PTE Prediction June 2019



  1. The caterpillars that feed on trees are trying to match the hatching of their eggs to the timing of


bud burst. The caterpillars want to feed on the juiciest and least chemically protected leaves. And it’s not just the caterpillars, of course, that are important. But the knock-on effect is on nesting birds, which are also trying to hatch their chicks at the same time that there’s the maximum number of caterpillars.


  1. This study marks the first time scientists have linked dike formation to large, damaging earthquakes, and Wauthier is looking back through history for more examples. She says researchers will never be able to predict exactly when an earthquake might strike after a dike intrusion. But at least now, researchers and rift zone residents know they’re not just in for hangs they may also be in for shudders.


  1. Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe France had one long before indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the vet, idea of a police force was seen as foreign that is, French and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.


  1. A university is not a business. More precisely, a not-for-profit college or university is significantly different than a for-profit business. A university has no owners it is a public trust. Without owners it has no one to pay dividends to, and no one for whom it must maximize its profits. A business has a single over-riding goal: the maximization of return for the owners. A university has a multiplicity of goals: to foster learning, to create knowledge, and to serve its community.


  1. To understand the past you have to be able, as far as possible, to think as the people in the period you are studying thought. The example of what it must have been like to be a peasant in the Middle Ages is used. However, sensibilities change over time and we can’t completely throw off the mentality of the present. Therefore, every age will have a slightly different perspective on the same period of the past, no matter what the facts are.


  1. Trump has threatened to declare China a currency manipulator, but experts say he has little legal or economic basis to take such a step. He has also threatened to impose a tariff of up to 45 percent on Chinese imports if Beijing doesn’t behave a move that could lead to a trade war and damage the economies of both nations.


  1. Each tube-shaped mic-robot is a sandwich of three materials. A graphene outer layer. which binds to heavy metals. A middle layer of nickel, which gives the bots magnetic polarity, so they can he pulled through wastewater with magnets. And platinum inside for propulsion. Just add a bit of peroxide to the wastewater, and it’ll react with the platinum to form water and oxygen bubbles, which propel the tubes along.


  1. By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work having been finished in good time, he has a long interval of rest in the evening before the timely hour when he goes to bed. After a sound night’s rest, he rises early next morning in good health and spirits for the labors of a new day.




  1. Parents can communicate their personal feelings about undesirable programs both by discouraging their children from watching them and by writing to their local television station or to the programs sponsors. The public does have a voice. Clearly, not all programs need please everybody. We do have a choice of programs and we also have a choice, for ourselves and at least for our younger children, of watching or not watching. There is an off button on every set!


  1. Tesla came over from Graz and went to work for Thomas Edison. Nonetheless Edison offered him a job, promising Tesla fifty thousand dollars if Tesla could redesign Edison’s breakdown-prone DC generator designs. The new generator redesign Edison’s breakdown-prone DC generator designs. The new generator designs were a vast improvement over Edison’s originals. Upon completing the job Tesla went to Edison to collect the $50,000 promised for the task. Tesla, Edison replied, you don’t understand our American humor. And Tesla was never paid.


  1. The Office of Personnel Management was the target of the attack, but data from nearly every government agency was stolen. U.S. investigators say they believe Chinese hackers were behind the breach.


  1. While the Republican field is packed with male candidates, so far, some of the sharpest Clinton critiques have come from women.


  1. Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere. This trend began in the middle of the 21Ith century and is one of the major environmental concerns of scientists and governmental officials worldwide. The changes in temperature result mostly from the effect of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.


  1. As far as politics go, the responses are just as varied. Mitigation is common and calls for a reduction of emissions and less reliance on fossil fuels. Coal burning power plants are now replaced with hydraulic power plants and electrical cars are replacing some gasoline efficient cars. Many people, however, feel that this is not enough.


  1. The border itself between Mexico and the United States is fraught with a mix of urban and desert terrain and spans over 1,900 miles. Both the uninhabited areas of the border and urban areas are where the most drug trafficking and illegal crossings take place. Crime is prevalent in urban cities like El Paso, Texas and San Diego, California.


  1. Free trade is an economic policy under which the government does not interfere with trade. No tariffs are applied to imports or exports, and people are allowed to trade goods and services as they please. Supply and demand dictates the prices for which goods and services sell and are the only factors that determine how resources are allocated in society.


  1. Unlike the United Kingdom. which has taken a relatively restrictive approach to the possession of arms, the United States has taken a more lenient approach. In the United States, three models have evolved regarding the interpretation of the meaning of the right to bear and keep arms as delineated in the Second Amendment.


  1. Trade unions originated in Europe during the industrial revolution. Because of the machinery that had become commonplace, skilled labor became less in demand so employers had nearly all of the




bargaining power. Employers mistreated the workers and paid them too little for the work they did.


Trade unions were organized that would help in the improvement of working conditions.


  1. Unions take the power out of the employees hands on many issues. There are examples of cases where workers were engaging in sexual or racial harassment, but were protected by their unions and allowed to keep their jobs. Poor workers and excellent workers olden receive the same pay and raises, giving no reason for a person to work harder than necessary at their job.


  1. Another administration option is to hake marijuana at a relatively low temperature to kill any dangerous microorganisms and then allow that patient to eat it or drink it. Both of these methods of administration make smoking the drug unnecessary. However, criticism of medical marijuana has also been raised because as a natural plant, it cannot he patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies and is unlikely to win widespread medical acceptance.


  1. A smoking ban is a public policy that includes criminal laws and health regulations that prohibit smoking in certain public places and workspaces. There are varying definitions of smoking employed in this legislation. The strictest definitions define smoking as being the inhalation of any tobacco substance while the loosest define smoking as possessing any lit tobacco product.


  1. Welfare has a special political meaning to the United States because it refers to how the poor receives financial aid. In comparison, welfare services are regarded as a universal right in other regions like Europe, where it is believed that all citizens should be able to obtain a minimal level of social support and well-being.


  1. The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytical of brain.


  1. Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to collect, study. exchange and display plants for research and for the education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are primarily engaged in the breeding, preservation, study and display of native and/or exotic fauna in captivity.


  1. Market research is vital part of the planning of any business. However, experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field, if you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area. It is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.


  1. The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things — so he begun to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.


  1. Researchers gathered 160 non-caffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took




either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you’d get from two cups of coffee.


    1. There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don’t bother themselves with aesthetics: others see it as an essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room – in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art.


  1. Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats travelled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes and objects made by hand.


  1. As n historian, if you really want to understand the sensibilities of those who lived in the past, you must be like a novelist and get into the skins of characters and think and feel as they do. You are asked to imagine what it’s like to be a peasant in medieval times, asking the sort of questions a peasant might ask. What the writer is saying is that a historian needs imaginative sympathy with ordinary people in the past.


  1. Humans need to use energy in order to exist. So it is unsurprising that the way people have been producing energy is largely responsible for current environmental problems. Pollution comes in many forms, but those that are most concerning, because of their impact on health, result from the combustion of fuels in power stations and cars.


  1. A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or movies. One argument is that this is to everyone’s benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have, but is rarely done successfully.


  1. History rubs shoulders and often overlaps with many other areas of research, from myths and epics to the social sciences, including economics, politics. Biograph, demography, and much else besides. Some histories are almost pure narratives, while others go in for detailed, tightly-focused analyses of, for example, the parish records of a Cornish village in the 16th century.


  1. In the Middle Ages, the design and use of flags were considered a means of identifying social status. Flags were, therefore, the symbols not of nations, but of the nobility. The design of each flag resembled the “devices” on the noble’s Coat of Arms, and the size of the flag was an indication of how high the owner stood in the nobility.


  1. Many papers you write in college will require include quotes from one or more sources. Even if you don’t have to do it, integrating a few quotes into your writing can add life and persuasiveness to your arguments. The key is to use quotes to support a point you’re trying to make rather than just include them to fill space.


  1. A university is a lot more than just classes and exams, university is a concept that offers you a host of possibilities to develop both academically and personally. Find out about the different projects, clubs and societies that are in your university. You will definitely find something you are interested in.




  1. Moods may also have an effect on how information is processed, by influencing the extent to Positive moods promote more holistic and top-down processing style, while negative moods recruit more stimulus-driven and bottom-up processing, which judges rely on pre-existing, internal information, or focus on new, external information.


  1. Integration is increasingly needed in the business environment. This need emerges from the efficiency and synergy requirements necessary in a complex and turbulent environment. In other words, integration is needed to facilitate coordination, which is again related to the building of competitive advantage.


  1. The numbers on US student debt, after all, are truly staggering. The average 2015 US university graduate who took out loans to help pay for tuition enters the workforce with $35,000 in student debt.


  1. The insults and criticism were not unexpected. What was surprising was people’s enthusiasm about the competition. Thousands have participated in the discussion.


  1. Reiss took a stab at settling the argument with a meta-analysis-a study of studies on whether people can really perceive better-than-CD quality sound. He analyzed data from 18 studies, including more than 400 participants and nearly 13,000 listening tests. Overall, listeners picked out the better-than-CD-quality track 52.3 % of the time. Statistically significant, if not all that impressive.


  1. There are three main interpretations of the English Revolution. The longest lasting interpretation was that the Revolution was the almost inevitable outcome of an age-old struggle between parliament and crown. The second sees it as a class struggle and a lead-up to the French and other revolutions. Finally, the third interpretation sees the other two as too fixed, not allowing for unpredictability, and that the outcome could have gone either way.


  1. The tsunamis could provide crucial information about the habitability of ancient Mars. The first one occurred when the planet must have been relatively warm and amenable for life, because it carved out backwash channels as it returned to the sea. By contrast, the planet had become much cooler by the time the second tsunami hit-the waters apparently flash-froze after flowing the surface.


  1. “Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride,” writes Judith A. Adams in The American Amusement Park Industry. “His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and drizzling electric lights.”


  1. Usually, age is determined by physical characteristics, such as teeth or bones. Great- if you have a body. Researchers have tried successfully to use blood. But in this study, the scientists used immune cells called T-cells recognize invaders through receptors that match molecules on bacteria, viruses even tumors. The cellular activity that produces these receptors also produces a type of circular DNA molecule as a byproduct.




  1. For the purposes of argument, culture is divided into material and non-material, and the speaker’s aim is to show how they both affect each other. Material developments in tools and technology can affect non-material culture, our customs and beliefs, and the other way around. Genetics is used as an example as it has changed the way we think about life, but also our beliefs have affected its rate of development.


  1. Networking is easy and fun because it taps into this human predilection to talk about ourselves when asked. Consider successful networking as little more than the process of guiding a person to tell you about his life, what he’s doing, the company that employs him, and his current industry.


  1. The second group that is particularly vulnerable are night shift workers … and the third group that is particularly vulnerable are people with sleep disorders, particularly sleep apnea. One out of three men and one out of six women have sleep apnea. And yet, 85 percent are undiagnosed and untreated. And it more than doubles the risks of crashes.


  1. Unlike the United Kingdom: which has taken a relatively restrictive approach to the possession of antis, the United States has taken a more lenient approach. In the United States, three models have evolved regarding the interpretation of the meaning of the right to bear and keep arms as delineated in the Second Amendment.


  1. It’s not that human activities didn’t impact wildlife at all of course. Heavily hunted species, like white-tailed deer, grey squirrels, and raccoons, were photographed somewhat less often in hunted areas. Coyotes showed up more often in hunted areas. While most species didn’t avoid hiking trails, the predators actually preferred them.


  1. Unions take the power out of the employer’s hands on many issues. There examples of cases where workers were engaging in sexual or racial harassment, but were protected by their unions and allowed to keep their jobs. Poor workers and excellent workers often receive the same pay and raises, giving no reason for a person to work harder than necessary at their job.


  1. Dolphins, whales and porpoises are social animals, but some species are more sociable than others. This depends on the environment because a species adopts the lifestyle most suitable for this. Among dolphins, forming makes it easier for them to find food, reproduce and gain knowledge. They are safer too, because dolphins can communicate danger when there are threats around.


  1. For centuries. Atlantis has been one of the western world’s favorite legends. A tantalizing blend of fantasy and mystery. Stories tell of a rich and glorious empire that was lost to the sea-where some hope its ruins still lie, waiting to be discovered.


  1. Welfare has a special political meaning to the United States because it refers to how the poor receives financial aid. In comparison, welfare services are regarded as a universal right in other regions like Europe, where it is believed that all citizens should be able to obtain a minimal level of social support and well-being.


  1. Although introvert and extrovert personality types differ from one another on various grounds, the major difference between the two is their source of rejuvenation. While for extroverts, this may




mean interaction or excursions with friends and family, the same may mean reading a book or listening to music for introverts.


  1. Avalanche, rapidly descending large mass of snow, ice, soil, rock, or mixtures of these materials, sliding or fulling in response to the force of gravity. Avalanches. which are natural forms of erosion and often seasonal, are usually classified by their content such as a debris or snow avalanche.


  1. The funding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because energy efficacy of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability.


  1. Studies funded by the soft drink industry are more likely to mask links to obesity and type two diabetes, according to a new report. He added that biases in industry-funded studies were not usually due to poor methodology, but due to inherent problems in their design, including poor choice of comparators and problems with the way data is analyzed and reported.


  1. The elaborate and refined Japanese tea ceremony is meant to demonstrate respect through grace and good etiquette as demonstrated here by Genshitsu Sen. 15th Grand Master of the Urasenke Tea School.


  1. Cheerful sunny yellow is an attention getter. While it is considered an optimistic color, people lose their tempers more often in yellow rooms, and babies will cry more. It is the most difficult color for the eye to take in. so it can be overpowering if overused. Yellow enhances concentration, hence its use for legal pads. It also speeds metabolism.


  1. Introverts (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tend to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.


  1. This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because the energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability.


  1. Free trade is an economic policy under which the government does not interfere with trade. No tariffs are applied 10 imports or exports, and people are allowed to trade goods and services as they please. Supply and demand dictates the prices for which goods and services sell and are the only factors that determine how resources are allocated in society.


  1. For centuries, Atlantis has been one of the western world’s favorite legends, a tantalizing blend of fantasy and mystery. Stories tell of a rich and glorious empire that was lost to the sea-where some hope its ruins still lie, waiting to be discovered.


  1. Using more than fifty interviews, award-winning writer Danny Danziger creates a fascinating mosaic of the people behind New York’s magnificent Metropolitan Museum of Art from the aristocratic, acerbic director of the museum, Philippe de Motebello, to the curators who have deep knowledge and passionate appreciation of their collections from the security guards to the philanthropists who keep the museum’s financial life blood flowing.




  1. The student’s reading in his own subject slows down, and his comprehension becomes less secure. He expresses himself slowly and often fails to convey his ideas exactly. He is disappointed to find that under pressure he makes a lot of unnecessary mistakes in areas where he knows the correct language forms. His social relations are difficult as he cannot find the right phrase quickly enough to keep a conversation going, so his language often betrays him into dullness, coldness, or worst of all, rudeness. Instead of the students being in control of the language, the language seems now to be in control of the students.


