit has deteriorated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The current reforms pace is too slow

 

 

  1. Industry too is not ready to deliver growth, should even the government pursue the right policies

 

  1. There are big gaps in perception and capability of managers

 

  1. Government finances are terminally impaired with uncontrolled fiscal deficits

 

 

  1. A good budget is one which makes a sincere attempt to change the policy environment

 

55.

 

  1. In the summer of 1992, the first year I became president of XYZ, I decided to take a two-week vacation.

 

  1. But as soon I arrived at my country house, the telephone began ringing

 

  1. And it kept right on ringing with questions from people back at the office about the most mundane matters

 

  1. Of course, sitting out in the country I possessed less information than anyone else at headquarters about was going on, but they called me anyway

 

56.

 

  1. Several years ago, senior executives from Procter & Gamble and Wal-Mart met for two days

 

  1. They wanted to explore how they could jointly apply quality management principles to the disposable diaper business.

 

  1. As a result of this meeting, a team of Procter & Gamble employees moved to Bentonville, Arkansas, Wal-Mart’s headquarters, to work with Wal-Mart executives on productivity and quality issues

 

  1. Wal-Mart has increased its Procter & Gamble diaper business by 50 percent and cut inventory by 70 percent because of this collaboration

 

 

 

 

57.

 

  1. If Karl Marx was alive today, he would say that television is the opiate of the people.

 

  1. Marx thought that religion was the opiate, because it soothed people’s pain and suffering and prevented them from rising in rebellion.

 

  1. Television and similar entertainments are even more of an opiate because of their addictive tendencies.

 

 

  1. If you are used to having your stimulation come in from outside, your mind never develops its own habits of thinking and reflecting.

 

58.

 

  1. John F. Kennedy, Democratic victor in the election of 1960, was at 43, the youngest man ever to win the presidency

 

  1. In his first inaugural address he concluded with an eloquent plea; “Ask not what your country can do for you— ask what you can do for your country.”

 

  1. On television, in a series of debates with opponent Richard Nixon, he appeared able, articulate and energetic

 

  1. In the campaign, he spoke of moving aggressively into the new decade, for ‘the New Frontier is here whether we seek it or not’.

 

59.

 

  1. Mr D Gautam’s personality sets him apart the rest

 

  1. He has a fanatical devotion to detail

 

  1. Nothing is too small for his attention

 

  1. This is what makes him a different guy.

 

 

 

 

60.

 

  1. Even as Indians leftists think Bill Clinton is coming to take over India, Indian companies are preparing to take over American ones on a gargantuan scale

 

  1. Infosys and Wipro, our two most glamorous infotech companies, both want automatic permission from FIPB to take over foreign companies worth – hold your breath – $ 15 billion each

 

  1. To put this in perspective, recall that when Chandan sold his Parle brands to Coca-Cola amidst much swadeshi wringing of hands, he got a reported Rs 200 crore

 

 

  1. Now Infosys and Wipro propose of Rs 54,000 crore each 61.

 

  1. The general impressions that skilled negotiators seem to convey is they are people who keep their cards close to their chest and do not reveal their feelings

 

  1. Feelings are in themselves not observable and Huthwaite’s researchers could not measure them directly.

 

  1. Hence, they used a surrogate method- they countered the number of times that the negotiators talked about their feelings or motives

 

  1. The results showed that contrary to the general impressions, skilled negotiators are more likely to give information about internal events than are average negotiators

 

  1. This contrasts sharply with the amount of information given about external events such as facts, clarifications and general expressions of opinion

 

62.

 

  1. The Japanese are very efficient and such concepts as “just in time” are a witness to their efficiency

 

  1. But they reach efficiency in a different way than American businesses

 

 

 

 

  1. They reach efficiency through the route of effectiveness.

 

  1. the main difference is that efficiency is a ration and effectiveness is not

 

63.

 

  1. Dubai-based Win Gautam who is the

 

  1. accused in the Rs 50 crore Before guns kickback case

 

  1. arrived here on Sunday by an early morning flight

 

 

  1. He is scheduled to appear in the trial court by Wednesday

 

64.

 

  1. At one time I was giving a seminar for the British marketing department of Ford, the biggest Ford operation outside of Detroit.

 

  1. We were discussing competing in the European market

 

  1. I suggested that Ford should buy up a company called NCP, which owned most of the car parks in the city centers throughout the UK

 

  1. If NCP became a Ford company; a notice could be placed at the entrance to all city centers car parks indicating that only Ford cars could use them

 

65.

 

  1. When the RBI governor came to inaugurate the new printing press, the local unit of the BJP handed him a gift wrapped box

 

  1. The unsuspecting governor opened the box in full view of the gathering

 

  1. What came out was very large garland made out of currency notes

 

  1. There was a twist – the notes were all as tattered as notes could get

 

66.

 

  1. A review is a survey of what you have covered.

 

 

 

 

  1. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish not what you are going to do.

 

  1. Rereading is an important part of the review process.

 

  1. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process.

 

67.

 

  1. I lived in Master Hugh’s family for seven years.

 

 

  1. During this time, I succeeded in learning to read and write.

 

  1. In accomplishing this, I was compelled to resort to various stratagems.

 

  1. I had no regular teacher.

 

  1. Mrs. Hugh, who had kindly consented to instruct me, had, in compliance with the advice and direction of her husband, not only ceased to instruct, but had set her face against my being instructed by anyone else.

 

68.

 

  1. It reminds us of the political shenanigans during the implementation of the Fifth Pay Commission

 

  1. How many times have you heard experts, politicians and the finance minister refer to the implementation of the pay hikes following the commission’s report as the singular cause for the increase in government expenditure

 

  1. They argue that it is this, which has led to the bankruptcy in many states

 

  1. Here was a commission whose members worked very hard, did exemplary research and homework, before coming up with a list of recommendations that balanced economic efficiency with safety nets for disadvantaged labour

 

  1. Barring P. Chidambaram, who was then the finance minister, every single political party and politician opposed the implementation of the

 

 

 

 

recommendations and are directly responsible for the current fiscal crises in the Centre and the states.

 

69.

 

  1. A person or company located in New South Wales may not supply by wholesales any substance which is for their therapeutic use and included in Schedule 2 of the Poisons List.

 

  1. Unless they are licensed or authorized to do so under the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Regulation 2002, no one may supply these Schedule 2 substances.

 

 

  1. Additionally, wholesales have an obligation to ensure that the persons or companies they supply are licensed or authorized, to obtain, use, supply or possess the substance.

 

  1. Any breach of these regulations will result in immediate termination employment

 

70.

 

  1. Markets may be good at encouraging innovation, and following trends, but there were no good at ensuring social inequality.

 

  1. They had become rapidly dominated by powerful enterprises who were unable to act in their own interests, against the interests of both workers and consumers.

 

  1. There had already been some legislation to prevent such abuses such as various Factory Acts to prevent the exploitation of child workers, or Acts designed to prevent manufacturers from adulterating bread.

 

  1. Mill was able to see an expanded role for the State in such legislation to protect us against powerful interests.

 

  1. He was able to argue that the State was the only organ that was genuinely capable of responding to social needs and social interests, unlike markets.

 

 

 

 

71.

 

  1. Fireworks and special effects, including a red “waterfall” from the bridge base, will turn the structure built in 1932 into a giant Aboriginal flag shortly after the sun sets for the last time in 2015.

 

  1. “It’s about how we’re all so affected by the harbor and its surrounds, how special it is to all of us and how it moves us,” said the Welcome to Country’s creative director, Rhoda Roberts.

 

  1. From 8:40pm, the bridge will be turned into a canvas showing the Welcome to Country ceremony.

 

 

  1. Fireworks and special effects will also turn the bridge into a giant Aboriginal flag before the 9pm fireworks display.

 

72.

 

  1. In the early years of the twenty-first century the impact of immigrants on the welfare state and, specifically, the capacity of the welfare state to absorb large numbers of immigrants has become a staple of discussion among policy makers and politicians.

 

  1. It is also a recurrent theme in the press, from the highbrow pages of Prospect to the populism of the Daily Mail.

 

  1. Inevitably, these discussions focus on present-day dilemmas.

 

  1. But the issues themselves are not new and have historical roots that go much deeper than have been acknowledged.

 

73.

 

  1. Jet stream, narrow, swift currents or tubes of air found at heights ranging from 7 to 8 mi (11.3–12.9 km) above the surface of the earth.

 

  1. They are caused by great temperature differences between adjacent air masses.

 

  1. Instead of moving along a straight line, the jet stream flows in a wavelike fashion; the waves propagate eastward (in the Northern Hemisphere) at speeds considerably slower than the wind speed itself.

 

 

 

 

  1. Since the progress of an airplane is aided or impeded depending on whether tail winds or head winds are encountered, in the Northern Hemisphere the jet stream is sought by eastbound aircraft, in order to gain speed and save fuel, and avoided by westbound aircraft.

 

74.

 

  1. The Environmental Revolution has been almost three decades in the making, and it has changed forever how companies do business.

 

  1. In the 1960s and 1970, corporations were in a state of denial regarding their impact on the environment.

 

 

  1. Then a series of highly visible ecological problems created a groundswell of support for strict government regulation.

 

  1. In the United States, Lake Erie was dead. In Europe, the Rhine was on fire. In Japan, people were dying of mercury poisoning.

 

  1. Today many companies have accepted their responsibility to do no harm to the environment.

 

75.

 

  1. German invasion of Poland officially triggered the Second World War.

 

  1. In the beginning, Britain and France were hopeful that Poland should be able to defend her borders.

 

  1. But Polish forces could not defend long a border.

 

  1. They lacked compact defence lines and additionally their supply line were also poorly protected.

 

  1. Meanwhile, the world had woken up to the potential of atomic energy and countries were conducting tests to exploits the same.

 

 

 

 

READING BLANKS:

 

 

 

 

  1. Music

 

Music was as important to the ancient Egyptians as it is in our modern society. Although it is thought that music played a role throughout the history of Egypt, those that study the Egyptian writings have discovered that music seemed to become more important in what is called the ‘pharaonic’ period of their history. This was the time when the Egyptian dynasties of the pharaohs were established (around 3100 BCE) and music was found in many parts of every day Egyptian life.

 

 

  1. City attract investments

 

One city will start to attract the majority of public and/or private investment. This could be due to natural advantage or political decisions. This in turn will stimulate further investment due to the multiplier effect and significant rural to urban migration. The investment in this city will be at the expense of other cities.

 

  1. Shark

 

That’s not the original question: Shark bite numbers grew steadily over the past century as humans reproduced exponentially and spent more time at the seashore. But the numbers have remained unvaried over the past five years as overfishing thinned the shark population near shore and swimmers learned about the risks of wading into certain areas.

 

Version 2

 

Down the road, the study authors write, a better understanding of sharks personalities

 

may help scientists learn more about what drives their choice of things like prey and habitat. Some sharks are shy, and some are outgoing some are adventurous, and some

 

prefer to stick close to what they know, information that could prove useful in making

 

sense of larger species-wide behavior patterns.

 

Sharks killed four people and injured 58 others around the world in 2006, a comparatively dull year for dangerous encounters between the two species.

 

 

 

 

Shark bite numbers grew steadily over the last century as humans reproduced exponentially and spent more time at the seashore. But the numbers have been flat/stabilised over the past five years as overfishing thinned the shark population near shore and swimmers have learned about the risks of wading into certain areas, Burgess said.

 

  1. Walt Disney World

 

Walt Disney World has become a pilgrimage site partly because of the luminosity of its cross-cultural and marketing and partly because its utopian aspects appeal powerfully to real needs in the capitalist society. Disney’s marketing is unique because it captured the symbolic essence of childhood but the company has gained access to all public communication media. Movies, television shows, comic books,

 

 

dolls, apparels, and educational film strips all point to the parks and each other.

 

  1. Stress knows few borders

 

Stress that tense feeling often connected to having too much to do, too many bill to pay and not enough time or money is a common emotion that knows few borders. About three-fourths of people in the United States, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy South Korea and the United Kingdom say they experience stress on a daily basis, according to a polling . The anxious feelings are even more intense during the holidays. Germans feel stress more intensely than those in other countries polled. People in the US cite financial pressure as the top worry. About half the people in Britain said they frequently or sometimes felt life was beyond their control, the highest level in the 10 countries surveyed.

 

  1. Impressionist painters

 

Impressionist painters were considered radical in their time because they broke many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier generations. They found many of their subjects in life around them rather than in history, which was then the accepted source of subject matter.

 

  1. Alaska

 

Alaska’s Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to shipwrecks. They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran aground near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic archipelago in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship’s infestation scurried ashore and made itself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.

 

 

 

 

  1. Live away from home

 

For many first-year students, the University may be their first experience living away from home for an extended period of time. It is a definite break from home. In my point of view this is the best thing that you can do. I know you have to fend for yourself, cook and clean after yourself, basically look after yourself without your parents but the truth is — some time in your life you are going to have to part with lovely Mummy and Daddy. But they are only just a phone call away and it is really good to have some quality time without them. The first few weeks can be a lonely period. There may be concerns about forming friendship. When new students look around, it may seem that everyone else is self-confident and socially successful! The reality is that everyone is having the same concerns.

 

 

Increased personal freedom can feel both wonderful and frightening. Students can come and go as they choose with no one to “hassle” them. The strange environment with new kinds of procedures and new people can create the sense of being on an emotional roller coaster. This is normal and to be expected. You meet so many more people in the halls than if you stayed at home. The main points about living away 12 from home are: no parents! You don’t have to tell them where you’re going, who you’re going with, what time you’ll be coming, why you’re going etc. etc. You learn various social skills; you have to get along with your roommates Living with them can present special, sometimes intense, problems. Negotiating respect of personal property, personal space, sleep, and relaxation needs, can be a complex task. The complexity increases when roommates are of different backgrounds with very different values. It is unrealistic to expect that roommates will be best friends. Meaningful, new relationships should not be expected to develop overnight. It took a great deal of time to develop intimacy in high school friendships; the same will be true of intimacy in university friendships. You have a phone! So if you ever get homesick or miss you Mummy then she’s always at the end of a phone-line for you —and so are your friends.

 

  1. E-learning

 

Remember when universities were bursting at the seams with students sitting in the aisles, balancing books on their knees? No more, it seems. E-learning is as likely to stand for empty lecture theatres as for the internet revolution, which has greatly increased the volume and range of course materials available online in the past five years.” The temptation now is to simply think, ‘Everything will be online so I don’t need to go to class’,” said Dr Kerri-Lee Krause, of the Centre for the

 

 

 

 

Study of Higher Education at the University of Melbourne. The nation’s universities are in the process of opening the doors for the new academic year and, while classes are generally well attended for the early weeks, it often does not last.” There is concern at the university level about student attendance dropping and why students are not coming to lectures,” Dr Krause said. But lecturers’ pride – and fierce competition among universities for students – mean few are willing to acknowledge publicly how poorly attended many classes are.

 

  1. Wolves and woody plants

 

The two researchers showed that reintroducing the wolves was correlated with increased growth of willow and cottonwood in the park. Why? Because grazing animals such as elk were avoiding sites from which they couldn’t easily escape, the scientists claimed. And as the woody plants and trees grew taller and thicker, beaver colonies expanded.