  1. In the past, naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction, however, all this has changed. Unknown items of grammar and vocabulary appear in texts which attempt to explain new and often difficult information. Difficulties with the language interact with difficulties as regards the subject matter.



  1. 69. IT may well change the way you live, yet again. Welcome to the world mobile commerce. where your hand-held device, it a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or any other wireless application will soon be used for commercial transactions. Skeptical? Consider these facts in Japan, mobile phones are used for location based services where the mobile service provider tie up with a host of other players such as restaurants, car rental companies etc. When the mobile use enters that zone, massages from all these players are flashed on the mobile device. Location base services arc proved in several other countries as well.


  1. Analysts were impressed by the improvement in margins reported across all regions, apart from the United Kingdom, and said that this reflected a clear effort to improve profitability across the business. Although the turnaround is still in its early stages and the valuation looks full, given the challenge of turning around such a large and complex business, this is certainly an impressive start


  1. In a genuine republic the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States make it dependent on the will of the society.


  1. In 2005. donor countries agreed on an accord to harmonize their practices. Since then, aid officials have complained that too little has Changed on the ground. Conferences of donors in developing countries still tend to be dominated by a small group of north European governments, with the US often absent.


  1. The climate for doing business improved in Egypt more than in any other country last year, according to a global study that revealed a wave of company-oriented reforms across the Middle East. The World Bank rankings, which look at business regulations, also showed that the pace of business reforms in Eastern Europe was overtaking East Asia.


  1. One of the unidentifiable objects in this study lies just outside Centaurus A (NGC 5128). an elliptical galaxy located about 12 million light-years from Earth. The other is in a globular cluster of




stars found just outside NGC 4636, another elliptical galaxy located 47 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Virgo.


  1. Since Plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate or we “blink” and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind’s black box with the latest tools of neuro science, they’re discovering that this not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason – and the precise mix depends on the situation.


  1. The development of easy-to-use statistics is being taught and learned. Students can make transformations of variables, create graphs of distributions of variables, and select among statistical analyses all at the click of a button. However, even with these advancements, students sometimes find statistics to be an arduous task.


  1. First discovered in 2007, “fast radio burst” continue to defy explanation. These cosmic chirps last a thousandth of a second. The characteristics of the radio pulses suggested that they came from galaxies billions of light-years away. However, new works points to a much closer origin-flaring star within our own galaxy.


  1. Ever since I remembered, Father woke up early, made breakfast for us all and read newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer.


  1. Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups arc more often used for qualitative research purposes.


  1. The coastal wetlands have environmental and economic importance. Wetlands provide natural wealth. They have important filtering capabilities. As the runoff water passes, they retain excess nutrients and some pollutants. They maintain water flow during dry periods. Thousands of people depend on groundwater for drinking. They act as natural sponges of flood waters and contain soil erosion. They control floods and save the buildings from collapsing during heavy rains. The hardwood-riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River can store sixty days of floodwater.


  1. Historically what has been used to estimate bats has been photographic estimates, visual estimates, mark-recapture estimates, and those have been highly prone to bias. Newer technology. like thermal imaging cameras is accurate, but expensive. So at a time of epic bat mortality-due to, for example, the fungal white nose syndrome that’s wiping out bats in Canada and the U.S.


  1. But they did find something that had a much bigger impact on wildlife: habitat quality. The best predictor of wildlife abundance was not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity, nearby housing density, and the amount of adjacent agriculture. The results were published in the Journal of Applied Ecology.


  1. The initial thud comes from when those dorsal bursae collide. And the reverberation results from the vibrations that linger when the tissues pull apart. But Thode the younger says the bursae have to be somewhat sticky for the clapping together and snapping apart to produce a noise with the correct loudness and pitch. That stickiness comes courtesy of the mucus.




  1. Domestication is an evolutionary, rather than a political, development. They were more likely to survive and prosper in an alliance with humans than on their own. Humans provided the animals with food and protection, in exchange for which the animals provided the humans their milk and eggs and their flesh.


  1. Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in part because it doesn’t seem to have any relatives. What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility or contempt.


87.The problem begins with the alphabet itself. Building a spelling system for English using letters that come from Latin— despite the two languages not sharing exactly the same set of sounds — is like building a playroom using an IKEA office set.



88.Modem buildings have to achieve certain performance requirements, at least to satisfy those of building codes, to provide a safe, healthy, and comfortable environment. However, these conditioned environments demand resources in energy and materials, which are both limited in supply, to build and operate.


89.Three professors from Hamburg University’s medical faculty travelled last month to Ingeborg’s sitting room in East Berlin to test her on the work she carried out in pre-war Germany.


90.This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability.


91.The numbers on US student debt, after all, are truly staggering. The average 2015 US university graduate who took out loans to help pay for tuition enters the workforce with $35,000 in student debt.


92.The insults and criticism were not unexpected. What was surprising was people’s enthusiasm about the competition. Thousands have participated in the discussion.


  1. Who do you think is the most glamorous person? A biotechnologist who led his company in international research, an ordinary welder who gained international fame through his work or a photographer complimented widely for a series of photos?


  1. In the photo, the wild cat’s huge paws are clamped onto the side of the white safari Jeep in which Chappell was a passenger. Almost as tall as the Jeep on her hind legs, she appears to be forcing her muzzle into the back window.


  1. Apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort and justifiable as a military necessity.






  1. Please finish all the reading chapters before field trip.


  1. The results of the study underscored the discoveries from early detection.


  1. The professor has promised to put his lecture notes online.


  1. I don’t like cheese tomato sandwich on white bread.


  1. Your enrolment information, results and fees will be available online.


  1. We are delighted to have professor Robert to join our faculty


  1. There is no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.


  1. If you forgot your student number, you should contact Jenny Brice.


  1. You should raise your concern with the head of the school.


    1. Physics is the subject of matters and energy.


  1. The theoretical proposal was challenged to grass.


  1. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.


  1. Would you prepare some PowerPoint slides with appropriate graphs?


  1. The psychology department is looking for volunteers to be involved in research projects.


  1. The college welcomes students from all over the world.


  1. All students and staff have the access to printers and laptops


  1. And in this regard, as well as in other regards this consideration is important.


  1. As for me, it is a strategy, to go to xxx.


  1. Allergy problems do run in the family but we don’t understand why.


  1. Any text or references you make should be cited appropriately in the footnotes.


  1. Anyone who has a problem with their accommodation should speak to the welfare officer.


  1. Being a student representative on the union really cuts into my study time.


  1. Conferences are always scheduled on the third Wednesday of the month.


  1. Distance learning has become far more popular these days.


  1. Doing this research makes me think of the purpose of science.


  1. Don’t forget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.


  1. Farmers do not always receive the price for agricultural goods.


  1. I believe children should read aloud more.


  1. I still don’t understand the last sentence.


  1. I think the university’s main campus is closed.


  1. I thought the mid-term exam was only worth half of our course grade.




  1. I will be in my office every day from eleven to twelve.


  1. I will check again but I am pretty sure we are supposed to read chapter two.


  1. I’ve got a tutorial in an hour and I haven’t had any time to prepare for it.


  1. It is important that you work as a team on this project.


  1. It is important to take gender into account when discussing the figures.


  1. It’s the words of common occurrence that have different referential values.


  1. It’s time to finalize the work before the Wednesday seminar.


  1. Journalism is the collection and publication or transmission of news.


  1. Just wait a minute, I will be with you shortly.


  1. Many of the most popular courses are available online.


  1. Meeting with tutors could be arranged for students who need additional help.


  1. Meteorology is a subject of the earth’s atmosphere.


  1. Modern poetry often tests the conventions of language and rhythm.


  1. More females than males graduated from universities last year.


  1. Most of the assignments should be submitted on the same day.


  1. On this project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.


  1. Residents hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time in the semester.


  1. She is an expert of the 18th century French literature.


  1. She was always here, but today, she is missed.


  1. 51. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.


  1. Student services provide help with housing and transport.


  1. Students are held accountable for adhering to establish community standards.


  1. Students must observe lab safety regulations at all time.


  1. Studies suggest there may be a correlation between educational achievement and family size.


  • The aesthetic implications of this study have not yet been fully explored.


  1. The agricultural sector in that country has heavily subsidized.


  1. The application form is available in the office.


  1. The author expressed a XXX that modern readers XXX cannot accept.


  1. The current statistical evidence indicates the need for further research.


  1. The development was mainly included in chapter nine.


  1. The first few sentences of an essay should capture the readers’ attention.


  1. The information on the internet becomes more reliable.


  1. The inherent tension between these two features remains to be addressed.




  1. The initial results are intriguing, however, statistically speaking they are insignificant.


  1. The library will be closed for 3 days over the bank holiday weekend.


  1. The majority of the hardware that we are using was built for a customer.


  1. The office said Dr. Smith would arrive later today.


  1. The recent study has thrown out the validity of the argument.


  1. The research paper should begin with a thorough review of the literature.


  1. The results will be available in the main course and online.


  1. The School of Arts and Design has an open day on Thursday next week.


  1. The study showed that people’s mood could be affected by news and weather reports.


  1. The topic next week on colonial will be the nuclear disarmament.


  1. The trial is to increase the interests of the issue and the jurisdiction.


  1. The wheelchair lift has been upgraded this month.


  1. There are lots of people competing for the places in computer courses.


  1. There will be a guest lecturer visiting the department next month


  1. This can be used as a starting point of my discussion today.


  1. This year we are applying to use a different type of assessment on this module.


  1. To receive the reimbursement, you must keep the original receipts.


  1. Try to explain how your ideas are linked so that there is a logical flow.


  1. We don’t have enough evidence to draw conclusions.


  1. We don’t teach in the same way that we used to.


  1. We must put great care when analyzing the data.


  1. We offer a broad range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses.


  1. We would like a first draft of the assignment by Monday.


  1. We’ve decided to ask you to write four short pieces of written coursework this semester.


  1. Would you pass me the book on the left hand side?


  1. You will be informed of the results by email.


  1. You will be less stressed if you are well prepared for the exam.


  1. Rules of breaks and lunch time vary from one country to another.


  1. My tutorial class will begin at the next Monday’s morning.


  1. Company exists for money, not for society.


  1. We provide a wide range of courses to undergraduate and postgraduate students.


  1. The original Olympic game is one kind of original festival.


  1. Acupuncture is a technique involved in traditional Chinese medicine




  1. Don’t forget to do a library tour on the first week of your semester.


  1. A periodical is a publication that is issued regularly.


  1. All essays and seminar papers submitted must be emailed to your tutor.


  1. All students are encouraged to vote in the forthcoming elections.


  1. Does the college refectory offer vegetarian dishes on a daily basis?


  1. During the next few centuries, London will become one of the most powerful and prosperous cities in Europe.


  1. Essays should be typed with double space in white paper.


  1. Fees are heavily discounted and bursaries are available for delegates.


  1. He was not the only one to call for legal reforms in the 16th century.


  1. Higher numbers of patients were infected than during previous outbreaks of illness.


  1. However, this method is problematic in terms of accuracy.


  1. I will now demonstrate how the reaction can be arrested by adding a dilute acid.


  1. If you want to quit the student union, tell the registrar.


  1. I’ll start with a brief history of the district, and then focus on the life in the first half of the 20th century.


  1. In the last few weeks, we’ve been looking at various aspects of the social history of London.


  1. In the past, students were required to complete two long written assignments.


  1. International students can get help with locating housing near the university.


  1. It is quite clear that the rising prosperity does not make people feel more content.


  1. Knives and forks should be placed next to the spoons on the edge of the table.


  1. Make sure you correctly cite all your sources. > 118. Many of the urban poor lived in an extremely cramped condition.


  1. Maybe it is time for me to make some changes.


  1. Most students are not eligible to claim housing benefits.


  1. Many of his research objectives are driven by his natural curiosity and instincts.


  1. New timetables will be posted on the student notice board.


  1. New York City is famous for its ethnic diversity.


  1. Next time, we will discuss the influence of the media on public policy.


  1. Novelists have a major role to play in reflecting their time to their readers.


  1. Our class is divided into two groups. You come with me, the others stay here.


  1. Overcrowding, poor sanitation affected the daily lives of the majority of the population.


  1. Parents should provide guidance and examples to children’s values.




  1. Please come to the next seminar properly prepared.


  1. Please hand in assignments at the main office.


  1. Please have copies of your seminar papers in the library a week in advance.


  1. Professor Smith will be late for today’s lecture.


  1. Students are held accountable for adhering to established community standards.


  1. Students need to finish their assignments during the next four weeks.


  1. That brief outline takes us to the beginning of the 20th century.


  1. The arts magazine is looking for a new assistant editor.


  1. The campus tour will help you get familiar with the teaching facilities.


  1. The circulation desk is located on the ground floor.


  1. The country suffered a series of invasions by tribes on present-day Germany and Denmark.


  1. The date of the invention of the first clock is disputed among historians.


  1. The development is mainly included in chapter 9.


  1. The drama society is now auditioning for parts in the student play.


  1. The English word Typhoon comes from the Chinese word big wind.


  1. The final year will consist of four taught courses and one project.


  1. The fire left the area almost completely devoid of vegetation.


  1. The lecture on child psychology has been postponed until Friday.


  1. The lecture would deal with the influence of technology on music.


  1. The maximum production of chocolate is in the U.S. #1575 2017-08


  1. The medical centre is located near the supermarket on North Street.


  1. The meeting will take place in the main auditorium.


  1. The mismatch between the intended and reported uses of the instrument has become clear.


  1. The part of the story is the story of my father.


  1. The professor will talk about the summary in the lecture.


  1. The Romans left in 410 at the beginning of the fifth century.


  1. The seminar will be on the last week of the quarter.


  1. The smoke from these contributed a great deal to the air pollution.


  1. The student welfare officer can help with questions about exam techniques.


  1. The technology they didn’t introduce meant that metal and leather goods were produced there for the first time.


  1. The visiting professor is going to give a lecture for geology.


  1. There are hundreds of clubs and societies to choose from.




  1. There is a position available for a junior lecturer in media studies.


  1. There is plenty of cheap accommodation off-campus.


  1. There will be a significant rise in tuition fees starting next year.


  1. There will be no extensions given for this project.


  1. A lot of agricultural workers came to the East End to look for alternative work.


  1. This article covers whom, where and when of the conflict.


  1. The course exams one of the profound ethical dilemmas.


  1. Tutorials are held for two hours every Thursday during the semester.


  1. We are also going to be more prescriptive about what you focus on in your presentation.


  1. The books reserved in the library can be borrowed for up to 3 hours.


  1. We are not going to accept the assignment after the due date on Friday.


  1. We are warning the clients that the rates are increasing


  1. We’d like people to write a case study, describing an organization they know.


  1. The pharmacy was closed when I went past this morning.


  1. The cafe house is closed down but the snack machine will be running throughout the night.


  1. We will discuss these two pictures in the next lecture.


  1. We’ve decided to ask you to write four short pieces of written coursework this year.


  1. You must establish a day and a time with your tutor.


  1. You will be informed of the results by e-mail.


  1. You will find the economics section on the second floor of the library.


  1. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.