 

 

  1. The snake’s auditory system

 

The horned desert viper’s ability to hunt at night has always puzzled biologists. Though it lies with its head buried in the sand, it can strike with great precision as soon as prey appears. “Sometimes you even see the snake fly up and whirl round in the air to strike a mouse passing behind it,” says Bruce Young, a biologist at Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas.

 

Now, Young and physicists Leo van Hemmen and Paul Friedel at the Technical University of Munich in Germany have developed a computer model of the snake’s auditory system to explain how the snake “hears” its prey without really having the ears for it.

 

Although the vipers have internal ears that can hear frequencies between 200 and 1000 hertz, it is not the sound of the mouse scurrying about that they are detecting.

 

“The snakes don’t have external eardrums,” says van Hemmen. “So unless the mouse wears boots and starts stamping, the snake won’t hear it.”

 

  1. Bird Melodies

 

And if the voice of an animal is not heard as message but as art, interesting things start to happen. Nature is no longer an alien enigma , but instead something immediately beautiful, an exuberant opus with

 

 

 

 

space for us to join in. Bird melodies have always been called songs for a reason. As long as we have been listening, people have presumed there is music coming out of those scissoring beaks.

 

  1. Nature

 

Nature is no longer an alien enigma, but instead something immediately beautiful, an exuberant opus with space for us to join in. Bird melodies have always been called songs for a reason. As long as we have been listening, people have presumed there is music coming out of those scissoring beaks.

 

 

  1. Jack Lewis

 

  1. S. Lewis, or Jack Lewis, as he preferred to be called, was born in Belfast, Ireland (now Northern Ireland) on November 29, 1898. He was the second son of Albert Lewis, a lawyer, and Flora Hamilton Lewis. His older brother, Warren Hamilton Lewis, who was known as Warnie, had been born three years earlier in 1895.

 

Lewis’s early childhood was relatively happy and carefree. In those days Northern Ireland was not yet plagued by bitter civil strife, and the Lewises were comfortably off. The family home, called Little Lea, was a large, gabled house with dark, narrow passages and an overgrown garden, which Warnie and Jack played in and explored together. There was also a library that was crammed with books—two of Jack’s favorites were Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson and The Secret Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett.

 

This somewhat idyllic boyhood came to an end for Lewis when his mother became ill and died of cancer in 1908. Barely a month after her death the two boys were sent away from home to go to boarding school in England. Lewis hated the school, with its

 

strict rules and hard, unsympathetic headmaster, and he missed Belfast terribly. Fortunately for him, the school closed in 1910, and he was able to return to Ireland. After a year, however, he was sent back to England to study. This time, the experience proved to be mostly positive. As a teenager, Lewis learned to love poetry, especially the works of Virgil and Homer. He also developed an interest in modern languages, mastering French, German, and Italian.

 

  1. Skyscrapers facts

 

The Eiffel Tower was the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1889. It was built for the World’s Fair to demonstrate that

 

 

 

 

iron could be as strong as stone while being infinitely lighter. And in fact the wrought-iron tower is twice as tall as the masonry Washington Monument and yet it weighs 70,000 tons less! It is repainted every seven years with 50 tons of dark brown paint.

 

Called “the father of the skyscraper,” the Home Insurance Building, constructed in Chicago in1885 (and demolished in 1931), was 138 feet tall and 10 stories. It was the first building to effectively employ a supporting skeleton of steel beams and columns, 15 allowing it to have many more windows than traditional masonry structures. But this new construction method made people worry that the building would fall down, leading the city to halt construction until they could investigate the structure’s safety.

 

 

In 1929, auto tycoon Walter Chrysler took part in an intense race with the Bank of Manhattan Trust Company to build the world’s tallest skyscraper. Just when it looked like the bank had captured the coveted title, workers at the Chrysler Building jacked a thin spire hidden inside the building through the top of the roof to win the contest.

 

  1. Effects of space travel on human body How does outer space affect the human body?

Researchers already know that spending long periods of time in a zero-gravity environment — such as that inside the International Space Station (ISS) — results in

 

loss of bone density and damage to the body’s muscles. That’s partly why stays aboard

 

the ISS are capped at six months. And now, a number of NASA astronauts are

 

reporting that their 20/20 vision faded after spending time in space, with many

 

needing glasses once they returned to Earth.

 

  1. Weightless environment

 

Living in a weightless environment for long periods of time can also result in bone mineral loss and muscle atrophy as well as dangerous exposure to the sun’s radiation, and it is because of these health hazards that stays on the International Space Station are restricted to six months.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. My father’s old books

 

 

None of the books in my father’s dusty old bookcase were forbidden. Yet while I was growing up, I never saw anyone take one down. Most were massive tomes-a comprehensive history of civilization, matching volumes of the great works of western literature, numerous others I can no longer recall -that seemed almost fused to shelves that bowed slightly from decades of steadfast support.

 

  1. High-protein diet 16

 

 

In our studies, those people on a higher-protein diet lost the same amount of weight as those on a higher -carbohydrate diet. This is because the two diets offered an equal amount of fat. However, body composition (that is, the ratio of fat to muscle) showed/observed greater improvement among those people on the higher-protein diet. When the participants in other studies were allowed to eat until they were no longer hungry, those on the higher-protein diet lost more weight than those on the higher carbohydrate diet, even after more than a year. The reduction in hunger and the beneficial effect on muscle provided by the higher-protein diet 1s mostly related to its protein content, while the enhanced fat-loss seems to be related to its lower amounts of carbohydrate. The diet is healthy because its protein comes from lean red meat fish, chicken and low-fat dairy products, all of which provide good nutrition. A high- protein diet in which the protein comes from protein powders and supplements is unlikely to be healthy, unless the supplements are fortified with vitamins and minerals.

 

In our studies, those people on a high-protein diet lost the same amount of weight…

 

[source of, offer, contain, observed, Participants, provide, supplied]

 

  1. Funerary Violin-Mock test

 

In the 250 years of its active evolution Funerary Violin moved from the formal to the personal. It is clear from the earliest accounts of the form that its role during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was largely heraldic: to exemplify the continuity of the social structure. The few works that have survived from this period are often surprisingly unemotional and at times overtly grandiose.

 

 

 

 

  1. Arrogance on a Grand Scale—Mock test

 

In the last years of the wheat boom, Bennett had become increasingly frustrated at how the government seemed to be encouraging an exploitive farming binge. He went directly after his old employer, the Department of Agriculture, for misleading people. Farmers on the Great Plains were working against nature, he thundered in speeches across the country; they were asking for trouble. Even in the late 1920s, before anyone else sounded an alarm, Bennett said people had sown the seeds of an epic disaster. The government continued to insist, through official bulletins, that soil was 7 the one “resource that cannot be exhausted.” To Bennett, it was arrogance on a grand scale.

 

 

  1. The United Nations

 

Founded after World War II by 51 “peace-loving states” combined to oppose future aggression, the UN now counts 193 member nations, including its newest members, Nauru, Kiribati, and Tonga in 1999, Tuvalu and Yugoslavia in 2000, Switzerland and East Timor in 2002, Montenegro in 2006, and South Sudan in 2011.

 

United Nations Day has been observed on October 24 since 1948 and celebrates the objectives and accomplishments of the organization, which was established on October 24, 1945.

 

The UN engages in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions across the globe. Though some say its influence has declined in recent decades, the United Nations still plays a tremendous role in world politics. In 2001 the United Nations and Kofi Annan, then secretary-general of the UN, won the Nobel Peace Prize “for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world.”

 

Since 1948 there have been 63 UN peacekeeping operations; 16 are currently under way. Thus far, close to 130 nations have contributed personnel at various times; 119 are currently providing peacekeepers. As of 31 August 2008, there were 16 peacekeeping operations underway with a total of 88,230 personnel. The small island nation of Fiji has taken part in virtually every UN peacekeeping operation, as has Canada.

 

  1. Advertisements

 

Almost all public spaces nowadays have advertisements in sight, and all forms of media, from newspapers to the cinema to the Internet, are filled with adverts. This all- pervasive presence reflects the value of advertising to us. Without it, businesses of all types and sizes would struggle to inform potential customers about the products or services they provide,

 

 

 

 

and consumers would be unable to make informed assessments when looking for products to buy and services to use. Without advertising, the promotion of products and practices that contribute to our physical and psychological 18 well- being — medicines to treat minor ailments, insurance schemes to protect us, clothes and cosmetics to make us look and feel better — would be infinitely more problematic than it is. And without advertisements and the aspirations represented in them, the world would be a far duller place.

 

  1. Banking

 

The first banks were probably the religious temples of the ancient world, and were probably established sometime during the third fill millennium B.C. Banks probably predated the invention of money. Deposits initially consisted of grain and later other goods including cattle, agricultural implements, and eventually precious metals such as gold, in the form of easy-to-carry compressed plates. Temples and palaces were the safest places to store gold as they were constantly attended and well built. As sacred places, temples presented an extra deterrent to would-be thieves.

 

 

  1. Classical music in China

 

Away from the rumble of Shanghai’s highways and the cacophony of the shopping districts, stroll down side streets filled with rows of tall brick houses. In the early evening or on a weekend morning, you’ll hear the sound of classical music drifting from a piano, played by a 10-year old or a grandmother in her seventies. Wander down another alley toward drab skyscrapers and you’ll hear Beethoven or Mozart flowing from a violin, or perhaps a cello, accordion or flute.

 

In China, classical music is booming as mightily as the 1812 Overture. It’s fortissimo in Shanghai, home to China’s oldest orchestra, forte in Beijing and other lively cities, and on a crescendo in farther-flung areas. Commanding Y100-200 ($12.50 -$25) per hour, private music teachers in Shanghai can readily earn more than five times the average per capita monthly income.

 

  1. America’s skies

 

By 2025, government experts say, America’s skies will swarm with three times as many planes, and not just the kind of traffic flying today. There will be thousands of tiny jets, seating six or fewer, at airliner altitudes, competing for space with remotely operated drones that need help

 

 

 

 

avoiding midair collisions and with commercially operated rockets carrying satellites and tourists into space.

 

  1. Hip and Back Pain

 

Icing and anti-inflammatories will help with the pain and swelling. Vigorous massage of the knot in the muscle will help it to relax and ease the pain. Meanwhile, work on strengthening and stretching your hip, hamstring and lower-back muscles. For stretching, focus on the hamstring stretch, the hip & lower-back stretch, and the hamstring & back stretch. For strengthening, try side leg lifts.

 

 

  1. Edible insects

 

Fancy a locust for lunch? Probably not, if you live in the west, but elsewhere it’s a different story. Edible insects — termites, stick insects, dragonflies, grasshoppers and giant water bugs — are on the menu for an estimated 80 per cent of the world’s population. More than 1000 species of insects are served up around the world. For example, “kungu cakes” — made from midges — are a delicacy in parts of Africa. Mexico is an insect-eating — or entomophagous — hotspot, where more than 200 insect species are consumed. Demand is so high that 40 species are now under threat, including white agave worms. These caterpillars of the tequila giant-skipper butterfly fetch around $250 a kilogram. Eating insects makes nutritional sense. Some contain more Proteil than meat or fish. The female gypsy moth, for instance, is about 80 per cent protein. Insects can be a good source of vitamins and minerals too: a type of caterpillar (Usta terpsichore) eaten in Angola is rich in iron, zinc and thiamine. What do they taste like? Ants have a lemon tang, apparently, whereas giant water bugs taste of mint and fire ant pupae of watermelon. You have probably, inadvertently, already tasted some of these things, as insects are often accidental tourists in other types of food. The US Food and Drug Administration even issues guidelines for the number of insect parts allowed in certain foods. For example, it is acceptable for 225 grams of macaroni to contain up to 225 insect fragments.

 

  1. Kashmir Houseboat

 

Two decades ago, Kashmiri houseboat-owners rubbed their hands every spring at the prospect of the annual influx of tourists. From May to October, the hyacinth-choked waters of Dal Lake saw flotillas of vividly painted shikaras carrying Indian families. Carpet-sellers honed their skills, as did purveyors of anything remotely embroidered while the houseboats initiated by the British Raj provided unusual accommodation. The economy boomed. Then, in 1989, separatist and Islamist militancy

 

 

 

 

struck and everything changed. Hindus and countless Kashmiri business people bolted, at least 35,000 people were killed in a decade, the lake stagnated and the houseboats rotted. Any foreigners venturing there risked their lives – proved in 1995 when five young Europeans were kidnapped and murdered.

 

 

  1. Chinese Development

 

The inevitable consequences include rampant corruption, an absence of globally competitive Chinese companies, chronic waste of resources, rampant environmental degradation and soaring inequality. Above all, the monopoly over power of an ideologically bankrupt communist party is inconsistent with the pluralism of opinion, security of property and vibrant competition on which a dynamic economy depends. As a result, Chinese development remains parasitic on know-how and institutions developed elsewhere.

 

 

  1. The Genetic Test for PD

 

While Florey researchers have also created a genetic test for PD (10% of PD cases are caused by genetic factors), this new test has a broader application by screening for many different types of PD and monitoring treatment, as well as measuring the effectiveness of drugs being developed to treat the disease.

 

Dr. Qiao-Xin Li and colleagues from The University of Melbourne and The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, along with Professor Malcolm Home from the Howard Florey Institute, found people with PD had low levels of the brain-secreted protein “alpha-synuclein” in their blood, while people without PD had high levels of the protein.

 

Professor Home said the test they developed measured alpha-synuclein levels in blood. “Currently there is no specific PD diagnostic test so doctors rely on their observations to make a diagnosis, which means some patients may not be prescribed the most suitable medication and around 15% of those diagnosed may actually be suffering from something else,” Professor Home said.

 

“Further studies are required to establish whether this test can distinguish between people who are responsive to treatment and those who are not,” he said. The researchers are now conducting a large- scale study to determine the effectiveness of the test, to discover whether it is applicable for all types of PD, and to find out if it can measure the rate of progression and severity of the disease.

 

 

 

 

  1. A good doctor

 

In the fast-changing world of modern healthcare, the job of a doctor is more and more like the job of chief executive. The people who run hospitals and physicians’ practices don’t just need to know medicine. They must also be able to balance budgets, motivate a large and diverse staff and make difficult marketing and legal decisions.

 

  1. Stress

 

Stress is what you feel when you have to handle more than you are used to. When you are stressed, your body responds as though you are in danger. It makes hormones that speed up your heart, make you breathe faster, and give you a burst of energy. This is called the fight-or-flight stress response.

 

 

Some stress is normal and even useful. Stress can help if you need to work hard or react quickly. For example, it can help you win a race or finish an important job on time.

 

But if stress happens too often or lasts too long, it can have bad effects. It can be linked to headaches, an upset stomach, back pain, and trouble sleeping. It can weaken your immune system, making it harder to fight off disease.

 

  1. ‘Mud Volcano” in Indonesia

 

Gas drilling on the Indonesian island of Java has triggered a “mud volcano” that has killed 13 people and may render four square miles (ten square kilometres) of countryside uninhabitable for years. In a report released on January 23, a team of British researchers says the deadly upwelling began when an exploratory gas well punched through a layer of rock 9,300 feet (2,800 meters) below the surface, allowing hot, high-pressure water to escape. The water carried mud to the surface, where it has spread across a region 2.5 miles (4 kilometres) in diameter in the eight months since the eruption began. The mud volcano is similar to a gusher or blowout, which occur in oil drilling when oil or gas squirt to the surface, the team says. This upwelling, however, spews out a volume of mud equivalent to a dozen Olympic swimming pools each day. Although the eruption isn’t as violent as a conventional volcano, more than a dozen people died when a natural gas pipeline ruptured.