  1. Would you pass the book on the left hand side?


  1. There are no scheduled classes during the final exam weeks.


  1. Doctor Green’s office has been moved to the second floor of the building.


  1. The economics class will take place in the main lecture room.


  1. Students can get access to computers on a daily basis.


  1. Elephant is the largest mammal on the land.


  1. Students can download the materials on the website.


  1. They were struggling to pay their fees last year.


  1. The seminar on writing skills has been cancelled.





  1. Infinite Monkey Theorem


The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type a given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare. In this context. “almost surely” is a mathematical term with a precise meaning, and the “monkey” is not an actual monkey, but a metaphor for an abstract device that produces a random sequence of letters ad infinitum. The theorem illustrates the perils of reasoning about infinity by imagining a vast but finite number, and vice versa. The probability of a monkey exactly typing a complete work such as Shakespeare’s Hamlet is so tiny that the chance of it occurring during a period of time of the order of the age of the universe is minuscule, but not zero.



But technologies can help monkeys to write. If the monkeys are given a pen and some papers to spell the word “monkey”, they can only scratch on the paper. By contrast, if they are given a typewriter, it will take them over 10 years to produce the right spelling. However, if they can use computer programing, they can finish the task within a day.




1.This lecture talks about infinite monkey theorem and technology the speaker mentions that on a keyboard, a monkey will almost surely type a given text such as the complete works of William Shakespeare. It is a metaphor for an abstract device that produces a random sequence.


2.She further suggests that without the devices, only given a pen and some papers they may only scratch on the paper.


3.In general, this lecture talks about infinite monkey theorem and the benefits of technology.




  1. Sound Receptor


Reference: httn://




You’ve got sound receptors in your ear and they are beautiful. We’re not going to talk about them at any length. but there’s little flappy, these little spiky things going along in your ear and they can translate vibrational energy coming from your ear, hurting your eardrum, being translated into a vibration into the fluid in your ear into a physical motion of these little receptors there into an electrical motion, into an electrical signal that goes into your ear.


So, all of that, all of that’s pretty impressive stuff. We’re not going to talk about the details of it, but I invite some of you who want to learn more about this, particularly MIT students I think find receptors really quite remarkable kinds of devices.










  1. This lecture is about sound receptor, which we have in our ears 4 According to the lecture, the speaker mentioned that sound receptor can translate vibrational energy through the fluid into a physical motion, after that these physical motion will be converted into electrical signal, electrical signal, which goes into your ears.


  1. Finally, the speaker mentioned that he is not going to talk all details of it. but invite some students who are interested.





  1. Dimension




One dimension: use longitude to locate somewhere near equator.


Two dimensions: use longitude and latitude to locate somewhere on the surface.



Three dimensions: use longitude, latitude and altitude to locate somewhere over the surface.



Four dimensions: use longitude, latitude, altitude and time to locate somewhere in the space need more dimensions to specify the outer space




1.The lecture is about how to use dimension to specify position.


  1. According to the lecture, longitude can be used to describe the position near equator.


  1. Two dimensions contain two variables including longitude and latitude, which are used to describe locations on earth.



4 Three dimensions contain 3 variables including longitude. latitude, and altitude. which are used to describe locations over the surface.


  1. Four dimensions is used to locate the space.




  1. Welsh Speaker Reference Reading:




Welsh is a Celtic language spoken in Wales by about 740,000 people, and in the Welsh colony in Patagonia, Argentina by several hundred people. There are also Welsh speakers in England. Scotland. Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand.


At the beginning of the 20th century about half of the population of Wales spoke Welsh as an everyday language. Towards the n of the century. the of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%. According to the 2001 census 582,368 people can speak Welsh, 659,301 people can either speak, read or write Welsh, and 797,717 people. 28% of the population, claimed to have some knowledge of the language.


According to a survey carried out by S4C. the Welsh language TV channel, the number of Welsh speakers in Wales is around 750,000. and about 1.5 million people can ‘understand’ Welsh. In addition, there are an estimated 133,000 Welsh-speakers living in England, about 50.000 of them in the Greater London area.




1.Wash is a Celtic language spoken in Wales by about 700k people.


2.There are also Welsh speakers in England. Scotland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.


3.At the beginning of 20th century about half of the population of Wales spoke Welsh: however, at the end of the century the percentage of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%.









  1. Haussmann’s renovation of Paris:







Napoleon 111 instructed Haussmann to bring air and light to the center of the city, to unify the different neighborhoods with boulevard, and to make the city more beautiful. It included the demolition of medieval neighborhoods that were deemed overcrowded and unhealthy by officials at the time; the building of wide avenues; new parks and squares; the annexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris; and the construction dismissed by Napoleon III in 1870; but work on his projects continued until 1927. The street plan and distinctive appearance of the center of Paris today is largely the result of Haussmann’s renovation.




Napoleon Ill reconstruction/renovation of Paris:


  1. This lecture mainly talks about the renovation of Paris in 1890’s. The renovation was a vast public program commissioned by Napoleon the third and directed by Haussmann.


  1. Napoleon the third constructed Haussmann to bring air and light to the center of Paris and to drain the sewages.


  1. And he also asked Haussmann’s to plant more trees. build roads and to make the city safer.


  1. The reason for doing this was that the old Paris had many serious problems such as overcrowding, diseases and crimes.




  1. Bomb calorimeter thermos mechanics:








A bomb calorimeter is a type of constant-volume calorimeter used in measuring the heat of combustion of a particular reaction. Bomb calorimeters have to withstand the large pressure within the calorimeter as the reaction is being measured. Electrical energy is used to ignite the fuel; as the fuel is burning, it will heat up the surrounding air, which expands and escapes through a tube that leads the air out of the calorimeter. When the air is escaping through the copper tube it will also heat up the water outside the tube. The change in temperature of the water allows for calculating calorie content of the fuel.




  1. The lecture is about bomb calorimeter, which is a tool to measure the amount of heat released by the food during combustion.


  1. It consists of two vessels: outer vessel and including insulation, ignition, thermometer, air space, and chamber.


  1. Food is burned under controlled conditions, break chemical bonds and release free energy.


4 Scientists use the thermometer to measure the temperature of the water to calculate the calorie of the food.


  1. Western countries child birth rate:



  1. The lecture talks about the child birth rates in Europe.


  1. In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that the rate decreases to historical low in about 1.1-1.2% in recent years.


  1. The reason is that women in Europe are unwilling to give birth especially those young women under 30 years old.


  1. However, the social status of men remains the same without any changes.


  1. Finally, the speaker concludes that the low childbirth rate is related to women’s boyfriends, especially unemployed boyfriends.



  1. Western countries expenditure on education institutions:

























  1. The lecture compares the expenses of education institutions, which was insufficient in comparison to other European countries including Italy, Denmark and Spain.


  1. The expenditure of Italy and France is close to that of UK.


  1. By contrast, Denmark and Finland spent much more than the rest of the European countries.





  1. Light Speed:


It was identified last century, many scientists tried to calculate and measure the speed of light but until someone (name) designed a method (name) to figure it out, then we have light speed. Later, experiments found this is still not accurate.




  1. The contribution of Churchill:





The Right Honorable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG. OM, CH, FRS, PC (November 30. 1874 —January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as prime minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. At various times a soldier, journalist, author, and politician. Churchill is generally regarded as one of the most important leaders in British and world history. Considered reactionary on some issues, such as granting independence to Britain’s colonies and at times regarded as a self-promoter who changed political parties to further his career. it was his wartime leadership that earned him iconic status. Some of his peace-time decisions, such as restoring the Gold Standard in 1924. were disastrous as was his World War I decision to land troops on the Dardanelles. However, during 1940. when Britain alone opposed Hitler’s Nazi Germany in the free world. his stirring speeches inspired, motivated, and uplifted a whole people during their darkest hour.


Churchill saw himself as a champion of democracy against tyranny. and was profoundly aware of his own role and destiny. Indeed, he believed that God had placed him on earth to carry out heroic deeds for the protection of Christian civilization and human progress. A providential understanding of history would concur with Churchill’s self-understanding. Considered old-fashioned. even reactionary by some people today, he was actually a visionary whose dream was of a united world, beginning with a union of the English-speaking peoples. then embracing all cultures. In his youth, he cut a dashing figure as a cavalry officer as seen in the 1972 film Young Winston (directed by Richard Attenborough), but the images of him that are the most widely remembered are as a rather overweight, determined, even pugnacious looking senior statesman as he is depicted to the right.




1.Winston Churchill was a British Statesman. known as the prime minister of the UK during the Second World War.


  1. He granted independence to Britain’s colonies.


  1. Some of his peacetime decisions were disastrous, such as restoring Gold Standard.


4.During the second world war, he helped British to fight against Nazi Germany and his speech insp.


and motivated a lot of people during the darkest time.




  1. Minority Language extinction:





This lecture talks about the extinction of small/minority languages at an accelerating speed. The speaker firstly mentioned that the increasing language disappearing speed is caused by globalization and urbanization. Then he talked about people move to urban areas, where it is hard for small languages to survive and people feel pressured to speak their minor languages. Finally, the speaker said people are more likely to preserve their minority languages in regional areas, such as isolated islands.


  1. Reason: globalization & urbanization


  1. Compare the pace of extinction in regional areas and urban areas.


  1. The main reason for this trend is urbanization. where people are moving to cities and are more likely to speak mainstream language.


  1. Regional areas: more likely to preserve minority language.





  1. Coffee:




Coffee was introduced to Vietnam in 1837 by the French and slowly grew as producer of coffee in Asia. The height of coffee production occurred in the early 20th century as small-scale production shifted towards plantations. The first instant coffee plant, Coronel Coffee Plant, was established in Bien Hoa, Dong Nai Province in 1969, with a production capacity of 80 tons per year.


The Vietnam War disrupted production of coffee in the Buan Ma Thuot region, the plateau on which the industry was centered. Although seldom involved in conflict, the area was a crossroads between North and South and was largely depopulated. After the North Vietnamese victory, the industry, like most agriculture, was collectivized, limiting private enterprise and resulting is low production.


Following Doi moi reforms in 1986, privately owned enterprise was once again permitted, resulting in a surge of growth in the industry. Cooperation between growers. producers and government resulted in branding finished coffees and exporting products for retail. It was during this time that many new companies involved in coffee production were established, including DAK Lak-based Trung Nguyen in 1996 and Highlands Coffee in 1998. Both of these continued on to establish major brands distributed through a widespread network of coffee shops.


By the late 1990s. Vietnam had become the world’s #2 coffee producer after Braid, but production was hugely focused on Robusta beans—considered inferior to Arabica due to their bitterness- for export as a commodity.




Recent government initiatives have sought to improve the quality of coffee exports, including more widespread planting of Arabica beans, the development of mixed-bean coffees, and specialty coffee such as kopi luwak .


By 2000, coffee production had grown to 900,000 tons per year. Price decreases, however, led annual production to drop to around 600,000 tons/year in 2003. In 2009, Reuters reported Vietnamese coffee exports at “an estimated 1.13 million tones” for the previous year, stating that coffee was second only to rice in value of agro-products exported from Vietnam.


The country’s 2013/2014 coffee crop is expected to be a bumper harvest of around 17 million to 29.5 million 60-kg bags. Such a large production will add to a global oversupply of beans and will pressure coffee prices which have lost about 10 percent since October 2012. The country’s coffee industry has taken a hit; of the 127 local coffee export firms that operated in 2012, 56 have ceased trading or shifted to other businesses after having taken out loans they can’t repay. A few firms, such as Vietnam’s top coffee exporter the Intimex Group, will benefit from the 2013 harvest. Intimex accounts for a quarter of the country’s coffee exports and made $1.2 billion in revenue in 2012.



The amount of non-performing loans or debts in the coffee sector likely to go unpaid stands at 8 trillion dons ($379 million), which is around 60 percent of all loans for the coffee industry in Vietnam.




1.The Lecture is about the changes that have been taken place in coffee production.


  1. As compared with coffee production has increased to…


  1. The huge demand of German and America has made Vietnam the second biggest coffee producer. its output has doubled during the last 10 years.


  1. This has greatly impacted Columbia. where is experiencing a huge decrease in theircoffee output.


  1. People’s drinking habit changing and the population growth also have great impact on coffee industry.



  1. Citizenship Curriculum:


1.The lecture illustrates the importance of citizenship curriculum; however, only 1/5 of schools have the course.


  1. This subject provides confidence to students when they face the changing world. it also helps students to build up their leadership skills.


  1. Criticism of citizenship education in schools argues that merely teaching students about the theory, is ineffective, unless schools involve students in the process of decision making.




  1. International law:



This lecture talks about international environment law and climate change.


  1. British government launched the environment law in order to control the impact of human activities and industrial revolution.


  1. The environment law was aimed to improve environment locally and globally.


  1. Many companies applied the Adam Smith Theory, which increases the spending on environment and improves the overall health of employees.


  1. Managers were unsatisfied with environment law because the cost is increasing, which makes the company less competitive in the market.




  1. Drug Advertisement:


The lecture talks about the drug advertisements. The speaker firstly mentioned that nowadays drug companies have doubled the amount of money spent on drug ads in prime-time. Although the information of drug ads is accurate but the tone tends to mislead consumers to buy these drugs rather than seeing a doctor for prescription. Then the speaker mentioned that the change in lifestyle has contributed to this trend. Finally, he concluded that buying drug is different from buying a soap.


1.Drug advertisement are shown frequently on TV. the money they spent on advertisements is doubled than several years ago.


  1. There are more people buy drugs via advertisements, rather than going to see a doctor and ask for a prescription.


  1. Although those advertisements are technically accurate, it still can mislead consumers.




  1. Einstein:


For thousands of years, philosophers and scholars believed the universe was fixed and unchangeable: however, according to Einstein, the space is changing all the time. Stars, planets and heaven bodies arc moving around. However, the honor of this discovery is not belonging to Einstein. It is discovered by Hubble’s telescope in 1920s.


1.For thousands of years, people believed that the stars and universe were unchanged.


2.This has been changed by Einstein in the 20th century. He suggested that all stars and planets


Were continuously. Actually, this theory was proposed by Einstein, but the discovery and observation were published in 1920s by an astronomer called Hubble.




  1. Boys and girls:



1.The lecture is about boys’ and girls’ performance in English and Mathematics.


  1. Girls usually outperform boys in English than boys over the first 6 years while there is no significant difference in math’s.


  1. There are 3 reasons to explain this, biological, social factors and the pre-school factors.


  1. Girls’ pattern recognizing abilities are better than boys.





  1. Thermodynamic theory: Transcript:


This lecture talks about thermodynamics theory and kinetic theory which are major development of physics. To begin with, the speaker points out that thermodynamics are about heat and temperature transmission and their relation to energy and work. After that he mentions that the laws of thermodynamic that describe how quantities behave under various circumstances are constant and statistical. More importantly. that laws of thermodynamic are obeyed under most situations. However, there are exceptions. At the end. he emphasizes that exceptions happen when it comes to kinetic energy of molecules, which is about random motion of atom.


Temperature: Temperature is the average kinetic energy within a given object.


Thermal Energy: Thermal energy is defined as the total kinetic energy within a given system.


Heat: It is important to remember that heat is caused by flow of thermal energy due to differences in temperature (heat flows from object at higher temperature to object at lower temperature), transferred through conduction/convection/radiation. Additionally, thermal energy always flows from warner areas to cooler areas.




1.This lecture talks about how material affected by heat, temperature.


  1. At the beginning of the lecture, the speaker said that heat was cause by physics atom motion and activities.


3.Temperature is the average kinetic energy within a given object.


4.In thermodynamics mechanism, thermal energy is defined as the total of all kinetic energies within a given system.


5.It is important to remember that heat is caused by flow of thermal energy due to differences in temperature.


6.Additionally. thermal energy always flows from warmer areas to cooler areas




  1. Three stages of brain development:




The lecture is about 3 stages of brain development, starting from primitive brain. Limbic brain to Neocortex brain.


1.Primitive brain: manage reflex, monitor body function and process information coming from sensing


  1. Limbic brain: establish liaison to process emotions and the brain thinks.


  1. Neocortex: process information from the primitive brain and limbic brain


These 3 stages of brain development arc interrelated but each stage has its own function.




3 Stages of Brain Development – Brain development during childhood, there are three stages, starting from the primitive brain (the action brain), limbic brain (feeling brain), and finally to the neocortex (thought brain).


Although interrelated, the three had its own function. Primitive brain functions to manage the physical to survive, manage reflex, motor motion control, monitoring body functions, and process information coining from sensing. Limbic brain functioning as a liaison to process emotions and the brain thinks, and the primitive brain.


While the thinking brain, which is the most objective part of the brain, receiving input from the primitive brain and the limbic brain. However, he needed more time to process information from the primitive brain and the limbic brain. The brain thinks the merger is also a place of experience. memory, feeling, and thinking ability to give birth to ideas and actions.


Nerve myelination of the brain take place in sequence, starting from the primitive brain, the limbic


brain, and brain thought. Neural pathways are more frequently used to make more myelin thicken.


Increasingly thicker myelin, the faster the nerve impulses or signals travel along nerves. Therefore, a


growing child are encouraged to receive input from the environment in accordance with its development.



  1. Wind power:


In the lecture, the speaker talks about wind power plant. At the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentions it is a device that can convert wind into mechanism energy, which can be used for water power pump or electricity generator Also, the speaker mentions the turbine created depend on the wind speed. the number of sails, the area and the angles that sails make to the wind. According to the speaker, as bending the angle of blades, the wind hits them and could turn the blades, and then you can use it for watering things. Lastly, the speaker indicates that we could make simple windmills to drive electronic devices.



1.There are a number of factors can decide how much energy a turbine can generate: the area of the sails, the number of sails the angels that the sails make to the wind and the wind speed.


  1. As wind hits the blades, it will keep them rotating.


3.We could make simple windmills to drive electronical devices.




  1. Mega City:


1.The lecture is about population growth and resource consumption over the period from 194X) to 2(XX). Over the period given, the population increased from about 1.5 billion to 6 billion.


2.The increase of energy consumption was much more significant, which increased by 16 folds.


  1. Due to the urbanization, cities only account or 2% of the land but people living in the city consume 70% of the resource.


  1. People do not only use every resource on the planet but also produce tons of wastes, which has become a huge concern.



  1. Amory Lovins:


  1. This lecture talks about Amory Lovins, who has an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge, but he is not an academic.


  1. He has a consulting company and lives in a mountainside town above Snowmass.


  1. He spends around 30 years thinking about how to save energy with existing technology.


  1. Some people think he is crazy while others believe he is genius.


  1. A female writer wrote a book about him called Mr. Green






Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13. 1947) is an American physicist, environmental scientist, writer, and Chairman/Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute. He has worked in the field of energy policy and related areas for four decades. He was named by Time magazine one of the World’s 100 most influential people in 2009.


Lovins worked professionally as an environmentalist in the 1970s and since then as an analyst of a “soft energy path” for the United States and other nations. He has promoted energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources, and the generation of energy at or near the site where the energy is actually used. Lovins has also advocated a “negawatt revolution” arguing that utility customers don’t want kilowatt-hours of electricity; they want energy services. In the 1990s. his work with Rocky Mountain Institute included the design of an ultra-efficient automobile, the Hypercar.



Lovins does not see his energy ideas as green or left-wing, and he is an advocate of private enterprise and free market economics. He notes that Rupert Murdoch has made News Corporation carbon-neutral, with savings of millions of dollars. But, says Lovins, large institutions are becoming more “gridlocked and moribund”, and he supports the rise of “citizen organizations” around the world.


Lovins has received ten honorary doctorates and won many awards. He has provided expert testimony in eight countries, briefed 19 heads of state, and published 31 books. These books include Reinventing Fire. Winning the Oil Endgame, Small is Profitable. Brittle Power, and Natural Capitalism.



  1. Climate Shift:


1.The lecture is about the earth’s last climate shift.


2.Climate is a consistent pattern of weather over a significant period of time, climate change indicates


that energy balance of the earth is disturbed.


3.Finally, the speaker uses the example of volcano to demonstrate: the system is complex and usually involves several mechanisms operating at the same time.



  1. Reform Latin American:


The economic development of Latin has slowed down after the globalization and economy reformation; people start to question whether the reformation is positive or not.


1.This lecture mainly talks about the economic development in Latin America.


  1. According to the lecture and graph provided, we can find that in the past20 years, economic situation in Latin America increased 80%.



3.However, after the globalization and reform. the growth slowed down from 80% to 10% and economic after reform become unsustainable. And some people start to question if the reform is positive or negative.



  1. Marshmallow Test:




They call it the “marshmallow test.” A four-to-six-year-old-child sits alone in a room at a table facing a marshmallow on a plate. The child is told: “If you don’t eat this treat for 15 minutes you can have both it and a second one.” Kids on average wait for five or six minutes before eating the marshmallow. The longer a child can resist the treat has been correlated with higher general competency later in life.



Now a study shows that ability to resist temptation isn’t strictly innate—it’s also highly influenced by environment.


Researchers gave five-year-olds used crayons and one sticker to decorate a sheet of paper. One group was promised a new set of art supplies for the project—but then never received it. But the other group did receive new crayons and better stickers.


Then both groups were given the marshmallow test. The children who had been lied to waited for a mean time of three minutes before eating the marshmallow. The group that got their promised materials resisted an average of 12 minutes.


Thus, the researchers note that experience factors into a child’s ability to delay gratification. When previous promises have been hollow, why believe the next one?




1.The child in the test was told: if you don’t eat this treat for 15 min you can have both of it and the second one.”


2.It turned out kids on average wait for 5 or 6 min before eating the marshmallow. The longer a child can resist the treat has been correlated with hither general competency later in life.


3.The study shows that the ability to resist treat is highly influenced by environment.




  1. Survey with 100 CEO:


This lecture talks about a survey of 100 CEOs’ opinions about what affects the company’s operation and which area should be contributed with most efforts. 58% of them mentioned the Information Technology plays an important role because it is time consuming and extremely complex. Finally, the speaker mentioned other Iwo aspects are marketing management and financial management. which are also important.



1.In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that the survey is about which area of activity should contribute most effort.


2.He further discussed that the result from the survey is IT. because IT make a huge influence on our society. And it is time consuming and complex.


3.Other two aspects are financial management and marketing. and they are equallyimportant.




  1. DNA and RNA:


Reference Reading:



DNA and RNA — are closely related molecules that participate in transmitting and expressing genetic information. Both consist of molecular chains containing alternating units of sugar and phosphate. Nitrogen-containing molecules, called nucleotide bases, hang off each sugar unit. The different sugar units in DNA and RNA are responsible for the differences between the two biochemical.


The cell makes protein by transcribing DNA to RNA and then translating the RNA into proteins. During transcription, a portion of the DNA molecule, called a gene. is exposed to enzymes that assemble RNA strands according to the nucleotide-base binding rules. The one difference is that DNA A bases bind to RNA U bases. The enzyme RNA polymerase reads each DNA base in a gene and adds the complementary RNA base to the growing RNA strand. In this way, DNA’s genetic information is transmitted to RNA.



  1. Civil society organizations:




But in the lace of this sense of disempowerment, there surprisingly is no decline in involvement in organizations which seek to share wealth and opportunities, protect one another’s rights and work towards the common good.


According to the United Nations, civil society groups have grown 40-fold since the turn of last century. Internationally, the non-profit sector is which one trillion dollars, and there are 700,000 such organizations in Australia alone. The UN recognizes 37,000 specifically civil society organizations across the globe, and gave 3,500 accreditations to the 2(X)2 World Summit on Sustainable Development.


This profound movement towards harnessing voices and resources from outside the realm of governments and officialdom reflects a profound growth in NGO’s, “the third sector”, as some call it. As Robert Putnam discovered in the field of local government in Italy, the best predictor of governmental success was the strength and density of a region’s civic associations.




1.NGO can share wealth and opportunities, also it can protect people’s working and living rights.



2.Internationally, the non-profit sectors worth 1 trillion dollars and UN recognizes 37k civil society organizations all over the world.


3.The best predictor of government success is the strength and density of a region’s civic organizations.



  1. Australian Exports:







  1. The changes in values of Australian exports made of Japan, China, the Unite states and the UK in the recent decades.


  1. Australia used to isolate from the North America and UK.


  1. Japan is the Australian largest export market, but China may overtake Japan and become the Australian largest export destination by the end of this decade.


  1. China’s rise changed the situation and has significant impact on Australia.


  1. Australia should take advantage of China’s rise.




  1. Human Creativity:


  1. Creativity has significant meaning to human life.


2.It has three elements including process, people and product, among these process is the key element.


  1. The speaker focused on assessing the creativity of a finished product, it is taken as a proxy for the creativity of the person who produced such a product.


  1. Therefore, a creative product should be surprising, original, beautiful and useful.



  1. It is necessary for people to have ability, grit and right mind-set in order to develop creative products.



  1. Underwater Antares Detectors:


Underwater Antares detectors is a camera installed under the water lie fish monitoring. It is a remote technology system: some researchers can month w fishes in their computers in universities. The camera can detect surrounding environments and fish. This helps to find out what they eat and do not eat. They can stop feeding them if necessary in some situation to save time and labor.



  1. The lecture is about installing underwater camera; it helps people to observe what is going on under the water.


  1. The camera can he used to observe the temperature change and environment change.


  1. It can also be used in the remote monitoring system. For example, what behavior of rush is caused by environment: in addition, when you feed the fish but find they do not respond. it means the rush might be full, so you should stop feeding.



  1. Stars:


1.The lecture talks about the possibility of existence of other cosmic civilizations.


  1. There are on average 7 new stars in the galaxy every year. Some stars’ temperatures are very high so they self-burned. Other stars are too cold and these stars are unsuitable for living.


  1. Only 20% of all planets meet all necessary criteria that have chance to have life.


  1. However, the change of appearance of life is very small, which is near 0.


5.To conclude, it is very hard to find other cosmic civilizations.




  1. Frog:


Version 1:


The graph shows tree types of frogs in different region. indicating their life habits and their influence on human. The variation of frog has been existing for many years that some have more limbs while some have fewer limbs. The lecture also explains the reason for the gene mutation. Many people are worried that river those frogs live well be polluted by them and affect our health.


1.Frog population have declined significantly since the 1950s and about 113 of species are considered to be threatened with extinction.


2.The number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and disease has spread all over the world



Version 2



Reference Reading:


Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek an-, without + oura, tail). The oldest fossil “prom-frog” appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is found in tropical rainforests. There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Besides living in fresh water and on dry land, the adults of some species are adapted for living underground or in trees.



Adult frogs generally have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frogs are extremely efficient at converting what they eat into body mass. They are an important food source for predators and pail of the food web dynamics of many of the world’s ecosystems. The skin is semi-permeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats. Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations, particularly in their breeding season, and exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviors to attract mates, to fend off predators and generally survive.


Frogs are valued as food by humans and also have many cultural roles in literature, symbolism and religion Frog populations have declined significantly since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over one hundred and twenty are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s. The number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, has spread around the world. Conservation biologists are working to understand the causes of these problems and to resolve them. Frogs are valued as food by humans and also have many cultural roles in literature, symbolism and religion.




The researcher use frog as an example and put it into water and boil the water. The result of the experiment indicates that the frog can adjust their body temperature according to the change of water temperature in order to survive.



  1. Space truck:


Reference Reading:


The shuttle was designed to be a space truck; it’s a multi-purpose vehicle. We’ve done a tremendous number of different things with it. It’s the most versatile space vehicle that has ever been built. We’ve used it to launch satellites. We’ve used it to repair satellites in orbit and put them back into orbit. We’ve used it to capture satellites and bring them back to Earth for repair. We’ve outfitted it with the space lab built by our European partners and used it before the era of the space station to do scientific research. We used it as part of our partnership with the Russians, which is still




continuing, first as part of the Mir space station, where we actually prolonged the useful life of Mir by several years through logistical supply visits with the shuttle. And now, of course, we’re using it to build the new international space station, which is a … a huge international partnership.


  1. It is a multi-purpose vehicle we have ever built, according to the speaker, they have used it to launch satellite, repair satellite in orbit and put them back into orbit.


  1. It is used to build the new international space station, which represents a high international partnership with Russia.







  1. Lister:


Reference Reading:


“Nothing exceeds halitosis as a social offense. Nothing equals Listerine as a remedy.”


Such was the claim of a 1928 advertisement for Listerine mouthwash. Listerine® Antiseptic mouthwash, wasn’t born in the bathroom, However, but in the operating room. Back in 1865, Dr. Joseph Lister, the son of a well-known physicist, first demonstrated the use of an antiseptic in surgery. Later, Dr. Joseph Lawrence refined his product and named it Listerine® after Dr. Lister. History is uncertain whether Lister appreciated the favor.


One hundred and thirty years ago, almost 50% of the patients undergoing major surgery died from infection. As the famous saying went, “The operation was a success, but the patient died.” In the 1870’s, Lister was the first to treat wounds with dressings soaked in carbolic acid. Lister, in agreement with Dr. Louis Pasteur, suggested surgeons wash their hands and sterilize their instruments before operating. After significant resistance, British and American hospitals gradually adopted the sterile procedures promoted by Lister. Lister and Pasteur were personal friends who supported each other when viciously attacked by the medical establishment. When Pasteur was publicly honored at age 70 by his medical peers, he turned and bowed his head towards Lister, saying: “the future belongs to him who has done the most for suffering humanity.”




  1. Lister is a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery.


  1. He is really famous all over the world.


  1. He successfully introduced new practice to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds, in order to prevent infection.


  1. The lecture also mentioned Listerine, which is a brand of antiseptic mouthwash product, and it is named after Lister.




  1. Open Border:



Reference Reading:


I believe our borders should be open. But if that is not politically acceptable for now. Europe should at least open up a legal route for people from developing countries to come to work here. Over time, hopefully, we can move to a position where borders arc completely open. Persuading sceptics will not be easy. That’s why I think the argument for free migration has to be made at several levels: a principled case – it increases freedom and reduces injustice; a humanitarian case – it helps people in developing countries; an economic case – it makes us richer; and a pragmatic case – it is inevitable, so it is in everyone’s interests to make the best of it. Opening our borders may stein unrealistic. So too, once, did abolishing slavery or giving women the vote. Campaigning for people’s right to move freely is a noble cause for our time.