 

  1. University to offer Arabic MBA course

 

Arab students will be able to sign up to study at a distance for the business courses in their own language. The Edinburgh Business School

 

 

 

 

announced the project at a reception in Cairo on Saturday. It is hoped the course will improve links between the university and the Arab business world. A university spokeswoman said: “The Arabic MBA will raise the profile of Heriot-Watt University and the Edinburgh Business School among businesses in the Arabic-speaking world and will create a strong network of graduates in the region. “The first intake of students is expected later this year. Professor Keith Lumsden, director of Edinburgh Business School, said: “Arabic is a major global language and the Arab world is a centre for business and industrial development. We are proud to work with Arab International Education to meet the demands of the region.”

 

 

  1. DNA barcoding

 

DNA barcoding was invented by Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph, in Ontario, Canada, in 2003. His idea was to generate a unique identification tag for each species based on a short stretch of DNA. Separating species would then be a simple task of sequencing this tiny bit of DNA. Dr Hebert proposed part of a gene called cytochrome c oxidase I (COD) as suitable to the task. All animals have it. It seems to vary enough, but not too much, to act as a reliable marker. And it is easily extracted, because it is one of a handful of genes found outside the cell nucleus, in structures called mitochondria.

 

Barcoding has taken off rapidly since Dr Hebert invented it. When the idea was proposed, it was expected to be a boon to taxonomists trying to name the world’s millions of species. It has, however, proved to have a far wider range of uses than the merely academic—most promisingly in the realm of public health.

 

One health-related project is the Mosquito Barcoding Initiative being run by Yvonne- Marie Linton of the Natural History Museum in London. This aims to barcode 80% of the world’s mosquitoes within the next two years, to help control mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are responsible for half a billion malarial infections and 1m deaths every year. They also transmit devastating diseases such as yellow fever, West Nile fever and dengue. However, efforts to control them are consistently undermined by the difficulty and expense of identifying mosquitoes—of which there are at least 3,500 species, many of them hard to tell apart.

 

  1. The Estée Lauder story

 

Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she “was growing a nice little business.” And that it is. A little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S.

 

 

 

 

department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family’s shares are worth more than $6 billion.

 

But early on, there wasn’t a burgeoning business, there weren’t houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed. You more or less know the Estée Lauder story because it’s a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father’s hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City. She started her enterprise by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts. 24

 

 

No doubt the potions were good — Estée Lauder was a quality fanatic — but the saleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.

 

  1. Onion Price and Indian’s politics

 

With its capacity for bringing down governments and scarring political careers, the onion plays an explosive role in Indian politics. This week, reports of rising onion prices have made front-page news and absorbed the attention of the governing elite.

 

The most vital ingredient in Indian cooking, the basic element with which all dishes begin and, normally, the cheapest vegetable available, the pink onion is an essential item in the shopping basket of families of all classes.

 

But in recent weeks, the onion has started to seem an unaffordable luxury for India’s poor. Over the past few days, another sharp surge in prices has begun to unsettle the influential urban middle classes.

 

The sudden spike in prices has been caused by large exports to neighboring countries and a shortage of supply.

 

  1. Australian Overseas Departure-Mock test

 

Over the past ten years Australian overseas departures have grown from 1.7 million to 3.2 million. This represents strong average, annual growth

 

 

 

 

of 6.5 per cent. This paper analyses outbound travel demand to each destination country using the travel demand models of short-term resident departures. The models are specified in terms of a double logarithmic linear functional form, with overseas departures as the dependent variable and real household disposable income, prices of travel and accommodation in Australia, and overseas and the exchange rate as independent variables. The models were estimated using historical times series data from 1974 to 1998. The data were obtained from several sources such as the World Tourism Organization, Australian Bureau of Statistics, World Bank and International Monetary Fund. The results * suggest that the estimated elasticity parameters are consistent with standard economic theory. The number of short-term resident departures is positively influenced by per capita real household disposable income; and the price of domestic travel and accommodation, are negatively influenced by the price of travel and accommodation overseas.

 

 

The estimated demand models were used to develop the Tourism Forecasting Council’s long run forecasts. The forecasts suggest the number of short-term resident

 

departures will increase strongly over the next ten years, largely due to the strength of the Australian economy, competitive travel prices, and Australians’ interest in

 

experiencing different cultures and lifestyles.

 

  1. Reality

 

Surely, reality is what we think it is; reality is revealed to us by our experiences. To one extent or another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only implicitly. I certainly find myself thinking this way in day-to-day life; it’s easy to be seduced by

 

the face nature reveals directly to our senses. Yet, in the decades since first encountering Camus’ test, I’ve learned that modern science tells a very different story. The overarching lesson that has emerged from scientific inquiry over the last century

 

is that human experience is often a misleading guide to the true nature of reality.

 

  1. Teenage daughter

 

Your teenage daughter gets top marks in school, captains the debate team, and volunteers at a shelter for homeless people. But while driving the family car, her

 

 

 

 

text-messages her best friend and rear-ends another vehicle.

 

How can teens be so clever, accomplished, and responsible—and reckless at the same time? Easily, according to two physicians at Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School (HMS) who have been exploring the unique structure and chemistry of the adolescent brain. “The teenage brain is not just an adult brain with fewer miles on it, “says Frances E. Jensen, a professor of neurology. “It’s a paradoxical time of development. These are people with very sharp brains, but they’re not quite sure what

 

to do with them.”

 

 

  1. Plainness

 

Learning to write well in college means learning (or re-learning ) how to write plainly and clearly. Now that doesn’t mean that plainness is the only good style, or that you should be a slave to spare, unadorned writing. Formality and ornateness

 

have their place, and in competent hands complexity can carry us on a dizzying, breathtaking journey. But most students, most of the time, should strive to be sensibly

 

simple, to develop a baseline style of short words, active verbs, and relatively simple sentences conveying clear actions or identities. It’s faster, it makes arguments easier to follow, it increases the SHAMEES a busy reader will bother to pay attention, and it lets you focus more attention on your moments of fifetoneal flourish, which I do not advise abandoning altogether (see the upcoming section on rhetoric).

 

  1. Leaves drop off

 

The increasing darkness in the Northern Hemisphere this time of year “indicates to the

 

plant that fall is coming on. So it starts recouping materials from the leaves before

 

they drop off. Evergreens protect their needle -like foliage from freezing with waxy coatings and natural “antifreezes.” But broadleaf plants, like sugar maples, birches, and sumacs, have no such protections. As a result, they shed their leaves. But before they do, the plants first try to salvage important nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

 

  1. Questions

 

 

 

 

You have about 30 minutes to answer each question. You must take account of how many marks are available for each part when you answer it. Even if you think you can write more, don’t spend 15 minutes answering a part worth only 5 marks. Leave space at the end of your answer and come back to it if you have time to spare later. And if you can’t think of an answer to some part, leave a space and move on to the next part. Don’t write about something else if you don’t know the correct answer — this is just a waste of your valuable time (and the examiner’s).

 

  1. Joy through Pain

 

All approaches aim to increase blood flow to areas of tension and to release painful knots of muscle known as “trigger points”. “Trigger points are tense areas of muscle that are almost constantly contracting,” says Kippen. “The contraction causes pain, which in turn causes contraction, so you have a vicious circle. This is what GBEp tissue massage aims to break.” The way to do this, as I found out under Ogedengbe’s elbow, is to apply pressure to the point, stopping the blood flow, and then to release, which causes the brain to flood the affected area with blood, encouraging the muscle to relax. At the same time, says Kippen, you can fool the tensed muscle into relaxing by applying pressure to a complementary one nearby. “If you cause any muscle to contract, its opposite will expand. So you try to trick the body into relaxing the

 

 

muscle that is in spasm.”

 

  1. University science in crisis

 

University science is now in real crisis – particularly the non-telegenic, non-ology bits

 

of it such as chemistry. Since 1996, 28 universities have stopped offering chemistry

 

degrees, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry.

 

The society predicts that as few as six departments (those at Durham, Cambridge, Imperial, UCL, Bristol and Oxford) could remain open by 2014. Most recently, Exeter University closed down its chemistry department, blaming it on “market forces”, and

 

Bristol took in some of the refugees.

 

The closures have been blamed on a fall in student applications, but money is a factor: chemistry degrees are expensive to provide

 

 

 

 

compared with English, for example – and some scientists say that the way the government concentrates research funding on

 

a small number of top departments, such as Bristol, exacerbates the problem.

 

  1. Assessment in Design and Technology

 

Professor Richard Kimbell directed the DES funded Assessment of Performance Unit research project in Design and Technology. In 1990 he founded the Technology Education Research Unit (TERU) at Goldsmiths College, University of London, which is now running a wide range of funded research projects in design and technology and IT. He has published widely in the field, including reports commissioned by the Congress of the United States, UNESCO and NATO; he has

 

 

written and presented television programs and regularly lectures internationally. His

 

 

latest book Assessing Technology: International Trends in Curriculum and Assessment won the international technology education book of the year award from

 

the Council for Technology Teacher Education at ITEA in 1999 in Minneapolis, USA.

 

Kay Stables is Reader in Design and Technology Education and former Head of the Design Department at Goldsmiths College, University of London. She started her career as a textiles teacher, moving to Goldsmiths as a part of the APU D&T research team. From 1990-1992 she was Project Director for the Key Stage 1 Technology SAT developments and followed this as Research Associate on the Understanding Technological Approaches project which built case studies of D&T work from children aged 5-16. Most recently she has conducted, with Richard Kimbell, an

 

evaluation of the impact of a technology education initiative in South Africa and is

 

currently researching into the use of handling collections in developing D&T

 

capability and literacy.

 

  1. Essays

 

 

 

 

Essays are used as an assessment tool to evaluate your ability to research a topic and construct an argument, as well as your understanding of subject content. This does not mean that essays are a ‘regurgitation’ of everything your lecturer has said throughout the course. Essays are your opportunity to explore in greater depth aspects of the course theories, issues, texts, etc. and in some cases relate these aspects to a particular context. It is your opportunity to articulate your ideas, but in a certain way: using

 

formal academic style.

 

49.Pupils skip school for holidays

 

 

Children who skip school are increasingly on family holidays, government figures revealed today. Fewer children played truant this spring term compared with the spring term last year. Children missed 3m unauthorised days of school last term, compared with 3.7m days of school in the same period last year. But a hardcore group of truants – 6% of the school population – who account for more than three-quarters of all those on unauthorised absence, are more likely to be on a family holiday than they – were in the same period last year. Some 1.2% of all absence was for family holidays

 

not agreed by their school last term, compared with 0.9% for the same term last year.

 

More than 60% of all absences were for illness, the same figure as last year.

 

  1. Fiber segments

 

The trigger point causes the rest of the fiber segments to be stretched to capacity. It becomes a tight band. Normally the regular contracting and releasing of these little segments circulates blood in the capillaries that supply them (the segments) with their nutrients. When they hold this contraction, blood flow is stopped to that area, there is not an oxygen supply, and waste products are not pushed out. The trigger point then

 

sends out pain signals until the trigger point is put in a position of rest again.

 

51.

 

Never has the carbon footprint of multi-national corporations been under such intense scrutiny. Inter-city train journeys and long-haul flights to conduct face-to-face business meetings contribute significantly to

 

 

 

 

greenhouse gases and the resulting strain on the environment. The Anglo-US company Teliris has introduced a new videoconferencing technology and partnered with the Carbon Neutral Company, enabling corporate outfits to become more environmentally responsible. The innovation allows simulated face-to-face meetings to be held across continents without the time pressure or environmental burden of international travel. Previous designs have enabled video-conferencing on

 

  • point-to-point, dual-location basis. The firm’s Virtu alive technology, however, can bring people together from up to five separate locations anywhere in the world – with unrivalled transmission quality.

 

 

52.

 

Sound depressing, even apocalyptic? Well, it could be the future. If government forecasts are right, about 20 years from now, two out of five households will be single occupancy. And there is evidence the situation is already deteriorating. According to a report, Social Isolation in America, published in the American Sociological Review in 2006, the average American today has only two close friends. Twenty-five per cent of those surveyed said they do not have anyone to talk with about important things—And yet, while some are declaring a crisis in our ability to make friends, others are saying exactly the opposite. For example, MSN’s Anatomy of Friendship Report, published last November, suggests that the average Briton has 54 friends -a spectacular rise of 64 per cent since 2003.

 

53.

 

University science is now in real crisis – particularly the non-telegenic, non-ology bits of it such as chemistry. Since 1996, 28 universities have stopped offering chemistry degrees, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry. The society predicts that as few as six departments (those at Durham, Cambridge, Imperial, UCL, Bristol and Oxford) could remain open by 2014. Most recently,Exeter University closed down its chemistry department, blaming it on “market forces”, and Bristol took in some of the refugees The closures have been blamed on a fall in student applications, but money is a factor in chemistry degrees are expensive to provide – compared with English, for example – and some scientists say

 

 

 

 

that the way the government concentrates research funding on a small number of top departments, such as Bristol, exacerbates the problem.

 

54.

 

A Dog may be man’s best friend. But man is not always a dog’s. Over the centuries selective breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as pathologies. Dog breeding does, though, offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The ancestry of pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their litter size reasonably large, so there is plenty of material to work with. Moreover, breeds are, by definition, inbred, and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, of America’s National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify the genetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal experimental animal.

 

 

55.

 

The contemporary ministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan far larger and further evolved than any Westminster equivalent. Ministers’ demands for help to cope with the pressures of an increasingly competitive and professionalized political environment have been key drivers of the staffing system’s development. But there has not been commensurate growth in arrangements to support and control it. The operating framework for ministerial staff is fragmented and ad hoc.

 

56.

 

Alaska’s Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to shipwrecks. They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran aground near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic archipelago in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship’s infestation scurried ashore and made itself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.

 

 

 

 

57.

 

In 2001 he received the SIUC Outstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he received the Carski Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching from the American Society for Microbiology. Mike’s research is focused on bacteria that inhabit extreme environments, and for the past 12 years he has studied the microbiology of permanently ice covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to his research papers, he has edited a major treatise on phototrophic bacteria and served for over a decade as chief editor of the journal Archives of Microbiology. He currently serves on the editorial board of Environmental Microbiology. Mike’s non-scientific interests include forestry, reading, and caring for his dogs and horses. He lives beside a peaceful and quiet lake with his wife, Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino, Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), and four horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, and Festus).

 

 

58.

 

In an often-cited study about counterfactuals, Medvec, Madey, and Gilovich (1995) found that bronze medalists appeared happier than silver medalists in television coverage of the 1992 Summer Olympics. Medvec et al. argued that bronze medalists compared themselves to 4th place finishers, whereas silver medalists compared themselves to gold medalists. These counterfactuals were the most salient because they were either qualitatively different (gold vs. silver) or categorically different (medal vs. no medal) from what actually occurred. Drawing on archival data and experimental studies, we show that Olympic athletes (among others) are more likely to make counterfactual comparisons based on their prior expectations, consistent with decision affect theory. Silver medalists are more likely to be disappointed because their personal expectations are higher than those of bronze medalists.

 

59.

 

David Lynch is professor and head of education at Charles Darwin University. Prior to this he was sub dean in the Faculty of Education and Creative Arts at Central Queensland University and foundation head of the University’s Noosa campus. David’s career in education began as a primary school teacher in Queensland in the early 1980’s and

 

 

 

 

progressed to four principal positions before entering higher education. David’s research interests predominate in teacher education with particular interest in building teacher capability to meet a changed world.

 

60.

 

Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she “was growing a nice little business.” And that it is. A little business that controls 45% of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family’s shares are worth more than $6 billion. But early on, there wasn’t a burgeoning business, there weren’t houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who changed her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed. You more or less know the Estée Lauder story because it’s a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father’s hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City.

 

 

She started her enterprise by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts. No doubt the potions were good — Estée Lauder was a quality fanatic — but the saleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She stalked the bosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.

 

61.

 

According to the literature, the history of vaccination can be traced back to as early as the 7th century when the monks in India tried to immunize themselves by drinking snake venom. The first vaccination was inoculation with human smallpox, a practice widely carried out in ancient India, Arabia, and China. This method of vaccination consisted of collecting pus from a patient suffering from mild form of smallpox virus infection and inoculating the sample to a healthy human, which later led

 

 

 

 

to a minor infection. This method was first introduced in England by a Greek Named E. Timoni. However, this method had a risk of spreading smallpox in the community and even worsening the health condition of the person who received the inoculation. While the use of human smallpox vaccine was controversial, E. Jenner came up with bovine smallpox vaccine in 1796; this new method also faced controversy, but continued to be universalized. Smallpox became a preventable disease by injecting pus extracted from a human infected with cowpox virus. Jenner named the substance “vaccine” after the Latin word “vacca” which means “cow,” and thus the process of giving vaccine became “vaccination”.

 

 

62.

 

A herbal is a book of plants, describing their appearance, their properties and how they may be used for preparing ointments and medicines. The medical use of plants is recorded on fragments of papyrus and clay tablets from ancient Egypt, Samaria and China that date back 5,000 years but document traditions far older still. Over 700 herbal remedies were detailed in the Papyrus Ebers, an Egyptian text written in 1500 BC. Around 65 BC, a Greek physician called Dioscorides wrote a herbal that was translated into Latin and Arabic. Known as ‘De materia medica’, it became the most influential work on medicinal plants in both Christian and Islamic worlds until the late 17th century. An illustrated manuscript copy of the text made in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) survives from the sixth century. The first printed herbals date from the dawn of European printing in the 1480s. They provided valuable information for apothecaries, whose job it was to make the pills and potions prescribed by physicians. In the next century, landmark herbals were produced in England by William Turner, considered to be the father of British botany, and John Gerard, whose illustrations would inspire the floral fabric, wallpaper and tile designs of William Morris four centuries later.

 

63.

 

The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remained far from deserted. Instead of the tranquillity that usually descends on the area in the evening it was a hive of activity. TV crew’s

 

 

 

 

trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard Carter discovered the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for public display. Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt’s archaeology supremo Zahi Hawass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested — mostly undisturbed – for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a wooden stretcher and `transported to its new home, a high- tech, climate-controlled plexi-glass showcase located in the outer chamber of the tomb where, covered in linen, with only the face and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.

 

 

64.

 

Omniscience may be a foible of men, but it is not so of books. Knowledge, as Johnson said, is of two kinds, you may know a thing yourself, and you may know where to find it. Now the amount which you may actually know yourself must, at its best, be limited, but what you may know of the sources of information may, with proper training, become almost boundless. And here come the value and use of reference books—the working of one book in connexion with another—and applying your own intelligence to both. By this means we get as near to that omniscient volume which tells everything as ever we shall get, and although the single volume or work which tells everything does not exist, there is a vast number of reference books in existence, a knowledge and proper use of which is essential to every intelligent person. Necessary as I believe reference books to be, they can easily be made to be contributory to idleness, and too mechanical a use should not be made of them.

 

65.

 

Legal deposit has existed in English law since 1662. It helps to ensure that the nation’s published output (and thereby its intellectual record and future published heritage) is collected systematically, to preserve the material for the use of future generations and to make it available for readers within the designated legal deposit libraries. The legal deposit system also has benefits for authors and publishers: • Deposited publications are made available to users of the deposit libraries on their

 

 

 

 

premises, are preserved for the benefit of future generations, and become part of the nation’s heritage. • Publications are recorded in the online catalogues, and become an essential research resource for generations to come.

 

66.

 

In these distant times the sun was seen to make its daily journey across the sky. At night the moon appeared. Every new night the moon waxed or waned a little and on a few nights it did not appear at all. At night the great dome of the heavens was dotted with tiny specks of light. They became known as the stars. It was thought that every star in the heavens had its own purpose and that the secrets of the universe could be discovered by making a study of them. It was well known that there were wandering stars, they appeared in different nightly positions against their neighbors and they became known as planets. It took centuries, in fact it took millennia, for man to determine the true nature of these wandering stars and to evolve a model of the world to accommodate them and to predict their positions in the sky.

 

 

67.

 

Opportunity cost incorporates the notion of scarcity: No matter what we do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade off one thing for another because resources are limited and can be used in different ways. By acquiring something (Without acquiring something / having acquired something / Contrary with acquiring something), we use up resources that could have been used to acquire something else. The notion of opportunity cost allows us to measure this trade-off. In most decisions we choose from several alternatives. For example, if you spend an hour studying for an economics exam, you have one fewer hour to pursue other activities. To determine the opportunity cost of an activity, we look at what you consider the best of these “other” activities. For example, suppose the alternatives to studying economics are studying for a history exam or working in a job that pays $10 per hour. If you consider studying for history a better use of your time than working, then the opportunity cost of studying economics is the four extra points you could have received on a history exam if you studied history instead of economics. Alternatively, if working is the best alternative, the

 

 

 

 

opportunity cost of studying economics is the $10 you could have earned instead.

 

68.

 

Stars and the material between them are almost always found in gigantic stellar systems called galaxies. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way System, happens to be one of the two largest systems in the Local Group of two dozen or so galaxies. The other is the Andromeda galaxy; it stretches more than one hundred thousand light-years from one end to the other, and it is located about two million light-years distant from us.

 

 

69.

 

To learn the speech of alchemy, an early form of chemistry in which people attempted to turn metals into gold, it helps to think back to a time when there was no science: no atomic number or weight, no periodic chart no list of elements. to the alchemists the universe was not made of leptons, bosons, gluons, and quarks. Instead it was made of substances, and one substance-say, walnut oil-could be just as pure as another-say, silver-even though modern chemistry would say one is heterogeneous and the other homogeneous. Without knowledge of atomic structure show would it be possible to tell elements from compounds?

 

70.

 

Team Lab’s digital mural at the entrance to Tokyo’s Skytree, one of the world’s monster skyscrapers, is 40 metres long and immensely detailed but however massive this form of digital art becomes -and it’s a form subject to rampant inflation–Inoko’s theories about seeing are based on more modest and often pre-digital sources. An early devotee of comic books and cartoons (no surprises there), then computer games, he recognized when he started to look at traditional Japanese art that all those forms had something in common: something about the way they captured space. In his discipline of physics, Inoko had been taught that photographic lenses, along with the conventions of western art were the logical way of transforming three dimensions into two, conveying the real world on to a flat surface. But Japanese traditions employed “a different spatial logic”, as he said in an interview last year with j-collabo.org that is “uniquely Japanese”.

 

 

 

 

  1. Gallery of Canada

 

An exhibit that brings together for the first time landscapes painted by French impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir comes to the National Gallery of Canada this June. The gallery in Ottawa worked with the National Gallery of London and the Philadelphia Museum of Art to pull together the collection of 60 Renoir paintings from 45 public and private collections.

 

  1. Seminars

 

Seminars are not designed to be mini-lectures. Their educational role is to provide an opportunity for you to discuss interesting and difficult aspects of the course. This is founded on the assumption that it is only by actively trying to use the knowledge that you have acquired from lectures and texts that you can achieve an adequate understanding of the subject. If you do not understand a point it is highly unlikely that you will be the only person in the group in that position, you will invariably be undertaking a service for the entire group if you come to the seminar equipped with

 

 

  1. Walt Disney world

 

Walt Disney World has become a pilgrimage site partly because of the luminosity of its cross—cultural and marketing and partly because its utopian aspects appeal powerfully to real needs in the capitalist society. Disney’s marketing is unique because it captured the symbolic essence of childhood but the company has gained access to all public communication media. Movies, television shows, comic books, dolls, apparels, and educational film strips all point to the parks and each other.

 

 

 

 

Reading MCQS (BOTH SINGLE AND MULTIPLE ANSWERS)

 

  1. Spain Terrain

 

Here is a part of Spain’s sun-baked Andalucia that is extraordinary not only because of its unspoiled terrain and authentic Spanish traditions but also because of its caves. These are not dark, damp holes, with dripping water and evil smells. They are residences, ancient Bronze Age dwellings now being refurbished for hundreds of 21st century Spaniards. In Galera, the region’s most important village, it’s estimated that there are at least 1,000 such habitations carved into its hillsides. “We take old caves, renovate them, then sell them on,” says Rob Oakley, office manager of leading developer Galera enterprises. “Our company was set up by someone who discovered the area of Galera when it was just a tourist attraction 15 years ago and saw its potential.” The ancient abodes are transformed from rough caves into relatively luxurious homes, equipped out with amenities like electricity and sewage, phone lines, running hot water, even Internet connections.

 

 

Question: Which of the following words in the passages have the same meaning at residences?

 

  1. Adobes

 

  1. amenities

 

  1. connections

 

  1. dwellings

 

  1. habitations

 

  1. hillsides

 

  1. terrain

 

Answer:

 

A, B, E

 

 

 

 

2.

 

Schools The Turks and Caicos Islands are a multi-island archipelago at the southern tip of the Bahamas chain, approximately 550 miles south-east of Florida. The islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom although they exercise a high degree of local political autonomy. The economy of the islands rests mainly on tourism, with some contribution from offshore banking and fishing. Primary schooling is divided into eight grades, with most pupils entering at the age of four years and leaving at twelve. After two kindergarten years, Grades 1-6 are covered by a graded curriculum in maths, language and science that increases in difficulty as pupils get older. There is little repetition and pupils are expected to progress through primary school in their age cohorts. At the end of primary schooling, pupils sit an examination that serves to stream them in the secondary setting. Primary and secondary school enrolment is virtually universal. There are a total of ten government primary schools on the islands. Of these, seven are large enough to organize pupils into single grade classrooms. Pupils in these schools are generally grouped by age into mixed-ability classes. The remaining three schools, because of their small pupil numbers, operate with multigrade groupings. They serve communities with small populations whose children cannot travel to a neighboring larger primary school. Pupils in these classes span up to three grade and age groups. As far as classroom organization is concerned, the multigrade and monograde classrooms are similar in terms of the number of pupils and the general seating arrangements, with pupils in rows facing the blackboard. There is no evidence that the multigrade teachers operate in a particularly resource-poor environment in the Turks and Caicos Islands. This is in contract to studies conducted in other developing country contexts.

 

 

Question: According to the text, which of the following statements can be concluded about primary classes in the Turks and Caicos Islands?

 

  1. Parents can choose to send their child to a multigrade school.

 

  1. Multigrade classes are for the youngest three grades.

 

  1. Most primary pupils are in multigrade classes.

 

  1. Most primary pupils are in mixed ability classes.

 

 

 

 

  1. Multigrade classes are mostly found in smaller schools

 

Answer: E and D

 

3.

 

Mount Everest The actual particulars of the event are unclear, obscured by the accretion of myth. But the year was 1852, and the setting was the office of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India in the northern hill station of Debra Dun. According to the most plausible version of what transpired, a clerk rushed into the chambers of Sir Andrew Waugh, India’s surveyor general, and exclaimed that a Bengali computer named Radhanath Sikhdar, working out of the Survey’s Calcutta bureau, had ‘discovered the highest mountain in the world.’ (In Waugh’s day a computer was a job description rather than a machine.) Designated Peak XV by surveyors in the field who’d first measured the angle of its rise with a twenty-four-inch theodolite three years earlier, the mountain in question jutted from the spine of the Himalaya in the forbidden kingdom of Nepal.

 

 

Until Sikhdar compiled the survey data and did the math, nobody had suspected that there was anything noteworthy about Peak XV. The six survey sites from which the summit had been triangulated were in northern India, more than a hundred miles from the mountain. To the surveyors who shot it, all but the summit nub of Peak XV several was obscured by various high escarpments in the foreground, of which gave the illusion of being much greater in stature. But according to Sikhdar’s meticulous trigonometric reckoning (which took curvature of the earth, atmospheric reinto account such factors as fraction, and plumb-line deflection) Peak XV stood 29,002* feet above sea level, the planet’s loftiest point.

 

In 1865, nine years after Sikhdar’s computations had been confirmed, Waugh bestowed the name Mount Everest on Peak XV, in honor of Sir George Everest, his predecessor as surveyor general. As it happened, Tibetans who lived to the north of the great mountain already had a more mellifluous name for it, Jornolurignia, which translates to “goddess, mother of the world,” and Nepalis who resided to the south called the peak Sagarmatha, “goddess of the sky.” But Waugh pointedly chose to

 

 

 

 

ignore these native appellations (as well as official policy encouraging the retention of local or ancient names), and Everest was the name that stuck.

 

Question1: What does the author think about Mount Everest?

 

  1. Waugh should not name the mountain after his predecessor

 

  1. should not name after Tibetan and Nepal 9

 

  1. The mountain should name Nepal as it is located in Nepal

 

 

  1. The mountain should not name Everest

 

  1. should keep Peak XV

 

Answer: A, D

 

Question2: Why Mount Everest is called Sagarmatha?

 

Answer: Sagarmatha is the Nepali name and it is the pride of Nepal

 

  1. Female’s accomplishment and status

 

The essay describes the status of female has experienced major shift since 19th century, they are less willing to raise as many children as they used to. There are a significant proportion of women getting married later in their lives or never get married at all, some of them obtain successful careers, such as work as academics or become novelists.

 

Question: What are changes since the 19th century?

 

Answer: Choose below

 

  1. Family size is becoming smaller.

 

  1. Choose not get married is acceptable by the society.

 

  1. Jupiter

 

Jupiter has 2-1/2 times more mass as compared to all other planets put together. Besides, its diameter is 11 times more than Earth’s diameter. Because of its size, the scientists were also forced into believing that it became a star. Gasses and dust contracted to build the planet and

 

 

 

 

immense pressure was created by the gravitational forces along with tens of thousands of degrees of temperature. However, unlike the Sun, the unavailability of sufficient mass required to create the temperature which can initiate fusion reaction, Jupiter relatively got cooler over a period of time.

 

Question: What’s the main idea of the passage?

 

  1. Comparison of Jupiter’s temperature with other planets.

 

  1. Size of Jupiter compared to other planets.

 

 

  1. Jupiter’s development as compared to Earth over a period.

 

  1. Jupiter’s development as compared to Sun.

 

Answer: D

 

  1. John Robertson

 

When he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Newcastle, even John Robertson himself must surely have looked back in wonder at his astonishing rise to success. The year was 1910, and those assembled were to hear not only of his generosity to the University, which enabled it to contribute to the pioneering research into tropical diseases being carried out at that time, but also of his humanitarian work in southern Africa, where he was ahead of his time in improving the working conditions of local mine workers. To those who knew John in his youth, it will have come as no surprise to hear of his success. He was now enjoying the rewards of the fierce determination, desire to succeed and extraordinary ability to acquire knowledge, which they had noticed in the young man.