Developed countries should open gate so that people from the developing countries can go to developed countries.


  1. Developed countries should open borders for other countries.


  1. There are two important factors in economy and humanity for opening borders


  1. Economically, people from developing countries can go to developed countries and work there, they can help to develop countries get richer.


  1. for humanity reason, it will allow more freedom for poor people in developing countries.



  1. Community health workers:


This lecture gives information about the community health workers in India.


1.According to the lecture, the speaker mentioned that community health workers need advice; and trainings, especially for HIV and other diseases.


2.Training given by professional organizations and professors can effectively help workers to understand the precaution knowledge and prevent the disease from spreading.


3.In addition, India has quarterly meetings to follow up related matters.


  1. However, the speaker believes that large workshops and seminars are not necessary, and large-scale consultations arc not suitable in some cities.



  1. High LG & Low LG:


Some mother rats spend a lot of time licking, grooming, and nursing their pups. Others seem to ignore their pups. Highly nurtured rat pups tend to grow up to be calm adults, while rat pups recive little nurturing tend to grow up to be anxious.




It turns out that the difference between a calm and an anxious rat is not genetic, it’s epigenetic. The nurturing behavior of a mother rat during the first week of life shapes her pups’ epigenomes. And the epigenetic pattern that mom establishes tends to stay put, even after the pups become adults.




Variations in maternal care have been widely considered as a critical influence in the development of live beings. For the rates, variations in maternal behavior, particularly in licking grooming regulate the development of endocrine, emotional and cognitive response to stress.



  1. The economic structures change of Europe:


The lecture is mainly about changes in economic structure in Europe. In the beginning of the lecture. the speaker mentioned that after industrial revolutions. around the beginning of 19th century, the economic structure in Europe changed dramatically. Lots of machinery had been used in manufacturing such as steam engine. Because of this, the circulation of goods and services had become faster, which accumulated more wealth. This consequently leads to an expansion of middle class population and contributes to more accumulation of social wealth.


1.The lecture is mainly about structures change of economy in Europe.


  1. After industrial revolution around 19th century the machinery was widely used in the manufacturing so the production in factories increased.


3.As a result, circulation of goods became faster and this led to a more accumulation of social wealth. Because of this, the population of middle class expanded and this resulted in additional accumulation of wealth.



  1. Black Hole:


This video is about the black hole in the universe from the video, it can be seen that the middle area of the video is totally dark, that is the black hole, and all the planets are spinning around the black hole. On the right side of the video. it can be observed that sonic planets can’t escape from the black hole and are being drawn to it. We can also observe a bright ring around the black hole because that is the edge of black hole so that the light can escape from it.





  1. The lecture provides a virtual video of black hole, it can be seen that middle area of the video is totally dark, which is a black hole.


  1. We can clearly see stars, planets and other heavily bodies are spinning around the boundaries of the black hole.


  1. On the right side of the video, it can he observed that some planets cannot escape from the black hole and ate being drawn in.


  1. We can also observe a bright ring around the black hole because that is the edge of the black hole so that the light can escape from it.


5.Lastly the lecture mentioned that different theories can be experimented in the black hole and further research should be conducted in order to better understand the facts of black hole.



  1. Human Behaviours:


Determinant, human behavior is affected by internal and external factors. At the end of lecture, the speaker mentioned that psychologists are interested in explaining human behavior. Determinant is influenced by two factors, the personal factors which are internal and the environmental factors which are external. The personal factors include people’s belief on certain things and their individual thinking about it, while the environmental factors include temperature, air pressure and the others’ thinking about them. In conclusion, one’s determinant are affected by both himself and the environment.


  1. he lecture talks about human behaviors,


  1. There are so many psychologists are interested in explaining that human behavior.


  1. The internal and external factors can affect human behavior.


  1. The personal factors are internal and the environmental factors are external.


  1. The personal factors include people’s belief and their individual thinking. The environmental factors include temperature, air pressure and so on.


  1. In conclusion, human behaviors are determined by himself and environment.


  1. Climate Change:



Some adverse effects of climate change to agricultural productions. Some lands are unsuitable for growing crops. There will be millions of people facing hunger in Africa in the future. Climate change will result in less production and less food. It is difficult for developing countries to deal with climate change due to their financial status and other issues. There are many people living in hunger especially in Africa.


The climate change has devastating effects on world economy. The tropical areas on earth is dry and hot, and are originally not suitable for food production. The change of the climate leads to extreme weather conditions such as flood and hurricane, which exacerbates the food production. As a result, it leads to a continuous decline in food supply annually around 10%-17%. And this trend is perceived to be continue in the future by 2070. The regions suffering the most will be some African countries.




  1. This lecture talks about the influence of climate change.


  1. According to the speaker. climate change will make less production and less food.


  1. It is difficult for developing countries to deal with climate change due to their financial status and other issues.


  1. There are many people living in hunger, especially in Africa.


  1. The climate change will also have negative effects on the world economy.




  1. Media:



Some media exaggerate the truth while reporting, although some news happen globally they should be reported locally. People from different countries have various understanding about news, which depends on whether they have relevant knowledge or not.



  1. Pavlov’s experiment:


  1. The lecture is about a professor introducing how to further explore dog’s brain.


  1. He quoted the famous experiment done by the Pavlov a century ago.


  1. Then he wants the students to think how will the dog’s brain function and the relevant motivational and cognitive dynamic.






















This lecture talks about the Pavlov experiment.


There are three steps in the experiment, Firstly, the unconditioned response means the dog salivates in response to seeing food. Secondly, the conditioning means every time the dog sees the food, just ring the bell. Finally, the conditioned response means although there is no food, you just ring the bell and the dog will salivate.



  1. Australian Migration:


Australia’s location is important for the world’s export, and its international trade is also important since Australia has a broad territory, all towns are scattered around. There is a huge expense for transportation for trains and ferries. The government also pay large amount for its telecommunication to build up the connection among regions. Australian people are mainly living in five cities, and they are Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Brisbane and so on. The most special one is Perth, which is one of the most isolated city in the world. However, this does not affect its state to




be the largest city in Australia. The largest companies, like the two leading company, Telstra and Qantas, they are based in Perth.




  1. Australia’s location is important for the world’s export; its international trade is also important as Australia has a broad territory.


  1. Australia is the most urbanized country in the world, 58% of people are living in Australian major cities such as Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane.


  1. Perth is the largest isolated city in the world and there are two leading companies such as Telstra and Qantas which are based in Perth.



  1. Narratives:



The comics I show you with lots of people chatting around in a room is a form of description. We use different kinds of methods to describe a situation. Sometimes we have to use visual description, particularly when we do not witness the scenario. I was born during the Second World War and my hometown is XX, for example when I asked my mother about the war. I always ask her you have mentioned this or that when you talked to me when asked her about the shelter, I asked her what the shelter looks like and when did you go to the shelter. From her response I could get more visual evidence as I can to write my book.



  1. Children Overweight:


The speaker mentioned that 20% of children today have overweight problems, which leads to the


heart diseases are becoming more and more common among children, the smallest is 5 years old.


This consequently makes the heart attack and other health problems happened earlier and earlier. This issue needs to be solved for the reason that the overweight problems will result in more serious situations such as diabetes type 2 and blindness.




1.The lecture talks about the overweight problem.


2.There are 20% of children today have the overweight problems. which bring the heart diseases are more and more common in children, the smallest is 5 years old.


3.This situation makes the heart attack and other health problems become earlier and earlier.


4.This issue needs to be solved because the overweight problems will result in more serious situations such as diabetes type 2 and blindness.




  1. Mental and heat:



This lecture talks about met l’s response to the heat. At the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that people used to think that metal is supposed to blend under the heat, but sometimes it doesn’t behave so because atoms in the metal have random processes. The heat can accelerate the processes but won’t change the essence of random, so it could violate what we used to think.



  1. Dissociation of Personality:


The powerful influence of Stevenson’s text on the discourse of dissociation is strikingly apparent in the work of American physician and psychologist Morton Prince. Bieber credits Prince with pioneering “the phenomenon of popularizing MPD as embodied in a spectacular case”. Prince’s Dissociation of a Personality (1905) tells the story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, a pseudonym for Clara Norton Fowler, who, according to Prince, “is a person in whom several personalities have become developed”.




  1. Loggerhead Turtles:



eomagnetic cues help young loggerhead turtles navigate the open ocean during their epic 8,000-mile journey between leaving their natal beaches in Florida, and returning 5-10 years later to breed. Researchers have just worked out how they do it.


Hatchling loggerhead sea turtle is tethered via a soft cloth harness, or “bathing suit” to an electronic tracking system that monitors its steering in response to different magnetic fields.



  1. Tanks:


1.This lecture talks about two kinds of tanks.


2.According to the speaker, there are two kinds of tanks. one named panzer tiger, the other one named T-34.


3.The panzer tiger is better than T-34 in fire power, armor and mobility.



  1. But in the end, the T-34 defeated the power tiger because the number of T-34 is larger than that of the panzer tiger.



  1. Unconscious Incompetence conscious competence:


The Four Levels of Learning describe how a person learns a new skill.


  1. Unconscious Incompetence: you don’t know that you don’t know something.


  1. Conscious Incompetence: you are now aware that you can’t do the skill.


  1. Conscious Competence: you develop a skill in that area but have to think about it.


  1. Unconscious Competence: you are good at it and it now comes naturally.




  1. The use of web 2.0:


The lecture mainly talks about the use of web 2.0 on helping government functions better and serve the public better.


There are three steps.


  1. The web collects information from users.


  1. Two government use the info to understand the public.


  1. Make better connection with citizens and response to their needs.




  1. How human use materials around us:


(With a picture of different medical machines, wounded hand stitched by medical thread) The lecture mainly talks about how humans use materials around us to make our life better.


  1. Firstly. we use materials to make simple machines and improve our health and life expectancy.


  1. Then when life expectancy increases, we have more time to study and invent more complicated machine, and further increase quality of life. Machine to scan and monitor brain activities.



  1. The increasing productivity:


The lecture mainly talks about the increasing productivity. which means for every input there are more output. To illustrate the theory. the speaker talks about computer. It is a relatively new thing. so the cost of units decreases even more.




  1. The comparison between wages, consumption and household: According to speaker. the wage increase is 5%. which is very weak.


2.The fluctuation of consumption is about 15%. which seems decent.


3.The house debt is about 40%. which is unusual. But can be understandable after the wage and consumption increase.



  1. English language change:


2nd was Challenges to change English language why can’t we changed it because it has some standardized spelling and universal education format. So its very hard to change entire language. Secondly. there is variety in English language from number of villages and regions so it’s wise to have a universal one.



  1. Poverty in rural and urban areas:


  1. Environmental problems including water pollution and the sanitation of drinking water. indoor smoke and gas emission.


  1. Poor people are especially affected especially in terms of their health.


  1. The rising demand for energy consumption is likely to sustain until 2030, which will have an effect on a range of environmental problems.



  1. Robot:


  1. The lecture talks about robot application.


2.In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker says that there are many industries such as car manufactory nowadays using robots.


  1. Robot can replace human doing many heavy and hard works.


  1. Instead of robots for general purpose, robots for special purposes such as vacuum cleaner robots have been purchased by many bachelors.


  1. The number of robot will increase rapidly in next few years.




  1. Make errors:


1.Thinking on doing the right thing or wrong thing. For example, if a task is well designed, people are likely to do the right things, otherwise they are prone to make mistakes.


  1. Distractions: People will forget they are in the middle of doing something. For example, we usually forget to take the original copy after using the copy machine if something disrupts the thinking process.




  1. Genes:


Development of genes: a small number of human genes is different with 500 years ago.


1.In this lecture, the speaker talked about the gene and DNA.


2.At the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that genes decide the protein in the cells.


  1. He further mentioned that there are more than 2M proteins in a cell.


4.At the lecture, the speaker concluded that there is still not result for the functions of different cells.



  1. Urbanization:


The lecture talks about the relationship between country and urbanization. Firstly, the speaker introduced the relationship between countryside and city which is mutual trade. And then he mentioned that farmer should increase their efficiency because only in this way, the other family members can go to city to find a job. And a number of people now prefer to migrate to city to look fir job. rather than stay in countryside to make money.



  1. Hallucination and personality Hallucination:


Reference Reading:


A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and/or voices. Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the subject good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the subject etc. Auditory hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the subject behind


his/her back. Like auditory hallucinations, the source of the visual counterpart can also be behind the subject’s back. Their visual counterpart is the feeling of being looked or stared at, usually with malicious intent. Frequently, auditory hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced by the subject together.


1.A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above.


2.Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. The malicious type is frequently heard.


  1. Visual counterpart is the feeling of being looked or stared at, with malicious purpose.


  1. Frequently, auditory hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced together.





  1. Stari Most:


Stari Most (literally, “Old Bridge”) is a 16th-century Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina that crosses the river Neretva and connects the two parts of the city. The Old Bridge stood for 427 years, until it was destroyed on 9 November 1993 by Croat military forces during the Croat—Bosniak War. Subsequently, a project was set in motion to reconstruct it, and the rebuilt bridge opened on 23 July 2004.


One of the country’s most recognizable landmarks, it is considered an exemplary piece of Balkan Islamic architecture. It was designed by Mimar Hayruddin, a student and apprentice of the famous architect Mimar Sinan.



  1. Economic structure in Europe:


  1. The lecture is mainly about change in economic structure in Europe.


  1. . In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that after industrial revolutions, around the beginning of the 19th century, the economic structure in Europe changed dramatically.


  1. Lots of machinery had been used in manufacturing such as steam engine. Because of this, the circulation of goods and services had become faster and so accumulated more wealth.


  1. And this consequently leads to an expansion of middle class population. This again contributed to more accumulation of social wealth.



  1. Armor:




Hello, I’m David Brown, curator of Italian and Spanish paintings at the National Gallery of Art. The treasures in our exhibition, The Art of Power, Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain, come from the royal armory in Madrid. They range from the 15th to the 17th century and include some of the finest examples of Renaissance armor in the world. Fabricated by master craftsmen and artists, those were made for the flower of Spanish royalty. This is parade armor, made for show not combat.




In form it looks back to a world tournament, jousts and noble gesture. And among the images worked into the steel is something quite different, a subtle advertising campaign for the Imperial ambitions of the Spanish monarchy and the Hapsburg dynasty. Those who wore it took the words Holy, Roman and Empire very seriously.




1.The curator of the National Gallery of Art provides a brief introduction about the armor in their exhibition.


2.The exhibition includes some finest examples of Renaissance armor, which were fabricated by master craftsmen and artists over 15th-I 7th century.