 

Question: What does the reader of this text learn about John Robertson?

 

  1. He was born in Africa.

 

  1. His abilities were evident at a young age.

 

  1. He studied medicine. d. He completed his degree in 1910.

 

  1. He achieved success rapidly.

 

 

 

 

Answer: B and E

 

  1. Research about Banks

 

The artists were not a rich man’s frivolous addition to his entourage but an essential part of a scientific team in the age before photography. Their principal task was to draw the specimens that the scientists collected. Although the naturalists, such as Banks, intended to preserve some of their specimens and take them home to England, it would not be practical to do so with all of them. Banks also expected to dissect certain animals, and the artists would preserve a record of this work. In addition to their scientific drawings, Banks wanted the artists to sketch the people and places they visited.

 

 

Question: Which of the following can be inferred from the text?

 

  1. Dissecting specimens was not as useful as taking them to England.

 

  1. Photography eventually made scientific expeditions more productive.

 

  1. Artists performed a variety of tasks in early scientific explorations.

 

  1. Naturalists themselves were often talented artists.

 

Answer: C

 

  1. Gas emission of Australia

 

Every day millions of lights and computers are left on in deserted offices, apartments and houses. Environmental activists say that simply switching them off could cut Sydney’s greenhouse gas emissions by five percent over the next year. Per capita, Australia is one of the world’s largest producers of carbon dioxide and other gases that many scientists believe are helping to warm the Earth’s atmosphere, causing climate upset. A long-standing drought and serious water shortages in Australia have focused much attention on climate change. Some experts warn higher temperatures could leave this nation of 20 million people at the mercy of more severe droughts and devastating tropical cyclones.

 

Question: One present indicator of climate change in Australia is…? A. Gas emissions

 

 

 

 

  1. Environmental activists

 

  1. Carbon dioxide

 

  1. Drought

 

Answer: A

 

9.

 

Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Europe, in which the emotional content is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. By contrast, in musical theatre an actor’s dramatic performance is primary, and the music plays a lesser role. The drama in opera is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra.

 

 

QUESTION: According to the passage, which of the following statements can be deemed accurate about Opera?

 

  1. It has developed under the influence of musical theatre

 

  1. It is a drama sung with the accompaniment of an orchestra

 

  1. It is not a high-budget production

 

  1. orchestras in it can vary considerably in size

 

  1. musical theatre relies above all on music

 

  1. many people find musical theatre more captivating than opera

 

  1. music in musical theatre is not as important as it is in it

 

Answer: B, D, G

 

10.

 

Naval architects never claim that a ship is unsinkable, but the sinking of the passenger-and-car ferry Estonia in the Baltic surely should have never have happened. It was well designed and carefully maintained. It carried

 

 

 

 

the proper number of lifeboats. It had been thoroughly inspected the day of its fatal voyage. Yet hours later, the Estonia rolled over and sank in a cold, stormy night. It went down so quickly that most of those on board, caught in their dark, flooding cabins, had no chance to save themselves: Of those who managed to scramble overboard, only 139 survived. The rest died of hypothermia before the rescuers could pluck them from the cold sea. The final death toll amounted to 912 souls. However, there were an unpleasant number of questions about why the Estonia sank and why so many survivors were men in the prime of life, while most of the dead were women, children and the elderly.

 

 

QUESTION: One can understand from the reading that

 

  1. the lifesaving equipment did not work well and lifeboats could not be lowered

 

  1. most victims were trapped inside the boat as they were in their cabins

 

  1. survivors of the accident were mostly young men but women, children and the elderly stood little chance

 

  1. there were enough lifeboats for the number of people on board E. 139 people managed to leave the vessel but died in freezing water

 

Answer: B, C, D

 

11.

 

Erosion of America’s farmland by wind and water has been a problem since settlers first put the prairies and grasslands under the plow in the nineteenth century. By the 1930s, more than 282 million acres of farmland were damaged by erosion. After 40 years of conservation efforts, soil erosion has accelerated due to new demands placed on the land by heavy crop production. In the years ahead, soil erosion and the pollution problems it causes are likely to replace petroleum scarcity as the nation’s most critical natural resource problem.

 

QUESTION: As we understand from the reading, today, soil erosion in America

 

  1. causes humans to place new demands on the land

 

 

 

 

  1. is worse than it was in the nineteenth century

 

  1. happens so slowly that it is hardly noticed

 

  1. occurs only in areas with no vegetation

 

  1. can become a more serious problem in the future

 

Answer: B, E

 

12.

 

 

Traditionally, many linguists stressed the importance of mastering grammar structures first while teaching English. In recent years, the majority of educators have become more aware of the fallacy of this approach and other approaches promoting vocabulary development have gained popularity. It has been found out without vocabulary to put on top of the grammar system, the learners can actually say very little despite being able to manipulate complex grammatical structures in exercise drills. It is obvious that to learn English, one needs to learn many words. Native speakers have a vocabulary of about 20,000 words but foreign learners of English need far fewer. They need only about 5,000 words to be quite competent in speaking and listening. The reason for this seemingly small number is the nature of words and the frequency with which they appear in a language. It seems clear that frequent words should be among the first words to learn because they will be met most of ten and will be needed in speech or writing.

 

QUESTION: It is stated in the passage that

 

  1. a great number of educators today believe that mastering grammar points is more important than learning words while studying a foreign language

 

  1. grammar drills are effective in teaching the most frequently encountered English words

 

  1. an approach based on mastering grammar structures first to teach English is at most unlikely to find supporters today

 

  1. the learners of English are required to learn all grammar structures perfectly in order to make themselves understood by foreigners

 

 

 

 

  1. the number of English words which must be learned to communicate with a foreigner exceeds 20,000

 

  1. In English language teaching, most educators are not in favour of the traditional approach having dominated the language teaching field once anymore

 

Answer: C, F

 

13.

 

 

Dolphins are regarded as the friendliest creatures in the sea and stories of them helping drowning sailors have been common since Roman times. The more we learn about dolphins, the more we realize that their society is more complex than people previously imagined. They look after other dolphins when they are ill, care for pregnant mothers and protect the weakest in the community, as we do. Some scientists have suggested that dolphins have a language but it is much more probable that they communicate with each other without needing words. Could any of these mammals be more intelligent than man? Certainly, the most common argument in favour of man’s superiority over them that we can kill them more easily than they can kill us is the least satisfactory. On the contrary, the more we discover about these remarkable creatures, the less we appear superior when we destroy them.

 

QUESTION: It is clear from the passage that dolphins_ .

 

  1. don’t want to be with us as much as we want to be with them

 

  1. are proven to be less intelligent than once thought

 

  1. have a reputation for being friendly to humans

 

  1. are the most powerful creatures that live in the oceans

 

  1. dolphins have some social traits that are similar to those of humans

 

  1. are capable of learning a language and communicating with humans

 

Answer: D, E

 

 

 

 

14.

 

You may have heard that tomatoes and processed tomato products like tomato sauce and canned tomatoes protect against some types of cancer. The cancer-preventing properties of tomato products have been attributed to lycopene. It is a bright red pigment found in tomatoes and other red fruits and is the cause of their red color. Unlike other fruits and vegetables, where nutritional content such as vitamin C is diminished upon cooking, processing of tomatoes increases the concentration of lycopene. Lycopene in tomato paste is four times more than in fresh tomatoes. This is because lycopene is insoluble in water and is tightly bound to vegetable fiber. Thus, processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, soup, sauce, and ketchup contain the highest concentrations of lycopene. Cooking and crushing tomatoes as in the canning process and serving in oil-rich dishes such as spaghetti sauce or pizza greatly increase assimilation from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Lycopene is a fat-soluble substance, so the oil is said to help absorption to a great extent.

 

 

QUESTION: According to the passage, it is true that lycopene-

 

  1. can only be found in processed tomato products

 

  1. loses its cancer-preventing property when the tomato is processed

 

  1. lowers the risk of having cancer only when it is consumed together with vitamin

 

  1. is absorbed by the body more easily when accompanied by the oil E. is what gives some fruits their color

 

Answer: D, E

 

15.

 

The grey wolf also known as the timber wolf or wolf is a mammal of the order Carnivore. Genetic studies indicate the grey wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog and might be its ancestor. Many other grey wolf subspecies have been identified however the actual number of subspecies is still open to discussion. Though once abundant over much of

 

 

 

 

North America and areas of Europe and Asia, the grey wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of the widespread destruction of its habitat. Gray wolves are highly adaptable and have thrived in forests, deserts, mountains, tundra and grasslands. They function as social predators and hunt in packs organized according to strict social hierarchies. It was originally believed that this comparatively high level of social organization was related to hunting success, and while this still may be true to a certain extent, emerging theories suggest that the pack has less to do with hunting and more to do with reproductive success.

 

 

QUESTION: We can understand from the passage that the grey wolf-

 

 

  1. is able to survive in a wide variety of habitats

 

  1. prefers to hunt individually rather than in groups

 

  1. was once found in every continent of the world in great numbers

 

  1. is known that many of grey wolf subspecies have already become extinct

 

  1. there is no consensus on how many grey wolf subspecies exist

 

Answer: A, E

 

16.

 

Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. The genetics of autism are complex and it is generally unclear which genes are responsible for it. Autism affects many parts of the brain but how this occurs is also poorly understood. Autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects. Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Early behavioral cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social and communication skills but there is no cure for it. Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but same become

 

 

 

 

successful and an autistic culture has developed, with same seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.

 

QUESTION: According to the passage, autism is a developmental disorder of the human brain-

 

  1. that gives its first signs early in the childhood period

 

  1. which is caused by childhood vaccines

 

  1. which can’t be diagnosed until after the child is three years old

 

 

  1. that even if the treatment for autism starts early, the child doesn’t have any chance to recover completely

 

  1. which is characterized by abnormalities of behavior patterns

 

Answer: A, D

 

17.

 

Slavery is a system under which certain persons are totally deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. Although outlawed in nearly all countries, slavery is still practiced in some parts of the world. The evidence for slavery predates written records. It can be found in almost all cultures and continents. Historically, most slaves were captured in wars but some persons were sold into slavery by their parents, or by themselves, as a means of surviving extreme conditions. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for prisoners and their families. Captives were often considered the property of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of war. Those captured sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from their enslavers, but often were the same as the captors. The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them into slaves. The possibility always existed of reversals of fortune at the height of the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves, anyone could find himself enslaved.

 

QUESTION: According to the passage, slavery-

 

  1. was banned by international agreements between countries a long time ago

 

 

 

  1. meant for some people surviving the conditions they had to endure C. is a practice which can be seen in many places in the world today D. was the most common in the Roman Empire E. goes back to ancient times

 

Answer: A, B, C

 

18.

 

 

The Emperor Penguin is a penguin that lives in Antarctica. It is the tallest and heaviest of all penguin species. Emperor Penguins are black and white like all penguins but the sides of their neck are golden. Emperors live in the coldest climate on earth. They breed at the beginning of the Antarctic winter (March and April), on the ice all around the Antarctic continent. The shape of their body helps them to survive. They have short wings that help them dive up to 900 feet to catch larger fish. They can swim up to 12 miles per hour for a short time, which lets them escape from their main enemy, the Leopard Seal. They can stay warm because they have a thick layer of blubber. In addition, the layer of soft feathers trap air that keeps the body heat in and cold air and water out.

 

QUESTION: It can be understood from the passage that the physical features of the Emperor Penguins-

 

 

  1. should be examined more closely by the scientists

 

  1. let them stay alive in one of the harshest climatic conditions of the world

 

  1. present certain differences from other penguin species

 

  1. makes them effective against cold weather as they have a thick layer of blubber and a layer of soft feathers.

 

  1. are believed not to have changed a lot throughout time

 

Answer: B, D

 

 

 

 

19.

 

Biomedical jewellery, accessories which monitor the wearer’s vital functions or sound a warning in response to unhealthy environmental conditions, is already on the market and promises to become much more medically sophisticated and commonplace in the foreseeable future. Today, heart-monitoring devices and posture indicators can be hidden in attractive belts; necklaces may contain portable electrocardiographs, or may register body temperature or the level of pollution in the air. If the pollution level is dangerous, some necklaces open and dispense a face mask and a ten-minute supply of oxygen. One of the less serious versions of this type of necklace simply tells the wearer if his or her own breath has reached an offensive level. Still on the drawing board are designs for attractive personal ornaments which could warn of impending epileptic seizures or migraine headaches. Designers of biomedical jewelry predict that the time will come when artfully designed bracelets or necklaces will be able to diagnose, analyse, and even prescribe treatment for their wearers.

 

 

QUESTION: According to the passage, the biomedical necklaces mentioned can-

 

  1. provide oxygen

 

  1. monitor the wearer’s heartbeat

 

  1. contain some sort of diamond

 

  1. dispense a breath freshener

 

  1. indicate body temperature

 

Answer: A, B, E

 

20.

 

It might seem illogical that the development of modern currency rests on a scientific discovery, but the invention of the “touchstone” allowed ancient societies to create a standard by which valuable metals could be judged. In its most basic form, a touchstone is any dark, finely grained stone upon which soft metals leave traces. When rubbed, a process

 

 

 

 

known as “probing”, precious metal alloy cleaves to the stone, leaving a stripe. The color of the stripe (which reveals the percentage of its content that is base metal) can then be compared to a stripe of a known grade of a standard alloy. Despite its primitiveness, this probing process allowed merchants to examine alloys quickly and with reasonable certainly. Though civilizations were using gold and silver currencies as early as 500 B.C., coins were easily forged or diluted with less valuable metals, such as tin or lead. The invention and popularization of the touchstone ensured that pure gold and silver could become a standard expression of value.

 

 

QUESTION: According to the text, which of the following advances brought about the probing process?

 

  1. A measure to compare the value of gold and silver with tin and lead

 

  1. An attempt to generalize the value of gold and silver

 

  1. An ancient means of ascertaining the purity of a metal

 

  1. A measure of security against adulterated coins

 

  1. A means by which governments could standardize currency values

 

Answer: B, C

 

21.

 

Little is known about the elusive section of the earth’s atmosphere known as the mesosphere. Located between the stratosphere (the maximum altitude that airplanes can achieve) and the thermosphere (the minimum altitude of spacecraft), the mesosphere is poorly understood and little explored. The most significant feature of the mesosphere is the various tides and waves that propagate up from the troposphere and stratosphere. The dissipation of these waves is largely responsible for propelling the mesosphere around the globe. These wave patterns are further affected when gas particles in the mesosphere collide with meteoroids, producing spectacular explosions, which usually generate enough heat to consume the meteor before it can fall to earth. The conflagration leaves behind traces of iron and other metals and fuels the atmospheric tides radiating outward from the mesosphere.

 

 

 

 

QUESTION: The passage suggests that the mesosphere is influenced by

 

  1. Collisions with extra-terrestrial debris

 

  1. Volcanic eruptions

 

  1. Interatomic destruction in the space

 

  1. Oceanic tides

 

  1. Vibrations from the troposphere

 

 

Answer: C, D

 

22.

 

Reviving the practice of using elements of popular music in classical composition, an approach that had been in hibernation in the United States during the 1960s, composer Philip Glass (born 1937) embraced the ethos of popular music in his compositions. Glass based two symphonies on music by rock musicians David Bowie and Brian Eno, but the symphonies’ sound is distinctively his. Popular elements do not appear out of place in Glass’s classical music, which from its early days has shared certain harmonies and rhythms with rock music. Yet this use of popular elements has not made Glass a composer of popular music. His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners; it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.

 

QUESTION: The passage suggests that Glass’s work displays which of the following qualities?

 

  1. A return to the use of popular music in classical compositions

 

  1. An attempt to elevate rock music to an artistic status more closely approximating that of classical music

 

  1. A long-standing tendency to incorporate elements from two apparently disparate musical styles

 

  1. His composition attracts listeners of all taste

 

Answer: B, C

 

 

 

 

23.

 

In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher. There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars – creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.

 

 

QUESTION: In which of the following statements are correct according to the passage?

 

  1. In the UK, people spend an hour travelling to work

 

  1. European cities have more cars than the US cities

 

  1. Developing cities in Asia have more cars than the developed ones

 

  1. Stockholm has experienced a decrease in use of cars as the city expands

 

  1. Massive traffic jams are often created by public transport

 

Answer: C, D

 

24.

 

Bullying can take a variety of forms, from the verbal – being taunted or called hurtful names – to the physical – being kicked or shoved – as well

 

 

 

 

as indirect forms, such as being excluded from social groups. A survey I conducted with Irene Whitney found that in British primary schools up to a quarter of pupils reported experience of bullying, which in about one in ten cases was persistent. There was less bullying in secondary schools, with about one in twenty-five suffering persistent bullying, but these cases may be particularly recalcitrant. Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimized pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convicted of anti-social offences. Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately, more schools are now saying: ‘There is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it.’

 

 

QUESTION: Which of the following statements are true according to the author?

 

  1. In Britain, bullying was more prevalent in secondary schools than in primary schools

 

  1. Bullying has the potential to make a child feel unhappy

 

  1. In extreme cases bullying often leads to suicide

 

  1. children who bully become criminals in the future

 

  1. Schools admit that there is bullying there.

 

Answer: B, D

 

25.

 

In 1979, the government of Nicaragua established a number of social programmes, including a National Literacy Crusade. By 1985, about 300,000 illiterate adults from all over the country, many of whom had never attended primary school, had learnt how to read, write and use numbers. During this period, researchers from the Liverpool School of

 

 

 

 

Tropical Medicine, the Central American Institute of Health in Nicaragua, the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua and the Costa Rican Institute of Health interviewed nearly 3,000 women, some of whom had learnt to read as children, some during the literacy crusade and some who had never learnt at all. The women were asked how many children they had given birth to and how many of them had died in infancy. The research teams also examined the surviving children to find out how well-nourished they were. The investigators’ findings were striking. In the late 1970s, the infant mortality rate for the children of illiterate mothers was around 110 deaths per thousand live births. At this point in their lives, those mothers who later went on to learn to read had a similar level of child mortality (105/1000). For women educated in primary school, however, the infant mortality rate was significantly lower, at 80 per thousand.

 

 

QUESTION: Which of the following options are true according to the passage?

 

  1. By 1985, 300,000 illiterate women in Nicaragua had learnt to read, write and use numbers

 

  1. The research showed that mother’s education had a direct impact on infant mortality rate

 

  1. Literacy crusade was a social campaign with a view to educating women

 

  1. The research was conducted during a period between 1979 and 1985

 

  1. The researchers found that children of the educated mothers were healthier

 

Answer: B, D

 

26.

 

It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay rises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to use the growth to entice and encourage

 

 

 

 

employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited. Morale also surfers during decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumours and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions.

 

 

QUESTION: Which of the following statements are true according to the passage?

 

  1. It is a challenge to motivate employees in a thriving organization B. Organization cannot afford to lose its most mobile employees

 

  1. In shrinking companies, increased salaries are provided to those who decides to stay

 

  1. Productivity suffers when employees provide moral support to each other

 

  1. Pay cuts hardly occur during growth stage of an organization

 

Answer: B, E

 

27.

 

Unusual incidents are being reported across the Arctic. Inuit families going off on snowmobiles to prepare their summer hunting camps have found themselves cut off from home by a sea of mud, following early thaws. There are reports of igloos losing their insulating properties as the snow drips and refreezes, of lakes draining into the sea as permafrost melts, and sea ice breaking up earlier than usual, carrying seals beyond the reach of hunters. Climate change may still be a rather abstract idea to most of us, but in the Arctic it is already having dramatic effects- if summertime ice continues to shrink at its present rate, the Arctic Ocean could soon become virtually ice-free in summer. The knock-on effects are

 

 

 

 

likely to include more warming, cloudier skies, increased precipitation and higher sea levels. Scientists are increasingly keen to find out what’s going on because they consider the Arctic the ‘canary in the mine’ for global warming – a warning of what’s in store for the rest of the World. For the Inuit the problem is urgent. They live in precarious balance with one of the toughest environments on earth. Climate change, whatever its causes, is a direct threat to their way of life. Nobody knows the Arctic as well as the locals, which is why they are not content simply to stand back and let outside experts tell them what’s happening. In Canada, where the Inuit people are jealously guarding their hard-won autonomy in the country’s newest territory, Nunavut, they believe their best hope of survival in this changing environment lies in combining their ancestral knowledge with the best of modern science. This is a challenge in itself.

 

 

QUESTION: Which of the following realities Inuit people are experiencing due to climate change?

 

  1. Lower temperature inside igloos

 

  1. Mud in the sea

 

  1. Difficulty in hunting seals

 

  1. Higher levels of ice

 

  1. More rainfall

 

  1. Tough environment

 

Answer: B, F

 

28.

 

International trade is growing at a startling pace. While the global economy has been expanding at a bit over 3% a year, the volume of trade has been rising at a compound annual rate of about twice that. Foreign products, from meat to machinery, play a more important role in almost every economy in the world, and foreign markets now tempt businesses that never much worried about sales beyond their nation’s borders. What lies behind this explosion in international commerce? The general worldwide decline in trade barriers, such as customs duties and

 

 

 

 

import quotas, is surely one explanation. The economic opening of countries that have traditionally been minor players is another. But one force behind the import-export boom has passed all but unnoticed: the rapidly falling cost of getting goods to market. Theoretically, in the world of trade, shipping costs do not matter. Goods, once they have been made, are assumed to move instantly and at no cost from place to place. The real world, however, is full of frictions. Cheap labour may make Chinese clothing competitive in America, but if delays in shipment tie up working capital and cause winter coats to arrive in spring, trade may lose its advantages.

 

 

QUESTION: What are the reasons behind the present expansion of international trade according to the passage?

 

  1. Free movement of goods from one country to another

 

  1. Some counties now prefer foreign products over their domestic products

 

  1. More countries started to increasingly engage in international trade D. The effects of the introduction of electronic delivery

 

  1. Costs involved in transporting a product from abroad have dropped considerably

 

  1. Availability of cheap labour in some parts of the world

 

Answer: A, E, F

 

 

 

 

WRITE FOR DICTATION :

  1. The other book is not thorough but it’s more insightful.

 

  1. The teacher asks/asked the group to commence the task.

 

  1. An artist who supports politicians would receive critiques.

 

  1. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became the law.

 

  1. The part is good but is more insightful.

 

  1. The artists tied the conservative politicians, earned their roles of critics.

 

  1. Experts are now able to forecast weather for long periods.

 

  1. Collaboration between departments is a feature of successful companies.

 

  1. The ability to work with fellow students cannot be stressed enough.

 

  1. Enrolling a second major will increase the career option.

 

  1. Scientists learned through the observations and the analysis of the human behavior.

 

  1. Students are encouraged to monitor their own attendance.

 

  1. The summer course was cancelled due to insufficient re-enrolments.

 

  1. In this language course, we focus on fluency and accuracy.

 

  1. Students are encouraged to think carefully about their accommodation needs.

 

  1. There are many types of governments in the world.

 

  1. There is welcome party for all new students each term.

 

  1. This site is designed to be highly interactive.

 

  1. The two variables in the study were very closely correlated.

 

 

 

 

  1. We support to do research in the field of archaeology such as forecasting and estimation.

 

  1. We can work together to achieve the higher educational standards.

 

  1. University fees are expected to increase next year.

 

  1. The results of the study underscored the discoveries from early detection.

 

  1. The assessment of this course will begin next week.

 

  1. Although sustainable development is not easy, it is an unavoidable responsibility.

 

  1. Students should have awareness of how the business develops globally.

 

  1. Sea levels are expected to rise during the next century.

 

  1. You will acquire new skills during your academic studies.

 

  1. Studies show there is a positive correlation between two variables.

 

  1. Plants and living things are growing on the land or in water.

 

  1. A good architecture is always very useful, durable and beautiful.

 

  1. The introduction is an important component of a good presentation.

 

  1. The introduction is an essential element of presentation.

 

  1. A good scientific paper should have clear arguments.

 

  1. Science is found in society all around the world.

 

  1. You can use a laptop during the lecture.

 

  1. The business class can hold with local students.

 

  1. Please confirm that you have received the textbook.

 

  1. There is clearly a need for further research in this field.

 

 

 

 

  1. The artists tied the conservative politicians, earned their roles of critics.

 

  1. The artists and conservative politicians earn their rules of critics.

 

  1. Students are instructed to hand in their assignments by the end of this week.

 

  1. Some people argue that education is not that important.

 

  1. She has made a significant contribution to the field of chemistry.

 

  1. The equality has not yet been achieved in this society.

 

  1. We have not achieved the equality in our society.

 

  1. Before attending the lecture, you must register online or by post.

 

  1. All of the assignments should be submitted in person to the faculty office.

 

  1. Fashion trends help people to make life interesting.

 

  1. We have sophisticated ways to study in brain action.

 

  1. Student representatives will visit classes with voting forms.

 

  1. It is important to make clear notes while you are reading.

 

  1. There was a prize for the best student of the presentation.

 

  1. The new media has transformed the traditional national boundaries.

 

  1. The placement test of mathematics and statistics is offered to every semester.

 

  1. The teaching group will be performing in the concert hall.

 

  1. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became the law.

 

  1. The plight of wildlife has been ignored by developers.

 

  1. The marketing budget is doubled since the beginning of the year.

 

  1. One of the promises is to decrease the contest (or context)

 

 

 

 

  1. There is a pharmacy on campus near the book store.

 

  1. Time table about new time will be available next week.

 

  1. This course provides the opportunity to get valuable industry experience.

 

  1. Find out how to get your resources before your research.

 

  1. The office opens on Mondays and Thursdays directly follows the freshman categories.

 

  1. Architectural numbers vary in that interesting experiment.

 

  1. Native speakers are exempt from the language tests in their own language.

 

  1. The synopsis contains the most important information.

 

  1. The (new) paper challenged many previously accepted theories.

 

  1. Many graduates of journalism can get jobs in the communications field.

 

  1. Global connections increased in academic communities, thanks to social media.

 

  1. Although sustainable development is not easy, it is an unavoidable responsibility.

 

  1. A good architecture is always very useful, durable and beautiful.

 

  1. Fashion trends help people to make life interesting.

 

  1. The artists and conservative politicians earn their rules of politics.

 

  1. While reconciliation is desirable,basic underlying issue must /should be first addressed.

 

  1. Plants and living things are growing on the land or in water.

 

  1. she used to be an editor of the student newspaper.
  2. Many people think building design affects people positively or negatively.

 

  1. Grants are available to those in their financial difficulties.

 

  1. Commercial necessity was the reason given for the decision.

 

  1. Authoritarian regimes were more common in the past than they are today.

 

  1. The new law was harder to impose than the government thought.

 

  1. Course work in exam will form part of the annual assessments.

 

  1. The cotton industry purchased all its new cotton from abroad.

 

  1. Political power only disappears when this stage has been completed.

 

  1. We can use machines to scan brain activities as it happens.

 

  1. Service animals have become a common feature of modern society.

 

  1. Pets offer emotional support to sick and elderly people.

 

  1. Dogs are able to provide assistance to people with disability.

 

  1. Business people can experience both success and failure.

 

  1. Being successful involves setting a goal and achieving it.

 

  1. Organisation plays an important role in academic literature.

 

  1. Research shows exercising makes us feel better.

 

  1. New credit cards will soon use the finger press technology.

 

  1. Please click the logo above to enter the site.

 

  1. Strangely, people are impacted by spontaneously using statistics.

 

  1. Radio is one of the most popular forms of entertainment throughout the world.

 

  1. The ways in which people communicate are constantly changing.

 

 

 

 

  1. The article refers (to)/reflects/verifies/records a number of interesting experiments.

 

  1. I think space travel will become affordable within the next century.

 

  1. I am optimistic about the future of space flight.

 

  1. Sales figures for last year were better than expected.

 

  1. Let me give you an example to explain what I mean.

 

  1. Students find true or false questions harder than short answers.

 

  1. Organizational barrier is considered in various perspectives in academic literature.

 

  1. More research is needed before any definitive conclusion is drawn.

 

  1. A (rise in)/ A (rising) temperature is changing the wildlife population.

 

  1. Doing nothing is not always better than taking risks.

 

  1. Students who attempt to go to the conference must register now.

 

  1. Several candidates will be qualified as the greatest scientists in all

 

time.

 

  1. We study science to understand and appreciate the world around us.

 

  1. There is an important difference between mass production and batch production.

 

  1. Science library is currently located on the ground floor of the library.

 

  1. Our courses help improve critical thinking and independent learning.

 

  1. A good way to improve vocabulary is repetition.

 

  1. Our new medical students must attend the talk about optional courses/classes.

 

  1. Most of the students have not considered this issue before.

 

  1. Modern art now does better than stocks as an investment.

 

 

 

 

  1. The Industrial Revolution in Europe was driven by steam technology.

 

 

 

 

Summaries Written Text:

 

 

 

 

1- Paying for Children

 

Many people who have written on the subject of allowances say it is not a good idea to pay your child for work around the home. These jobs are a normal part of family life. Paying children to do extra work around the house, however, can be useful. It can even provide an understanding of how a business works. Allowances give children a chance to experience the things they can do with money. They can share it in the form of gifts or giving to a good cause. They can spend it by buying things they want. Or they can save and maybe even invest it. Saving helps children understand that costly goals require sacrifice: you have to cut costs and plan for the future. Requiring children to save part of their allowance can also open the door to future saving and investing. Many banks offer services to help children and teenagers learn about personal finance. A savings account is an excellent way to learn about the power of compound interest. Interest rates on savings can be very low these days. But compounding works by paying interest on interest. So, for example, one dollar invested at two percent interest will earn two cents in the first year. The second year, the money will earn two percent of one dollar and two cents, and so on. That may not seem like a lot. But over time it adds up.

 

 

2- Variation in Frogs

 

Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short–bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil “proto–frog” appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is found in tropical rainforests. There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Besides living in fresh water and on dry land, the adults of some species are adapted for living underground or in trees. Adult frogs generally have a carnivorous diet

 

 

 

 

consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frogs are extremely efficient at converting what they eat into body mass. They are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world’s ecosystems. The skin is semi– permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations, particularly in their breeding season, and exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviours to attract mates, to fend off predators and to generally survive. Frog populations have declined significantly since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over one hundred and twenty are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s. The number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, Chytridiomycosis, has spread around the world. Conservation biologists are working to understand the causes of these problems and to resolve them. Frogs are valued as food by humans and also have many cultural roles in literature, symbolism and religion.