  1. Parade armor were made for show not combat.


  1. Those armor represents the imperial ambition of the Spanish monarchy.




  1. Barks and Growls:


The lecture introduces an experiment showing that dogs use different barks and growls to communicate different things. Researchers recorded an “alone bark”, a “stranger growl”, where a dog was growling at the approach of a stranger, and a “food growl” where a dog was growling to protect its food. The researchers played these different growls to a dog who was approaching a plate of juicy food. The dogs were more hesitant to approach if they heard the food growl rather than the stranger growl or the alone barks. The experiment shows that dogs could clearly distinguish between different types of growls, and react to them accordingly.




  1. City of Literature Melbourne:


  1. In 2008, Melbourne joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network.


  1. Melbourne’s designation a UNESCO City of Literature in acknowledgment of the breadth. Depth and vibrancy of the city’s literary culture.


  1. Melbourne supports a diverse range of writers, a prosperous publishing industry, a successful culture of independent bookselling, a wide variety of literary organizations and a healthy culture of reading and engagement in events and festivals.



  1. Randomness of flipping coin:




Flipping a coin may not be the fairest way to settle disputes. About a decade ago. statistician Persi Diaconis started to wonder if the outcome of a coin flip really is just a matter of chance. He had Harvard University engineers build him a mechanical coin flipper. Diaconis, now at Stanford University. found that if a coin is launched exactly the same way, it lands exactly the same way.




The randomness in a coin toss, it appears. is introduced by sloppy humans. Each human-generated flip has a different height and speed. and is caught at a different angle. giving different outcomes.


But using high speed cameras and equations. Diaconis and colleagues have now found that even though humans arc largely unpredictable coin flippers, there’s still a bias built in: If a coin starts out heads. it ends up heads when caught more often than it does tails. NPR’s David Kestenbaum reports.




1.About a decade ago. scientists wanted to find out if the outcome of a coin flip is a matter of chance.



  1. The result of research which is conducted on a mechanical coin flipper shows a coin lands the exactly same way as it launched.


3.The randomness in coin toss is introduced by human, this is because. human-generated flip has a different height and speed. and is caught at different angle.



  1. Biological Engineering:


  1. The first group of people that realize we can learn from ourselves is Engineers.


  1. They invented machines to study human body. in order to cure disease and study physiology.


  1. By using those complex machines, they are able to study how human brains function and process.


  1. The result of their studies can be utilized to benefit human can solve problems. such as **disease, etc.



  1. Community service:




Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind. Your education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching, that is, tutoring in math and English. You’d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester. You can choose to help a child with math. English, or both. Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week. Professor Dodge will act as a mentor to the tutors. He’ll he available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities. He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon. You can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week. I’m sure you’ll enjoy this community service and you’ll gain valuable experience at the same time. It looks good on your resume, too, showing that you’ve had experience with children and that you care about your community. If you’d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge’s office this week.




1.According to the speaker, community Service is an important component of education at the university.


  1. It is one on one tutor program to help children who have fallen behind, volunteers can choose to help a child with math, English or both.


3.The experience of volunteer will increase your employability as it shows you care about your community.



  1. Journal:



1.There are two kinds of journal: peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed.


  1. All articles sent to publications should he testified to ensure all articles are original and high quality. For anything that is below the standard, they will be sent back to authors to amend.


3.Both two journals can be searched and accessed from the library.


4.Only “peer reviewed” can be used in this assignment; moreover, it has some features. include footnotes of bibliography, no advertisements and other features.



  1. Trade-offs between conversation, development and poverty:




Here are Steven Sanderson Kent Redford of WC’S Wildlife Conservation Society, probably pointing a finger at the poverty alleviation movement, and saying in its new incarnation it’s largely subsumed or supplanted conservation. The trend has gone unnoticed but it poses. a significant threat to conservation objectives, and what they’re basically saying is if you’re interested in protecting the biosphere you ought to get on with that job you shouldn’t he distracted by the equally significant but different agendas of reducing poverty.


At the same time, you’ve got to British social scientists, here Dilysrow works for the International Institute for Environment and development in London and Joe Elliott actually winks hit wildlife works for African Wildlife Foundation and nowadays.


But she’s saying here poor people should not pay the price for biodiversity protection. So you can see this off the nature of the debate, what is the what is the impacts that they’re all talking about well it’s about whether you can achieve a win-win solution, whether you can achieve economic growth which brings wealth in order to cut poverty without damaging biodiversity, and the argument is that if you want to protect biodiversity you have to focus on that as a goal, but if you do that you have you run the risk of hurting the poor and you also run the risk of inconveniencing or reducing economic growth.




And we used in developer to develop country’s industrialized countries to seeing this argument. This axis argued about with let us say a government wishing to start drilling for oil in place X which is full of Wildlife and the Wildlife.


Conservation Society is urging them not to on the grounds. that it’s a wilderness refuge. We used to that debate what I’m saying is it in the developing world there’s a third axis and its quite a complex one.




  1. Poor people should not pay the price for biodiversity protection.


  1. As for the impact, it is about whether it can achieve win-win solution, which means we can achieve economic growth which brings wealth in order to cut poverty without damaging biodiversity.


  1. The argument is that if you want to protect biodiversity, you have to focus on that as a goal, by doing so, you run the risk of hurting the poor and inconveniencing or reducing economic growth.


  1. The lecturer used developed countries or industrialized countries to see this argument. For example, a government wishing to start drilling for oil in place which is full of wildlife and wildlife conservation society is urging them not on the grounds that it is wilderness refuge.




  1. Straight Sales:


















  1. Straight Salary:


Straight salary sales compensation plans aren’t very common, but they do have a place in some organizations. With this type of structure, you’d pay your sales people a straight—albeit competitive




  • salary like all of your other employees, and nothing else. No bonuses, no commissions, and few, if any, sales incentives.


This type of compensation plan is most often used when the industry you operate within prohibits direct sales, when sales people work as part of small groups or teams and all contributions are equal, when your sales team is relatively small, or when your sales people are expected to spend much of their time on other responsibilities other than selling.



However, these plans don’t tend to offer motivation to sales people, as there are no incentives for them to work harder.



  1. Salary plus Commission:


Salary plus commission sales compensation plans are possibly the most common plans used today. They’re structured in a way that sales people receive a lower base salary along with commission pay that makes up the majority of the total compensation.


Organizations use salary plus commission sales compensation plans when there are opportunities to support all sales people on this structure and when there are proper metrics in place for tracking sales to ensure that the splits are fair and accurate.


This type of plan is often the better choice as opposed to straight salary because it offers motivation to increase productivity and to achieve goals. It also offers more stability—sales people will still get some type of pay even if they’re in training, when sales are low during certain months, or if market conditions get volatile. However, it can be more complex to administer.



  1. Commission Only:


Commission only sales compensation plans are exactly what they sound like—you pay your sales people for the sales they bring in and nothing else. There is no guarantee of income.


These types of plans are easier to administer than salary plus commission and provide better value for your money paid as they are based solely on sales achieved. They also tend to attract fewer candidates, but do attract the most top-performing and hardest working sales professionals who know they can make a good income because they know how to sell. On the other hand, though, they can create aggression within your sales team and low income security, which can lead to a high turnover rate, and sales rep burnout Oxen stress.




1.Salary Plans are not very common, sales are usually paid fixed salary so the package doesn’t tend to offer motivation to sales people, as there are no incentives for them to work harder.


2.Combination plan is the most common plan used today, the package offers motivation to Increase productivity and to achieve goals; moreover, it also offers more stability.




3.Under Commission plan, sales people are paid in direct proportion to sales. There is no guarantee of income so the package tend to attract fewer candidates.



  1. ATM:


  1. Some people forget to take their cards after taking the money from ATM, because more often than not, they just focus on the money only.


  1. The United Kingdom has restructured the new AT, and cards will be released by machines before cash are dispensed.


  1. Although you would forget to take your cash, it is more catastrophic to lose your card because it can access to your bank account.



  1. Water on Mars:


  1. The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.


  1. The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.


3.Consequently, we can speculate that water used to exist in liquid form on the surface of Mars and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.



  1. Bee Dance:


1.Honey bees have some fascinating abilities; they can communicate by performing a unique dance.


2.It begins with a scout bee live the hive to find new food sources and returns to the hive with the information about a newly found nectar source.


3.The direction and duration of dance indicate the direction and distance of the resource being advertised by the dancing bee.



  1. Bilingual education:


1.Parents should not use two languages to educate their children


2.Most parents suppose bilingual education can benefit children, but it is not always beneficial in reality. 3. Bilingual education can easily confuse children when parents explain and talk about the same content by two different languages




  1. Traffic Light Food System:












1.We should categorize food and drinks into three colors including the red category, yellow category and green category.



  1. Each color provides various health benefits, so labelling food with different colors can help consumers choose the right type of food as their bodies need and develop healthy diet habits.


  1. Retailers should introduce color- coding system, because traffic light labeling can guide consumers to make a wise decision while doing grocery shopping.



  1. The Large Hardon Collider:




1.Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest particle accelerator lies in a tunnel.


  1. The LHC is a ring roughly 28 Km around that accelerates protons almost to the speed of light before colliding them head on. Protons are particles found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand- million-millionth of a meter in size.


  1. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons. Electric and magnetic fields are the key to particle accelerator.





  1. What is the name of ground military forces? —Army


  1. What is someone that cannot see called? —Blind


  1. What do you call the middle of something? —Center


  1. Whose job is it to treat people that are ill or have an injury at a hospital? —Doctor


  1. What is the process of teaching and learning called? —Education


  1. What kind of book is written by a person about their own life? —Autobiography


  1. What is the red liquid that flows through a body? —Blood


  1. What is the payment of a student’s education by an organization called? —Scholarship


  1. What is the piece of paper with official information written on it called? —Document


  1. What is the name of a building where you can borrow books? —Library I I. Who is a person that makes bread, cakes and pastries? —Baker


  1. What organ controls your speech, feelings, body movement and thoughts? —Brain


  1. What piece of equipment shows a person what direction they are traveling? —Compass


  1. What is a series of events that happen in your mind while you are sleeping? —Dream


  1. What is a person that belongs to an organization called? —Member


  1. Who cuts men’s hair? —Barber


  1. What is it called when two or more people are speaking to each other? —Conversation


  1. What is a violent conflict between two or more countries? —War


  1. What do you call the number of people living in a specific area? —Population


  1. What do you call a person that can’t hear? —Deaf


  1. What is the day that someone is born? – Birthday


  1. What plan shows how much money is available and how it will be spent? – Budget


  1. What is the name of a system of government in which the people elect their leaders? — Democracy


  1. What planet do we live on? — Earth


  1. What is the job of someone that looks after your teeth and gums? —Dentist


  1. What is the time period before noon called? — Ante meridian (A.M.)


  1. What is the time after noon called? — Post meridian (P.M.)



  1. What organ cardiologists specialize in? —Heart


  1. Which section of a newspaper gives the editor an opinion? —Editorial


  1. What instrument would you use to examine very small life forms? —Microscope


  1. What is the destructive program that spreads from computer to computer? —Virus


  1. What term is issued for animals that gives birth to its young? —Mammals


  1. What is the piece of paper that you receive after you have bought an item? —Receipt


  1. What do you call the document that tells your qualification and work exp? — CV, curriculum vitae, resume


  1. How would you describe an economy that is largely based on farming? — Agricultural, Rural


  1. What is the study of stars and planet called? —Astronomy


  1. In business and advertising, what does PR stand for? — Public relations


  1. What emergency service is called at sea? —Coastguard


  1. Name the month that falls between April and June. —May


  1. What word describes moving a file from the Internet to your computer? — Downloading


  • Download


  1. What do we call a picture that doctors take to see inside our body? —X-ray


  1. What crime has someone stealing from a shop committed? —Shoplifting


  1. If someone is feeling ill, they will say “I am feeling under the ” ? — Weather


  1. Under the weather- Feel sick, poor health, tired or exhausted


  1. Who is the person in charge of a football match? – Referee


  1. What is the last game in a sport competition that decides the champion- Finals


  1. What is the general term for painting at countryside on natural view? Landscape


  1. There are two types of sporting contests: on is amateur: and other is ___? – Professional


  1. Where would you find a whale – tropical forest or ocean? -Ocean


  1. If a coat had a stain on it. where would you take it? – Drycleaner’s


  1. What are the things that hens lay? – Eggs


  1. The people who protect the public from criminals are called? –Police


  1. On what geographical location would someone be living if their country is surrounded by water on all side? – Island




  1. What general part of the day is known as dawn? –Sunrise


  1. What are the people that plant food, raise crop commonly known as? –Farmers


  1. If a button has come off a shirt, what would someone most likely use to put it back on? – Needle and thread


  1. What appliance do people use to keep their food cool and prevent it from spoiling? – Fridge


  1. What do we call a period of 1000 years? — Millennium


  1. What do we call a period of 100 years? —Century


  1. What do we call a period of 10 years? — Decade


  1. What is a painting of a person’s head called? –Portrait


  1. Where do we find urban areas – in a city or countryside? – In a city


  1. What we call it when the moon completely blocks out the light from the sun? – A solar eclipse /an eclipse


  1. What point of the compass is directly opposite cast? –West


  1. Where do you pay for your purchases at a supermarket? – (at the) Till / Checkout / Cashier


  1. What do you call an apartment that is below ground level – a basement apartment or a penthouse apartment? – A basement apartment


  1. What features do painos and comuters have in common? – Keyboard


  1. if you are feeling ‘fed uo’, is it a positive or negative feeling? A negative feeling


  1. What we call a period of ten years? Decade


  1. A specialist who repairs leaking water pipe is called as a? Plumber


  1. A famous canal links the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian ocean, is it the Corinth or Suez Canal? – Suez Canal


  1. Where would you keep the meat you wish to keep frozen at home? –Freezer


  1. What is the most important document you would have to show if you would to hire a car? – Driver’s license


  1. Where would you go to work out on a treadmill? – Gym /Gymnasium


  1. What piece of equipment would you use to go diving in a sea – an aquaplane or an aqualung? – An aqualung


  1. Where would you most likely go to buy some flour – a bakery. a florist or a supermarket? — Supermarket


  1. Which hospital department would you go for an X-ray – radiology or cardiology? – Radiology




  1. Where would you go to see an exhibition of sculptures? – Art gallery /Museum


  1. Would you measure volume of water in liters or kilos? –Liters


  1. What is the joint called where your hand is connected to your an? –Wrist


  1. A picture of a globe is shown) what is this field of study? -Geology


  1. What do you call an equipment we use to look at stars? —Telescope


  1. What is the chemical name of Gold – Mg. Au or 02? —Au


  1. In which century was the automobile manufactured on a large scale? — 20thCentury


  1. Name a country located in North America? — The United States of America /Canada


  1. Name a country located in the Southern hemisphere. — Australia.


  1. This work is due for submission, one month from 15th June. On what date is it to be submitted ?-15th July


  1. What is the name of the instrument used to measure variations in temperature? — Thermometer


  1. Which section of the train timetable will tell you, what time the train leaves? — Departures


  1. What do we call the list of steps, which tells you to put something together? — Instructions


  1. What is the job title of someone who designs buildings? —Architect


  1. What is vaccine used for? — prevent disease


  1. What word is used for someone who watches a sport event? — Spectator


  1. What object will you use to climb up to the roof of the house? —Ladder


  1. What do we call the organ in our chest that we need to breath? —Lungs


  1. What is the soul= of solar energy? — Sun


  1. When the writer of the book is unknown, what word do we use for the writer?— Anonymous


  1. What is the collective term for cows and bulls, especially on the farm? —Cattle


  1. If something such as fabric or medicine is artificially made, what do we say it is?— Synthetic



100.What do we call the alphabetical list, at the end of the book that tells you where to find specific information? —Index


101.What is the word for the place where rivers start? –Source


  1. Who is the main journalist responsible for producing newspaper or magazine? — Editor


103.In the animal kingdom, is the purpose of camouflage to attract a mate, to find food or to hide? — To hide




104.The opposite direction of southwest in a compass is? —Northeast


105.What do we call the date a piece of work must be finish by? —Deadline / Due date


106.What do dermatologist specialized in? – Skin


107.How do butterflies fly? – Flutter


108.What is hematology related to? — Blood


109.Which major branch of science deals with classification of human beings? — Biology


110.What does the term otolaryngology mean? – ENT: Ear, Nose & Throat



  1. What do ophthalmologist specialize in? – Eye operations


112.What is the name for the huge natural body that orbits the sun? – Planet


  1. What is term Neuro-Psych? – brain injury or mental health


  1. Increase in iron, good or bad for health? – Good


115.If telescopes are used to locate distant objects, what instrument is employed to magnify miniscule objects? – (electron) Microscope


  1. A list of events paced in time order, is usually described in what? Chronology/a timeline


  1. Which kind of punishment for a crime is the less severe, an imprisonment or community service? – Community service


118.How many sides are there in a bilateral agreement? — Two


119.Which is the longest: a decade, a millennium or a century? — A millennium


120.A manufacturing process releases poisonous gases. What is the most important safety measure for workers at this plant — ensuring good ventilation, or appropriate footwear? — (Ensuring good) Ventilation


121.A list of events placed in time order is usually described as what? — A chronology / a Timeline


122.If a figure is hexagonal, how many sides does it have? — Six


123.What key mineral makes sea water different from fresh water? — Salt


124.Who would you consult to treat a fear of crowded places, a philosopher or a psychologist? — A psychologist


125.How would most people travel to work each day, in big cities like Hong Kong, Tokyo and New York? —By public transportation 126.In which direction does the sun come up? — East


127.What term is used for the amount of money you pay a landlord for living in their house or apartment? — Rent




128.What do we call a company or organization that gives money to a sports or arts event in exchange for advertising? — Sponsorship


129.Would it be better to jogging at noon or in the early morning, if you wanted to avoid the hottest part of the day? — In the early morning


130.Jane and Peter have three children, they are 4,13 and 15 years old, they only have one son who is the youngest child, how old is their middle child? — 13 years old


  1. When would it be safe to take medication, which causes drowsiness, before sleeping, driving or operating machinery? — Before sleeping


  1. When you create a table, the data in horizontal dimension is organized in rows and the data in vertical dimension is organized in what? – Line



133.Historians use evidence to draw conclusions about the past, would a contemporary artist’s painting of an ancient battle be an original source or secondary source? — Secondary source


134.Where would you expect to find equipment like microscopes, bounce and burner, beaker and petri dish? — Laboratory 135.Profit means gain or loss? — Gain


136.What do we call the time before noon? — Morning 137.How many days in a week? — 7 days


138.Which of the 5 senses are you using, if you detect the odor of gas in a laboratory or in your kitchen? —Smell


  1. Which is usually considered against the law? Use of illicit drugs or use of prescribed medication?


— Use of illicit drugs


140.To improve their health and fitness, most people either try to improve their diet or? -Do more physical exercise


141.There are two main ways to pay for goods bought in a shop, one is by cash, and the other is by? – Credit card


142.Would you go to a pharmacy or a surgery to get a prescription filled after visiting a doctor? — A pharmacy


143.What special document does most people traveling between on country to another need to carry? — A passport


144.Which would be better to report the population of a major global city, hundreds, millions or billions? —Millions


145.Which of these would probably be found in most homes around the world, a computer. a bed or a television? — A bed


  1. In most universities, there are two ways of being assessed, one is orally, and the other is through? –Written assignments




  1. Despite all the advance in equality between the sexes, would more men or women play professional football? – More men


  1. At what ceremony do students receive degree or diploma at the end of their period of study? – Graduation


  1. Which of the following is not mammal? (With pictures) — Butterfly


  1. With Picture: How many courses do students have this semester? — Four


  1. Which department has increased their revenue over the three years? — Sale


  1. What do we call the meeting, where an employer ask potential employee questions about their work experience? – interview


  1. What is the quickest way to get to the 21st floor? — By elevator / lift


  1. if a person is doing an experiment, what would he wear to protect his eyes? — Glasses / goggles


  1. Why people wear gloves when they do experiment? — Protection


  1. What do you need to see thing which are far away? — Binoculars


  1. From where can you have a full view of a building, the outside, inside or top? — The outside


  1. Computer, telephone and typewriter, which one is first invented? — Typewriter


  1. Which is better, high employment or low employment? — High employment


  1. What is the subject that involves geometry and algebra? — Mathematics


  1. Which of the following is not a means of transportation? — Car sample


  1. Picture (people holding a certificate) what is in the man’s hand? — Certificate



163.Which symbol is used to complete a sentence? — Full stop / period


164.What is the name of the field of study that studies the human mind and behavior? — Psychology


165.What is the subject of study at a culinary institute? — Cooking


166.1n medical terms. are antibodies harmful or beneficial for patients? — Beneficial


  1. In a recession, does economic activity increase or slow down? — Slow down


  1. To which of our sense do all of the following words relate, opaque, vivid, brilliant, shiny? — Vision


  1. How many years does it take to finish undergraduate study? — Three or four years


  1. The large island just off the coast of mainland Europe is the home to which country? — The United Kingdom


171.Will it be better to use kin or kg to measure the distance between two cities? — Kilometer




  1. What is the last thing to do when baking a cake? — Cook it in the oven


  1. What kind of equipment is used to protect motorbike rider’s brain from injury? — Helmet


  1. What can be added to a drink to cool it down on a hot day? — Ice


175.Would letter or email be the fastest way to get a message to your professor? — Email


176.Which of these was last to be explored, the Himalayas, the moon or Australia? —The moon


177.1n which season would people be least likely to go snow skiing? — In summer


178.Some calendars begin the week on Sunday, what is the other day which commonly starts a week? —Monday



179.What does the main difference between a wristwatch and a clock relate to? —Their relative sizes


180.Nanne a month that falls between September and November. — October


  1. In which room of their home would someone usually wash their clothes? — In the bathroom


  1. Which of these would probably be found in an office, a printer, a blanket or a nailbrush? — A printer


183.What is the general term for paintings of the countryside or natural views? —Landscape


  1. What is the economic sector the deals with farming? – Agriculture


  1. A business doesn’t want to make a loss – what does it want to make? – Profit


  1. what do people wear if they can’t see very well? Glasses / contact lenses


  1. what is the word in geometry for a shape that has three sides? – Triangle


  1. Which major branch pf science deals with the classification of living things? — Biology / Ecology


  1. Which major branch of science deals with the classification of human beings? — Anthropology


190.What do we call a book that contains lots of words with their meanings— Dictionary


  1. What does a king or queen wear on their head at official ceremonies? — Crown


192.If someone lives in an urban area, where do they live? — City / Town


193.If you don’t feel like eating, what do we say you don’t have? — Appetite


194.Name a city in the U.S. — New York / Washington / Boston


195.What are winter, spring, summer and autumn? — Seasons


196.Which sweet food do bees produce? — Honey


197.What is the opposite of southeast? — Northwest




198.What is the antonym of vertical? — Horizontal


  1. What do we call the first meal of the day? — Breakfast


  1. What is the source of solar energy? — The sun


  1. What is the month between January and March? — February


202.What kind of liquid do mammals feed their babies? — Milk


203.What type of food is an apple? — Fruit


204.How many seasons are there in a year? — Four



205.How many days are in a leap year? — 366


206.Where can people go to borrow books? — Library


  1. If something is not expensive, what do we say it is? – Cheap


  1. What desk should you go to when you first arrive to stay at a hotel? – Reception/Check-in


  1. how many people are there in a quartet? – Four


  1. What is the meeting point of Sea and Sky called? — Sea level


  1. What is this instrument called? — Telescope


  1. How many months are in a year? — Twelve


  1. What is 3 quarters of 100%?— 75%


2I4. Who serves food in a restaurant? — Waiter / Waitress


  1. Which is the last departure train? — 7:39pm


  1. When was the tractor invented? (With Table) — 1982


217.How do you call the person who faces you? —Judge


218.Tons kg and stones measure what property? — Weight


  1. What does the black square represents? — Students


220.What do you call a piece of equipment we use to look at stars? — Astronomical telescope


221.Who left this footprint, a bear or a wolf / bird? — Bear


  1. What is more fuel-efficient, car or truck? — Car


  1. What is inside the circle? — Telephone


  1. What does ASAP mean? — As soon as possible


  1. What is the ocean on the west of American? —The Pacific




  1. Would a town, city or village probably cover the largest area? – a city


  1. What is the ceremony called for marriage? – wedding


  1. What is line between sea and land? – horizon


  1. Which subject is using a periodic table? – Chemistry


  1. What is term immunology? – Immune related


  1. Use diameter to measure? Sphere


232.Why people wear gloves when they do experiment? Protection



233.What kind of editorial is published daily? Newspaper


234.Which one is more fuel efficient? car or truck? Car


235.What is the money that people pay to the government? Tax


236.Which planet is that person standing on? (with picture) the moon


  1. Which is the fastest way to go to level 15- escalator or elevator? Elevator


  1. Which group does safety goggles belong to? Glasses


239.What is the name of the field of study that studies the human mind and behavior? Psychology


  1. What organ do optometrist specialize in? Eyes


241.What organ do dentist study? Teeth


242.Historians use evidence to draw conclusions about the past, would a contemporary artist’s painting of an ancient battle be an original source or secondary source? A secondary source


  1. Who shall we call the person who decides if a person is guilty in the court? – Judge


  1. A lack of what kind of weather causes thought, dry weather? Rainy weather


  1. Which is usually considered against the law? Use of illicit drugs or use of proscribed medication? – Use of illicit drugs


  1. Where is the natural habitat of animals classified as aquatic, in the land, in the sea or in the sky? In the sea


247.Which of the 5 senses are you using, if you detect the ordour of gas in a laboratory or in your kitchen? –smell


  1. To which of our senses do all of the following words relate, opaque, vivid, brilliant, shiny? – vision


  1. what is the structure over river to transport stuff? Bridge


  1. Birds fly to warmer places in winter, mitigation or migration? Migration




  1. The phrase used to describe the way that something repeatedly increases and decreases or rises and falls – ebb and flow 252.Sleep enjoyed in the afternoon. Siesta or Nap? – Siesta


  1. Language which is confused and unintelligible. Jargon or vocabulary? – Jargon


  1. A man whose wife is dead. Is he a Widow or Widower? – Widower


  1. A place where dead bodies are kept. Cemetery or Mortuary? – Mortuary


  1. One whose business is to find out criminals. Detectives or police? – Detectives


  1. The government runs by the dictator. Autocracy or Democracy – Autocracy


  1. One who prepares plans for buildings. – Architect 259. A place where fishes are kept – Aquarium


  1. The science of animal life. Biology or Zoology? – Zoology


  1. One who kills animals and sells their flesh. Butcher or barber? – Butcher


  1. A disease which spreads by contact. – Contagious disease


  1. An animal living both on land in water – Amphibian


  1. Art and science dealing with rules of language. Grammar or Literature. – Grammar


  1. Not limited by person or number. Infinite or Finite – Infinite


  1. Something that is quickly and easily set on fire and burned. Flammable or Nonflammable. — Flammable


  1. The one who is unable to pay his debts. In debt or Insolvent – Insolvent 268. Medicine which induces sleep. – Narcotic


  1. Medicine which induces sleep. – Narcotic


  1. having a lot of fat in one’s body- Obesity


  1. A notice of death in newspaper – Obesity


  1. A thing no longer in use, Obsolete or Out of date? –Both


  1. What is skeleton made of? – bones


  1. What is the name of the fish?- Priana















  1. why this man wearing gloves? – painting






  1. Caviar is one of the world’s priciest foods: it can cost thousands of dollars a pound. And caviar from the beluga sturgeon is the most exclusive of all. But even the experts have a hard time telling the eggs from two different species apart by appearance alone.


So scientists came up with a method that more than meets the eye: a genetic test that identifies variations in nuclear DNA that are unique to the beluga and its cousin, the sterlet. The test can differentiate roe of those two species from that of eight other species of sturgeon. Best part, given caviar’s premium price? The test requires just a single egg. The study is in the journal Scientific Reports.


The researchers say that by definitively identifying the real stuff, the test could prop up its high price. But the effort is not just of interest to the 1-percenters: genetic verification could also be used for conservation. Belugas are critically endangered. And since they hybridize with other sturgeon species, conservationists need to make sure that farm-raised fish they plan to reintroduce into the wild are the real thing, and not just a cheap lookalike.



  1. English is the world’s lingua franca, the language of science, technology, business, diplomacy and popular culture. It probably explains why it is the world’s most widely spoken language. It probably also explains why native English speakers are so reluctant to learn a second language It’s not worth the effort.

In 2008, the European Commission carried out a survey of the European Union’s 25 member states. The two with the lowest rates of bilingualism — defined as being able to hold a conversation in more than one language — were the UK and Ireland. About two- The thirds of people in these countries speak only English. If a similar story wherever English is spoken as the mother tongue. Only about 25 per cent of US citizens can converse in another language. In Australia, the rates are even lower. Compare that with continental Europe, where multilingualism is the rule rather than the exception. More than half of EU citizens are bilingual, and not just because they live in countries like Luxembourg with multiple official languages. Even in France, which has only one official language and is immensely proud of its linguistic heritage, most people speak a second language.


Again, that is largely down to the dominance of English. Across Europe, English is by far the most commonly learned language. High levels of bilingualism are not driven by a general desire to learn languages but a specific need to learn English.




3.The worldwide population of wild giant pandas increased by 268 over the last decade according to a new survey conducted by the government of China. The increase in population brings the total number of wild giant pandas to 1,864. The population increase represents 16.8% rise compared to the last panda survey in 2003. Wild giant pandas, a global symbol of wildlife conservation, are found only in China’s Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. According to the report, formally known as the Fourth National Giant Panda Survey, the geographic range of pandas throughout China also increased. The total area inhabited by wild giant pandas in China now equals 2,577,000 hectares, an expansion of 11.8% since 2003. “These results are a testament to the conservation




achievements of the Chinese government,” said Xiaohai Liu, executive director of programmes, WWF-China. “A lot of good work is being done around wild giant panda conservation, and


the government has done well to integrate these efforts and partner with conservation organizations including WWF.”


The report, the fourth in a series of decadal (10 year) surveys conducted by the State Forestry Administration of China, began in 2011 with financial and technical support from WWF.