 

 

 

 

3- American English Dominance

 

Firstly, from the macroscopic view, the dominance of American English is not precipitated by the language itself, so the arising of English dominance in international communication is not solely the dominance of language itself. Just as the professor Jean Aitchison Oxford pointed out, the success of a language has much to do with the power of the people who use it but has little to do with internal features of the language. It is obvious in consideration to English. During the 18th century and 19th century, the influence of the British Empire began to spread around the world for the sake of industrial revolution, so English began to become popular. English was used not only in the British colonies but also in the diplomatic negotiations of non-English-speaking countries. However, no matter how powerful the adaptively is and how large the area that the power of English covers, currently, the international status of English mainly springs from the status of America as a superpower after World War II. Besides, with the development of the economic globalization and

 

 

 

 

new political structure, there is a great need of an international language.

 

As result, American English became the first choice.

 

  1. Cow and grass

 

The co-evolutionaryrelationship between cows and grass is one of nature’s under-appreciated wonders;it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.

 

For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilises it with his manure.

 

 

In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can’t digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.

 

  1. Rosetta Stone

 

When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to the Stone and whitepaper was laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text but in reverse. Since then, many copies or facsimiles have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem.

 

An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centre piece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material, the stone was black with

 

 

 

 

white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances uncovered were analysed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wools webs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.

 

 

  1. WORLD WIDE WEB

 

He is the man who has changed the world more than anyone else in the past hundred years. Sir Tim Berners-Lee may be a mild-mannered academic who lives modestly in Boston, but as the inventor of the World Wide Web he is also a revolutionary. He is a scientist who has altered the way people think as well as the way they live. Since the web went global 20 years ago, the way we shop, listen to music and communicate has been transformed. There are implications for politics, literature, economics — even terrorism — because an individual can now have the same access to information as the elite. Society will never be the same. The computer scientist from Oxford, who built his own computer from a television screen and spare parts after he was banned from one of the university computers, is a cultural guru as much as a technological one. “It is amazing how far we’ve come,” he says. “But you’re always wondering what the next is Crazy idea, and working to make sure the web stays one web and that the internet stays open. There isn’t much time to sit back and reflect.” He invented the web, he says, because he was frustrated that he couldn’t find all the information he wanted in one place. It was an imaginary concept that he realized.

 

  1. Overqualified employees

 

If your recruiting efforts attract job applicants with too much experience— a near certainty in this weak labor market—you should consider a response that runs counter to most hiring managers’ MO: Don’t reject those applicants out of hand. Instead, take a closer look. New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don’t quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple

 

 

 

 

managerial tactic— empowerment—can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel. The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a “perfect fit” over someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, over qualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-center reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal. But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are needed to supply the growing service sectors. If managers can get beyond the conventional wisdom, the growing pool of too-good applicants is a great opportunity. Berrin Erdogan and Talya N. Bauer of Portland State University in Oregon found that overqualified workers’ feelings of dissatisfaction can be dissipated by giving them autonomy in decision making. At stores where employees didn’t feel empowered, “overeducated” workers expressed greater dissatisfaction than their colleagues did and were more likely to state an intention to quit. But that difference vanished where self-reported autonomy was high.

 

 

  1. PLUG-IN VEHICLE:

 

Here’s a term you’re going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It’s what you and many other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car – your plug-in vehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic. When you arrive at work you’ll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car’s batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your favorite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car’s batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys from your car would not only be most

 

 

 

 

attractive to you, it would be a good deal for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, even biofuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey. Concerns over ‘peak oil’, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five times as many motor vehicles registered world-wide as there are now, mean that the world’s almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.

 

 

  1. AMERICAN ENGLISH

 

American English is, without doubt, the most influential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There are many reasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation on earth and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, the distinction between a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference to power. As has been said, a language is a dialect with an army. Second, America’s political influence is extended through American popular culture, in particular through the international reach of American films (movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, the internationally dominant position of a culture results in a forceful expansion of its language… the expansion of language contributes… to the prestige of the culture behind it. Third, the international prominence of American English is closely associated with the extraordinarily quick development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates. This means a computer’s default setting for language is American English, although of course this can be changed to suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence of American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion of American culture and media, technological advance, and the rapid development of communications technology.

 

In such an environment, warfare is no longer purely directed against the military potential of adversarial states. It is rather directed at infiltrating all areas of their societies and to threaten their existences. The

 

 

 

 

comparatively easy access to weapons of mass destruction, in particular relatively and low-cost biological agents, is of key concern. Both governmental and nongovernmental actors prefer to use force in a watt that can be characterized as “unconventional” or also as “small wars.” War waged according to conventions is an interstate phenomenon. The “small war” is the archetype of war, in which the protagonists acknowledge no rules and permanently try to violate what conventions do exist. The protagonists of the “small war” observe neither international standards nor arms control agreements. They make use of territories where they do not have to fear any sanctions because there is no functioning state to assume charge of such sanctions or because the state in question is too weak to impose such sanctions. This type of war does not provide for any warning time. It challenges not only the external security of the nation states and international community, but also their internal safety.

 

 

  1. COLUMBUS

 

When Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492, the island had already been settled by Native Americans for about 5,000 years. The occupants in Columbus’s time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos who lived by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around half a million (the estimates range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus initially found them peaceful and friendly, until he and his Spaniards began mistreating them. Unfortunately for the Tainos, they had gold, which the Spanish coveted but didn’t want to go to the work of mining themselves. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and its Indian population among individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus’s arrival, that original population of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000, most of whom died that year of smallpox to bring the population down to 3,000.

 

  1. ONLINE TEACHING AND ONLINE LEARNING

 

What makes teaching online unique is that it uses the internet, especially the World Wide Web, as the primary means of communication. Thus,

 

 

 

 

when you teach online, you don’t have to be someplace to teach. You don’t have to lug your briefcase full of paper or your laptop to a classroom, stand at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard (or even use your high-tech, interactive classroom “smart” whiteboard), or grade papers in a stuffy room while your students take a test. You don’t even have to sit in your office waiting for students to show up for conferences. You can hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner. You can do all this while living in a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok, even if you are working for a college whose administrative office is located in Florida or Dubai. You can attend an important conference in Hawaii on the same day you teach your class in New Jersey, logging on from your laptop via the local café’s wireless hotspot or your hotel room’s high-speed network. Or you may simply pull out your smartphone to quickly check on the latest postings, email, or text messages from students. Online learning offers more freedom for students as well. They can search for courses using the Web, scouring their institution or even the world for programs, classes, and instructors that fit their needs. Having found an appropriate course, they can enrol and register, shop for their books, read articles, listen to lectures, submit their homework assignments, confer with their instructors, and receive their final grades-all online. They can assemble virtual classrooms, joining other students from diverse geographical locales, foraging bonds and friendships not possible in conventional classrooms, which are usually limited to students from a specific geographical area.

 

 

  1. VIVACITY OF TV AND NEWSPAPER

 

To understand the final reason why the news marketplace of ideas dominated by television is so different from the one that emerged in the world dominated by the printing press, it is important to distinguish the quality of vividness experienced by television viewers from the “vividness” experienced by readers. I believe that the vividness experienced in the reading of words is automatically modulated by the constant activation of the reasoning centres of the brain that are used in the process of concreting the representation of reality the author has intended. By contrast, the visceral vividness portrayed on television has the capacity to trigger instinctual responses similar to those triggered by reality itself— and without being modulated by logic, reason, and reflective thought. The

 

 

 

 

simulation of reality accomplished in the television medium is so astonishingly vivid and compelling compared with the representations of reality conveyed by printed words that it signifies much more than an incremental change in the way people consume information. Books also convey compelling and vivid representations of reality, of course. But the reader actively participates in the conjuring of the reality the book’s author Is attempting to depict. Moreover, the parts of the human brain that are central to the reasoning process are continually activated by the very act of reading printed words: Words are composed of abstract symbols—letters— that have no intrinsic meaning themselves until they are strung together into recognizable sequences. Television, by contrast, presents to its viewers a much more fully formed representation of reality—without requiring the creative collaboration that words have always demanded.

 

 

  1. FROG AMBER

 

A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said. If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find. The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexico’s southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study. A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber — a stone formed by ancient tree sap mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week. The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frog’s remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.

 

 

 

 

  1. Ageing world

 

We live in an ageing world. While this has been recognized for some time in developed countries, it is only recently that this phenomenon has been fully acknowledged. Global communication is “shrinking” the world, and global ageing is “maturing” it. The increasing presence of older persons in the world is making people of all ages more aware that we live in a diverse and multigenerational society. It is no longer possible to ignore ageing, regardless of whether one views it positively or negatively. Demographers note that if current trends in ageing continue as predicted, a demographic revolution, wherein the proportions of the young and the old will undergo a historic crossover, will be felt in just three generations. This portrait of change in the world’s population parallels the magnitude of the industrial revolution traditionally considered the most significant social and economic breakthrough in the history of humankind since the Neolithic period. It marked beginning of a sustained movement towards modern economic growth in much the same way that globalization is today marking an unprecedented and sustained movement toward a “global culture”. The demographic revolution, it is envisaged, will be at powerful.

 

While the future effects are not known, a likely scenario is one where both the challenges as well as the opportunities will emerge from a vessel into which exploration and research, dialogue and debate are poured.

 

Challenges arise as social and economic structures try to adjust to the simultaneous phenomenon of diminishing young cohorts with rising older ones, and opportunities present themselves in the sheer number of older individuals and the vast resources societies stand to again from their contribution.

 

This ageing of the population permeates all social, economic and cultural spheres. Revolutionary change calls for new, revolutionary thinking, which can position policy formulation and implementation on sounder footing. In our ageing world, new thinking requires that we view ageing as a lifelong and older person.

 

  1. American Employees

 

American employees are paid $300 a year to sleep fame than seven hours per night and they can record their sleep manually or through an automatic wrist monitor, as sleeping affects daytime performance by influencing employees’ alertness, which diminish productivity and leads to financial loss accumulated to $63 Z billion a year, and similar policies adopted to encourage people taking exercise.

 

 

 

 

  1. Armed Police in NSW schools

 

Armed police have been brought into NSW schools to reduce crime rates and educate students.

 

The 40 School Liaison Police(SLP) officers have been allocated to public and private high schools across the state.

 

Organizers say the officers, who began work last week, will build positive relationships between police and students. But parent groups waned of potential dangers of armed police working at schools in communities where police relations were already under strain.

 

Among their duties, the SLPs will conduct crime prevention workshops, talking to students about issues including shoplifting, offensive behaviour, graffiti and drugs and alcohol. They can also advise school principals. One SLP, Constable Ben Purvis, began work in the inner Sydney region last week, including at Alexandria Park Community School’s senior campus. Previously stationed as a crime prevention officer at The Rocks, he now has 27 schools under his jurisdiction in areas including The Rocks, Redfern and Kings Cross.

 

Constable Purvis said the full–time position would see him working on the broader issues of crime prevention. “I am not a security guard,” he said. “I am not there to patrol the school. We want to improve relationships between police and schoolchildren, to have positive interaction. We are coming to the school and giving them knowledge to improve their own safety.” The use of fake ID among older students is among the issues he was already discussed with principals. Parents ‘groups responded to the program positively, but said it may spark a range of community reactions. “It is a good thing and an innovative idea and there could be some positive benefits,” Council of Catholic School Parents executive officer Danielle Cronin said. “Different communities will respond to this kind of presence in different ways.”

 

  1. Australia education

 

When Australians engage in debate about educational quality or equity, they often seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both at the same time.

 

Curriculum reforms intended to improve equity often fail to do so because they Increase breadth or differentiation in offerings in a way that increases differences in quality. Further, these differences in quality often reflect differences in students’ social backgrounds because the ‘new’ offerings are typically taken up by relatively disadvantaged students who are not served well them. Evidence from New South Wales will be used to illustrate this point.

 

 

 

 

The need to improve the quality of education is well accepted across OECD and other countries as they seek to strengthen their human capital to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improved equity is also important for this purpose, since the demand for high level skills is widespread and the opportunities for the low skilled are diminishing. Improved equity in education is also important for social cohesion. There are countries in which the education system seems primarily to reproduce existing social arrangements, conferring privilege where it already extreme, the capacity of schooling to build social cohesion is often diminished by the way in which school’s separate individuals and groups.

 

 

  1. Australian educational equity

 

Australians seem to accept that a country cannot achieve both educational quality and equity at the same time, curriculum reforms fail to improve equity, however, the need to improve the quality of education is well accepted across OECD and other countries, improved equity is important for social cohesion which is often diminished by separating individuals and groups.

 

It seems that quality and equity in education cannot have both as equity impedes quality, which it actually mistaken because some curriculum merely improve differentiation required in quality, such as treating students with various backgrounds accordingly, but quality and equity improvement both stress on knowledge economies and social cohesion but some countries are diminishing these advantages by separating students into groups.

 

  1. Australian indigenous food

 

In its periodic quest for culinary identity, Australia automatically looks to its indigenous ingredients, the foods that are native to this country. ‘There can be little doubt that using an indigenous product must qualify a dish as Australian notes Stephanie Alexander. Similarly, and without qualification, states that’ A

 

uniquely Australian food culture can only be based upon foods indigenous to this country, although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native foods as national symbols relies more upon their association with ‘nature’ and geographic origin than on common usage. Notwithstanding the lack of justification for the premise that national dishes are, of necessity, founded on ingredients native to the country-after all, Italy’s gastronomic identity is tied to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand^ to then on-indigenous chili-the reality is that Austrians do not eat indigenous foods insignificant quantities. The exceptions are fish, crustaceans and shellfish

 

 

 

 

from oceans, rivers and lakes most of which are unarguably unique to this country. Despite valiant and well-intentioned efforts today at promoting and encouraging the consumption of native resource, bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible. Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity today than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized.

 

  1. Autism

 

Autism is a disorder characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviours. Over the past 40 years, the measured prevalence of autism has multiplied roughly 10-fold. While progress has been made in understanding some of the factors associated with increased risk and rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty what causes autism or what caused autism prevalence to rise so precipitously. There is, however, a growing awareness among scholars that focusing solely on individual risk factors such as exposure toxicants, prenatal complications, or parental education is insufficient to explain why autism prevalence rates have increased so stunningly. Social and institutional processes likely play an important role. For example, changes in diagnostic criteria and an influx of resources dedicated to autism diagnosis may be critical to understanding why prevalence rates have risen. Increased awareness and social influence have been implicated in the rise of autism and a variety of comparable disorders, where social processes mimic the effects of contagion. Studies have examined the contribution of changes in diagnostic criteria and diagnostic substitution to rising autism prevalence rates, but the importance of institutional factors, resources for diagnosis, and greater awareness have not been systematically assessed. The sociological literature on health and inequality, however, provides substantial motivation for exploring how individual- and community-level effects operate to shape the likelihood of an autism diagnosis.

 

 

  1. Benefits of honey

 

According to Dr. Ron Fessenden, M D, M.P.H. the average American consumes more than 150 pounds of refined sugar, plus an additional 62 pounds of high fructose com syrup every year. In comparison, we consume only around1.3 pounds of honey per year on average in the U.S. According to new research, if you can switch out your intake of refined sugar and use pure raw honey instead, the health benefits can be enormous.

 

 

 

 

What is raw honey? It’s a pure, unfiltered and unpasteurized sweetener made by bees from the nectar of flowers. Most of the honey consumed today is processed honey that’s been heated and filtered since it was gathered from the hive. Unlike processed honey, raw honey does not get robbed of its incredible nutritional value and health powers. It can help with everything from low energy to sleep problems to seasonal allergies. Switching to raw honey may even help weight-loss efforts when compared to diets containing sugar or high fructose corn syrup. I’m excited to tell you more about one of my all-time favourite natural sweeteners today.

 

  1. Children watching TV

 

 

Why and to what extent should parents control their Children’s TV watching? There is certainly nothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a child watches and what effect it has on his life. Research has shown that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not only to homework and study but other important aspects of li such as social development and physical activities decreases. Television is bound to have it tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours a week he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about the effects of television, he should consider a number of things: what TV offers the child in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngster his age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and the influence of commercials. What about the family as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Is it flicked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during the daytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do you demonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively?

 

 

 

 

  1. Cities

 

How can we design great cities from scratch if we cannot agree on what makes them great ?None of the cities where people most want to live such as London, New York ,Paris and Hong Kong comes near to being at the top of surveys asking which are best to live in.

 

The top three in the most recent Economist Intelligence Units liveability ranking, for example, were Melbourne, Vancouver and Vienna. They are all perfectly pleasant, but great? The first question to tackle is the difference between liveability and greatness.

 

Perhaps we cannot aspire to make a great city, but if we attempt to make

 

 

 

 

a liveable one, can it in time become great ?

 

There are some fundamental elements that you need. The first is public space. Whether it is Viennas Ringstrasse and Prater Park, or the beaches of Melbourne and Vancouver, these are places that allow the city to pause and the citizens to mingle and to breathe, regardless of class or wealth.

 

Good cities also seem to be close to nature, and all three have easy access to varied, wonderful landscapes and topographies.

 

A second crucial factor, says Ricky Burdett, a professor of urban studies at the London School of Economics, is a good transport system. Affordable public transport is the one thing which cuts across all successful cities, he says.

 

 

  1. Columbus

 

On October 12,1492 (the first day he encountered the native people of the Americas), Columbus wrote in his journal: They should be good servants. I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my departure, six natives for your Highnesses. These captives were later paraded through the streets of Barcelona and Seville when Columbus returned to Spain.

 

From his very first contact with native people, Columbus had their domination in mind. For example, on October 14,1492, Columbus wrote in his journal, with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them. These were not mere words: after his second voyage, Columbus sent back a consignment of natives to be sold as slaves.

 

Yet in an April,1493, letter to Luis de Santangel (a patron who helped fund the first voyage),Columbus made clear that the people he encountered had done nothing to deserve ill treatment.

 

 

 

  1. Compulsory Voting in Australia

 

On October 12,1492 (the first day he encountered the native people of the Americas), Columbus wrote in his journal: They should be good servants. I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my departure, six natives for your Highnesses. These captives were later paraded through the streets of Barcelona and Seville when Columbus returned to Spain.

 

From his very first contact with native people, Columbus had their domination in mind. For example, on October 14,1492, Columbus wrote in his journal, with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to dc

 

 

 

 

what is required of them. These were not mere words: after his second voyage, Columbus sent back a consignment of natives to be sold as slaves.

 

Yet in an April,1493, letter to Luis de Santangel (a patron who helped fund the first voyage),Columbus made clear that the people he encountered had done nothing to deserve ill treatment.

 

 

  1. Diasporas

 

Diasporas -communities which live outside, but maintain links with, their homelands-aee getting larger, thicker and stronger. They are the human face of globalization. Diaspora consciousness is on the rise: diasporas are becoming more interested in their origin, and organizing themselves more effectively; homelands are revising their opinions of their diasporas as the stigma attached to emigration declines, and stepping up their engagement efforts; meanwhile, host countries are witnessing more assertive diasporic groups within their own national communities, worrying about fifth columns and foreign lobbies, and suffering outbreaks of ‘diasporaphobia.’i

 

This trend is the result of five factors, all of them connected with globalization: the growth in international migration; the revolution in transport and communications technology, which is quickening the pace of diasporas’ interactions with their homelands; a reaction against global homogenized culture, which is leading people to rethink their identities; the end of the Cold War, which increased the salience of ethnicity and nationalism and created new space in which diasporas can operate; and policy changes by national governments on issues such as dual citizenship and multiculturalism, which are enabling people to lead transnational lives. Diasporas such as those attaching to China, India, Russia and Mexico are already big, but they will continue to grow, the migration flows which feed them are likely to widen and quicken in the future.

 

  1. House mice

 

According to new research, house mice (Musmusculus) are ideal biomarkers of human settlement as they tend to stow away in crates or on ships that end up going where people go. Using mice as a proxy for human movement can add to what is already known through archaeological data and answer important questions in areas where there is a lack of artefacts, Searle said.

 

Where people go, so do mice, often stowing away in carts of hay or on ships. Despite a natural range of just 100 meters (109 yards) and an

 

 

 

 

evolutionary base near Pakistan, the house mouse has managed to colonize every continent, which makes it a useful tool for researchers like Searle.

 

Previous research conducted by Searle at the University of York supported the theory that Australian mice originated in the British Isles and probably came over with convicts shipped there to colonize the continent in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

 

In the Viking study, he and his fellow researchers in Iceland, Denmark and Sweden took it a step further, using ancient mouse DNA collected from archaeological sites dating from the 10th to 12th centuries, as well as modern mice.

 

He is hoping to.do just that in his next project, which involves tracking the migration of mice and other species, including plants, across the Indian Ocean, from South Asia to East Africa.

 

  1. Human and animals

 

All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has bequeathed them through natural selection. They are not capable of striving towards truth; they simply absorb information, and behave in ways useful for their survival. The kinds of knowledge they require of the world have been largely pre-selected by evolution. No animal is capable of asking question or generating problems that are irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily designed needs. When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies south, it doesn’t wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south. Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to establish human created goals.

Some contemporary thinkers believe that there are indeed certain questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that “Our minds evolved by natural selection to solve problems that were life and death matters to our ancestors, not to commune with connectness or to answer any question we are capable of asking. We cannot hold ten thousand words in our short term memory. We cannot see ultra violet light. We cannot mentally rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot solve conundrums like free will and sentience.”

 

 

 

 

  1. Labour comparative advantage

 

With an abundance of low-priced labour relative to the United States, it is no surprise that China, India and other developing countries specialize in the production of labour-intensive products. For similar reasons, the United States will specialize in the production of goods that are human-and physical-capital intensive because of the relative abundance of a highly-educated labour force and technically sophisticated equipment in the United States.

 

The division of global production should yield higher global output of both types of goods than would be the case if each country attempted to produce both of these goods itself. For example, the United States would produce more expensive labour-intensive goods because of its more expensive labour and the developing countries would produce more expensive human and physical capital-intensive goods because of their relative scarcity of these inputs. This logic implies that the United States is unlikely to be a significant global competitor in the production green technologies that are not relatively intensive in human and physical capital.

 

Nevertheless, during the early stages of the development of a new technology, the United States has a comparative advantage in the production of the products enable by this innovation. However, once these technologies become well-understood and production processes are designed that can make use of less-skilled labour, production will migrate to countries with less expensive labour.

 

  1. Living in countryside

 

I knew it was a good idea because I had been there before. Born and reared on a farm I had been seduced for a few years by the idea of being a big shot who lived and worked in a city rather than only going for the day to wave at the buses. True, I was familiar with some of the minor disadvantages of country living such as an iffy private water supply sometimes infiltrated by a range of Flora and fauna including, on one memorable occasion, a dead lamb, the absence of central heating in farm houses and cottages and a single-track farm road easily blocked by snow, broken-down machinery or escaped livestock.

But there were many advantages as I told Liz back in the mid-Seventies. Town born and bred, eight months pregnant and exchanging a warm, substantial Corstorphine terrace for a windswept farm cottage on a much lower income, persuading her that country had it over town might have been difficult.

 

 

 

 

  1. London

 

Who would have thought back in 1698, as they downed their espressos, that the little band of stockbrokers from Jonathan’s Coffee House in Change Alley EC3 would be the founder members of what would become the world’s mighty money capital?

 

Progress was not entirely smooth. The South Sea Bubble burst in 1720 and the coffee house exchanges burned down in 1748. As late as Big bang in 1986, when bowler hats were finally hung up, you wouldn’t have bet the farm on London surpassing New York, Frankfurt and Tokyo as Mammon’s international nexus. Yet the 325,000 souls who operate in the UK capital’s hub have now overtaken their New York rivals in size of the funds managed (including offshore business); they hold 70% of the global secondary bond market and the City dominates foreign exchange trading. And its institutions paid out £9 billion in bonuses in December. The

 

Square Mile has now spread both eastwards from EC3 to Canary Wharf and westwards into Mayfair, where many of the private equity ‘locusts’ and their hedge fund pals now hang out.

 

For foreigners in finance, London is the place to be. It has no Sarbanes Oxley and no euro to hold it back, yet the fact that it still flies so high is against the odds. London is one of the most expensive cities in the world to live in, transport systems groan and there’s an ever present threat of terrorist attack. But, for the time being, the deals just keep on getting bigger.

 

  1. Malaysia

 

Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region.

 

Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year. Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the world’s tallest buildings and now hold the title of second- tallest. Both the 88 -story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky -bridge on the 41st floor. The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold-painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps. In Sabah state on Borneo island not to be confused with Indonesians Borneo you’ll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five

 

 

 

 

diving sites in the world.

 

You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds. While you’re in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers. Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the Pearl of the Orient. This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.

 

 

 

  1. Rosetta Stone

 

When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to the Stone and white paper was laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text but in reverse. Since then, many copies or facsimiles have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem.

 

An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centre piece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material, the stone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances uncovered were analysed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.

 

 

 

 

  1. Tree ring

 

Here’s how tree ring dating, known to scientists as dendrochronology works. If you cut a tree down today, it’s straightforward to count the rings inwards, starting from the tree’s outside (corresponding to this year’s growth ring), and thereby to state that the 177th ring from the outermost one towards the centre was laid down in the year 2005 minus 177, or 1828. But it’s less straightforward to attach a date to a particular ring in an ancient Anasazi wooden beam because at first you don’t know in what year the beam was cut. However, the widths of tree growth rings vary from year to year, depending on the rain or drought conditions in each year.

 

Hence the sequence of the rings in a tree cross-section is like a message in Morse code formerly used for sending telegraph messages; dot-dot-dash-dot-dash in the Morse code, wide-wide-narrow-wide-narrow in the tree ring sequence. Actually the tree ring sequence is even more diagnostic and richer in information than the Morse code, because trees actually contain rings spanning many different width, rather than the Morse code choice between dot and dash.

 

Tree ring specialists (known as dendrochronologists) proceed by nothing the sequence of wider and narrower rings in a tree cut down in a known recent year, and also nothing the sequences in beams from trees cut down at various times in the past. They then match up and align the tree ring sequences with the same diagnostic wide/narrow patterns from different beams.

 

In that way, dendrochronologists have constructed tree ring records extending back for thousands of years in some parts of the world. Each record is valid for a geographic area whose extent depends on local weather patterns, because weather and hence tree growth patterns vary with location. For instance, the basic tree ring chronology of the American Southwest applies (with some variation) to the area from Northern Mexico to Wyoming.

 

  1. Twins

 

UCLA neurology professor Paul Thompson and his colleagues scanned the brains of 23 sets of identical twins and 23 sets of fraternal twins. Since identical twins share the same genes while fraternal twins share about half their genes, the researchers were able to compare each group to show that myelin integrity was determined genetically in many parts of the brain that are key for intelligence. These include the parietal lobes, which are responsible for spatial reasoning, visual processing and logic, and the corpus callosum, which pulls together information from both sides

 

 

 

 

of the body.

 

The researchers used a faster version of a type of scanner called a HARDI (high-angular resolution diffusion imaging) — think of an MRI machine on steroids — that takes scans of the brain at a much higher resolution than a standard MRI. While an MRI scan shows the volume of different tissues in the brain by measuring the amount of water present, HARDI tracks how water diffuses through the brain’s white matter — a way to measure the quality of its myelin.

 

“HARDI measures water diffusion,” said Thompson, who is also a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro-Imaging. “If the water diffuses rapidly in a specific direction, it tells us that the brain has very fast connections. If it diffuses more broadly, that’s an indication of slower signalling, and lower intelligence.”

 

Essay:

 

  1. It is important to maintain a right balance of your work and other respects of one’slife such as family and leisure sport. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.

 

  1. Is it fair for universities to deduct students’ marks when their assignments are overdue? How to solve this problem?

 

  1. Design of buildings have positive or negative impact on people’s life and work?

 

  1. Experience is more effective and useful than books and formal education. What is your opinion?

 

  1. How widely of you think the problem spreads that people spend too much time on work than their personal life and experience time shortage? What problems will it cause?

 

  1. Younger employees have more skills, knowledge and more motivated than older employees. To what extent do you agree or disagree, support your argument with your own experience.

 

  1. The advanced medical technology expands human’s life. Do you think it is a curse or blessing?

 

  1. Study needs time, peace and comfort, whereas employment needs the same thing. Someone says it is impossible to combine those two because one distracts one another. Do you think this is realistic in our life today?

 To what extent do you agree with it? Support your opinion with example.

 

  1. Government promise continuous economic growth, but it’s actually an illusion. Some people think that governments should abandon this. Please talk about the validity and the implications.

 

  1. Do you think cashless society is realistic and why? What are the advantages and disadvantages? (use of credit card)

 

  1. Governments and international institution are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Measure?

 

  1. Works of literatures are a waste of time for students today. Do you agree or disagree? Use your own experience.

 

  1. In social situations, some people believe that it is better to be a good listener than a good talker. Do you agree or disagree?

 

  1. Young people should not do things like driving or voting. Young people under 25 years old are not responsible enough and lack of life experiences. Discuss and give your opinion with examples.

 

  1. City population has been growing rapidly. To cope with this problem, should we rely on city planners or new policies?

 

  1. Internet or media is bad for young people because they make the young generation poor in communication and forming relationships. Do you agree with this opinion? Please use examples or your personal experience to support your idea.

 

  1. Some people think school leavers should go to find a job rather than university education. Others think the university education is essential for professional development. What’s your opinion of these two views?

 

 

18.Technology allows us to have a useful and interesting life than in the past. Do you agree or disagree?

 

  1. Computer and online games should be banned to students in schools as they have no educational value. What’s your opinion?

 

  1. Workers and nurses should be paid more. What is your opinion?

 

  1. Education is important as it teach ethics and life value as it teaches us practical things for future employment. What is your opinion?

 

  1. Creativity is inborn skill or can be developed through learning? Your opinion.

 

  1. transportation vs build a new building

 

  1. Most people with university degree can earn higher salaries than those who not go to the university, so they should pay full cost of their education. Your opinion.

 

  1. moving from rural areas to big cities will provide more opportunities. Your opinion.

 

  1. Study needs time, peace and comfort, whereas employment needs the same thing. Someone says it is impossible to combine those two because one distracts one another. Do you think this is realistic in our life today? To what extent do you agree with it? Support your opinion with example.

 

  1. Government promise continuous economic growth, but it’s actually an illusion. Some people think that governments should abandon this. Please talk about the validity and the implications.

 

  1. Governments and international institution are faced with many global problems. What these problems could be? Measure them.

 

 Essay answer 

 

 

 

 

PTE April prediction

 

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