Much of the success in increasing the panda population comes as a result of conservation policies implemented by the Chinese government, including the Natural Forest Protection Project and Grain for Green.




  1. Human remains are a fundamental part of the archaeological record, offering unique insights into the lives of individuals and populations in the past. Like many archaeological materials, human remains require distinctive and specialized methods of recovery, analysis, and interpretation, while technological innovations and the accumulation of expertise have enabled archaeologists to extract ever greater amounts of information from assemblages of skeletal material. Alongside analyses of new finds, these advances have consistently thrown new light on existing collections of human remains in museums, universities and other institutions. , social and religious meanings attached to the dead body, it is perhaps unsurprising that human remains pose a distinctive set of ethical questions for archaeologists.


With the rise of indigenous rights movements and the emergence of post-colonial nations, the acquisition and ownership of human remains became a divisive and politically loaded issue. It became increasingly clear that many human remains in museum collections around the world represented the traces of colonial in the light of the debates and changing attitudes, some human remains were returned or repatriated to their communities of origin, a process which continues to this day. Recently a new set of challenges to the study of human remains has emerged from a rather unexpected direction: The British government revised its interpretation of nineteenth-century burial legislation in a way that would drastically curtail the ability of archaeologists to study human remains of any age excavated in England and Wales. This paper examines these extraordinary events and the legal, political and ethical questions that they raise.




  1. An international team of scientists, including a physiologist from The University of Manchester, will head to the largest island in the world later this month to investigate the Greenland shark – believed to be the longest-lived vertebrate animal. Dr. Holly Shiels, who is also a trustee of the Physiological Society, will be the only UK-based scientist on the expedition aboard the research vessel Sanna commissioned by the Greenland government. The purpose of the mission is to understand more about the Greenland shark, a top predator in the Arctic, which lives for more than


  • years – possibly more than 400. This extreme age was only revealed by scientists from Copenhagen last year and published in the journal Science. Little else is known about how the shark survives in the deep seas around the Arctic Circle. It is both a hunter and a scavenger and has been seen to feed on seals and been found with the remains of polar bears and whales in its stomach. It is also one of the largest species of shark – growing to about five-and-a-half meters, just a bit smaller




than the great white. However, more information is required to ensure the species is adequately protected, as Dr. Shiels explained: “Greenland sharks are classified as data deficient,” she said. “This means that we don’t know enough to put measures in place to protect them from over-fishing, pollution or climate change. This expedition has a broad range of expertise which means that we’ll be able to take full advantage of any sharks that we discover.”



  1. Parents’ own born order can become an issue when dynamics in the family they are raising replicate the family in which they were raised. Agati notes common examples, such as a firstborn parent getting into “raging battles” with a firstborn child. “Both are used to getting the last word. Each has to be right. But the parent has to be the grown up and step out of that battle,” he advises.When youngest children become parents, Agati cautions that because they “may not have had high expectations placed on them, they in turn may not see their kids for their abilities.” But he also notes that since youngest children tend to be more social, “youngest parents can be helpful to their firstborn, who may have a harder time with social situations. These parents can help their eldest kids loosen up and not be so hard on themselves.



Mom Susan Ritz says her own birth order didn’t seem to affect her parenting until the youngest of her three children, Julie, was born. Julie was nine years younger than Ritz’s oldest, Joshua, mirroring the age difference between Susan and her own older brother. “I would see Joshua do


to Julie what my brother did to me,” she says of the taunting and teasing by a much older sibling.” I had to try not to always take Julie’s side.”


Biases can surface no matter what your own birth position was, as Lori Silverstone points out. “As a middle myself, I can be harder on my older daughter. I recall my older sister hitting me,” she says of her reactions to her daughters’ tussles. “My husband is a firstborn. He’s always sticking up for the oldest. He feels bad for her that the others came so fast. He helps me to see what that feels like, to have that attention and then lose it.” Silverstone sees birth order triggers as “an opportunity to heal parts of ourselves. I’ve


learned to teach my middle daughter to stand up for herself. My mother didn’t teach me that. I’m conscious of giving my middle daughter tools, so she has a nice way to protect herself.”


Whether or not you subscribe to theories that birth order can affect your child’s personality, ultimately, “we all have free will,” Agati notes. It’s important for both parents and kids to realize that, despite the characteristics often associated with birth order, “you’re not locked into any role.



  1. In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was enacted, creating yet another serious setback to the American wine industry. The National Prohibition Act, also known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes, and nearly destroyed what had become a thriving national industry. In 1920 there were more than seven hundred wineries in California. By the end of Prohibition, there were 160. If Prohibition had lasted only four or five years, its impact on the wine industry might have been negligible. But it continued for thirteen years, during which time grapes went underground literally and figuratively, becoming an important




commodity in the criminal economy. One loophole in the Volstead Act allowed for the manufacture and sale of sacramental wines, medicinal wines for sale by pharmacists with a doctor‘s prescription, and medicinal wine tonics (fortified wines) sold without a prescription. Perhaps more importantly, Prohibition allowed anyone to produce up to two hundred gallons of fruit juice or cider each year. The fruit juice, which was sometimes made into concentrate, was ideal for making wine. Some of this yield found its way to bootleggers throughout America who did just that. But not for long, because the government stepped in and banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production. Vineyards stopped being planted, and the American wine industry ground to a halt.




  1. On a field trip to the Amazon in 1807, 19th-century explorer Alexander von Humboldt witnessed a group of horses lead through a muddy pool filled with electric eels, which he described as dramatically leaping up to attack the intruders. But scientists have doubted the story. An illustration of Alexander Von Humboldt’s story of the battle between the horses and electric eels.


The first time I read von Humboldt’s tale, I thought it was completely bizarre, Catania says. Why would the eels attack the horses instead of swimming away? But then he observed the same behavior by accident as he transferred the eels in his lab from one tank to another using a metal-rimmed net. Instead of swimming away, larger eels attacked the net by leaping out of the water. Catania tracked the strength of the eels’ electric shock by attaching a voltmeter to an aluminum plate, or conductive metal strips to “predator” objects such as a crocodile head replica. The zap a submerged eel distributes through the water is relatively weak when it reaches the target.


But when an eel touches it with its electricity-generating chin, the current travels directly to the target and has to travel through its body before it gets back to the water, Catania reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


This allows the eels to deliver shocks with a maximum amount of power to partially submerged land animals that invade their territory, Catania explains. “It also allows them to electrify a much larger portion of the invader’s body.


Catania found the eels leapt to attack, rather than receded, more often when the water in the aquarium was lower. He argues the attack lets electric eels better defend themselves during the Amazonian dry season, when they’re cornered in small pools and make easy prey.



  1. Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region.


Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year. More than 16 million tourists visited in 2005, the last year for which complete statistics were available. While the majority of them were from Asia, mostly neighboring Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei, China, Japan and India, a growing number of Western travelers are also making their way to this Southeast Asian tropical paradise. Of the 885,000 travelers from the West, 240,000 were from the United Kingdom, 265,000 from Australia and 150,000 from the U.S.




Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the world’s tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor.


Also worth visiting is the Central Market, a pre-war building that was the main wet market for the city, and has now been transformed into an arts and cultural center.


The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold-painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps.


In Sabah state on Borneo island — not to be confused with Indonesia’s Borneo — you’ll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea.


You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.


While you’re in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers.

Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the “Pearl of the Orient.” This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.



  1. When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printer’s ink was applied to the Stone and white paper laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text—but in reverse. Since then, many copies or “facsimiles” have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem.

Anopportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material the stone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printer’s ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.






  1. If you’ve been buying sports gels to keep you going during your workout, you might want to try honey instead. According to findings presented today at the annual Experimental Biology conference, honey delivers a significant performance boost to athletes during strenuous exercise. “Numerous studies have singled out carbohydrates as a critical nutrient in endurance exercise,” says principal investigator Richard Kreider of the University of Memphis Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory. “Most of the studies to date have shown supplementation with glucose to provide the extra staying power. We were pleased to find that honey, a ‘cocktail’ of various natural sugars, performed just as well.”

The team let nine competitive male cyclists cycle for 64 kilometers each week for three weeks, feeding them honey, dextrose gel or a flavored, calorie-free placebo. Participants received 15 grams of that supplement along with 250 millilitres of water before they raced and then every 16 kilometres while cycling. Both the honey and the dextrose gel led to better times and more cycling power among the athletes, as compared with the placebois effects. While the dextrose gel slightly outperformed honey, the difference was negligible, leading the researchers to conclude that honey can be a natural and effective carbohydrate source for endurance athletes.



  1. New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don’t quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic—empowerment—can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.


The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a “perfect fit” over someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, overqualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-center reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal, as shown by U.S. federal court rulings upholding the New London, Connecticut, police department’s rejection of a high-IQ candidate on the grounds that he’d probably become dissatisfied and quit.


This kind of thinking has tossed untold numbers of experienced, highly skilled people into the ranks of the long-term unemployed, a group that now constitutes nearly half of all U.S. jobless.


But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are needed to supply the growing service sectors. In China, where the number of college graduates has tripled since 1998, more than one-fourth of this year’s 6.3 million college grads are out of work, according to Bloomberg Businessweek.



  1. In the past two centuries there has been a dramatic change in the role of food and eating in Australian public consciousness. Public discussion of food was largely confined to matters of supply, distribution and price. Towards the end of the nineteenth century some newspapers were offering




regular columns of advice on housekeeping topics, including menu planning and recipes. However, eating remained essentially a private activity, even when undertaken in company.


By the late twentieth century, food and eating had become prominent public preoccupations. Evidence of this dramatic cultural revaluation abounds. In bookstores, for example cookery and all things related to it are often among the larger displays. There are specialty stores selling all manner of cookware table ware and other paraphernalia associated with food eating and drinking.

Perhaps most telling is the extension of the phenomenon of mass media celebrity to include culinary personalities. Scholars, too, have jumped on the commodification bandwagon. Now degrees in gastronomy seem set to emulate the MBA phenomenon of the 1980s and food has become a respectable subject for investigation with philosophers, sociologists, historians, cultural theorists, ecologists and many other all having a go at it.


However, surprisingly, the question seems to have held little fascination for most historians. For the best part of two centuries they have managed to write their accounts of colonization and nationhood with only scant reference to how the settlers and their descendants fed themselves.



  1. When Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492, the island had already been settled by Native Americans for about 5,000 years. The occupants in Columbus’s time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos who lived by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around half a million (the estimates range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus initially found them peaceful and friendly, until he and his Spaniards began mistreating them.


Unfortunately for the Tainos, they had gold, which the Spanish coveted but didn’t want to go to the work of mining themselves. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and its Indian population among individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus’s arrival, that original population of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000, most of whom died that year of smallpox to bring the population down to 3,000.



  1. Scientists believe they may have found a way to prevent complications that can arise following cataract surgery, the world’s leading cause of blindness.


Detailing why complications can occur after surgery, researchers from the University of East Anglia (UEA) explained that while cataract surgery works well to restore vision, a few natural lens cells always remain after the procedure. Over time, the eye’s wound-healing response leads these cells to spread across the underside of the artificial lens, which interferes with vision, causing what’s known as ‘posterior capsule opacification’ or secondary cataract.


UEA’s School of Biological Sciences academic, Dr Michael Wormstone, who led the study, said: “Secondary visual loss responds well to treatment with laser surgery. But as life expectancy increases, the problems of cataract and posterior capsule opacification will become even greater in terms of both patient well being and economic burden. It’s essential that we find better ways to manage the condition in future.”




As a result, researchers are designing new artificial lenses that can be placed into a capsular bag that stays open, instead of shrink-wrapping closed, which currently occurs. It is believed that, through the new approach, fluid in the eye can flow around the artificial lens, therefore diluting and washing away the cell-signalling molecules that encourage cell re-growth.



  1. Autism is a disorder characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Over the past 40 years, the measured prevalence of autism has multiplied roughly 10-fold. While progress has been made in understanding some of the factors associated with increased risk and rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty what causes autism or what caused autism prevalence to rise so precipitously. There is, however, a growing awareness among scholars that focusing solely on individual risk factors such as exposure toxicants, prenatal complications, or parental education is insufficient to explain why autism prevalence rates have increased so stunningly. Social and institutional processes likely play an important role. For example, changes in diagnostic criteria and an influx of resources dedicated to autism diagnosis may be critical to understanding why prevalence rates have risen. Increased awareness and social influence have been implicated in the rise of autism and a variety of comparable disorders, where social processes mimic the effects of contagion. Studies have examined the contribution of changes in diagnostic criteria and diagnostic substitution to rising autism prevalence rates, but the importance of institutional factors, resources for diagnosis, and greater awareness have not been systematically assessed. The sociological literature on health and inequality, however, provides substantial motivation for exploring how individual- and community-level effects operate to shape the likelihood of an autism diagnosis.



  1. To understand the final reason why the news marketplace of ideas dominated by television is so different form the one that emerged in the world dominated by the printing press, it is important to distinguish the quality of vividness experienced by television viewers from the “vividness” experienced by readers. I believe that the vividness experienced in the reading of words is automatically modulated by the constant activation of the reasoning centres of the brain that are used in the process of cocreating the representation of reality the author has intended. By contrast, the visceral vividness portrayed on television has the capacity to trigger instinctual responses similar to those triggered by reality itself – and without being modulated by logic, reason, and reflective thought.


The simulation of reality accomplished in the television medium is so astonishingly vivid and compelling compared with the representations of reality conveyed by printed words that it signifies much more than an incremental change in the way people consume information. Books also convey compelling and vivid representation of reality, of course. But the reader actively participates in the conjuring of the reality the book’s author is attempting to depict. Moreover, the parts of the human brain that are central to the reasoning process are continually activated by the very act of reading printed words: Words are composed of abstract symbols – letters – that have no intrinsic meaning themselves until they are strung together into recognisable sequences.




Television, by contrast, present to its viewers a much more fully formed representation of reality – without requiring the creative collaboration that words have always demanded.



  1. As warmer winter temperatures become more common, one way for some animals to adjust is to shift their ranges northward. But a new study of 59 North American bird species indicates that doing so is not easy or quick — it took about 35 years for many birds to move far enough north for winter temperatures to match where they historically lived.

For example, black vultures have spread northward in the last 35 years and now winter as far north as Massachusetts, where the minimum winter temperature is similar to what it was in Maryland in 1975. On the other hand, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker did not alter its range at all despite the warming trend, possibly because its very specific habitat requirements precluded a range shift.


Both of these scenarios could represent problems for birds, La Sorte said. Species that do not track changes in climate may wind up at the limits of their physiological tolerance, or they may lose important habitat qualities, such as favored food types, as those species pass them by. But they also can’t move their ranges too fast if the habitat conditions they depend on also tend to lag behind climate.



  1. UCLA neurology professor Paul Thompson and his colleagues scanned the brains of 23 sets of identical twins and 23 sets of fraternal twins. Since identical twins share the same genes while fraternal twins share about half their genes, the researchers were able to compare each group to show that myelin integrity was determined genetically in many parts of the brain that are key for intelligence. These include the parietal lobes, which are responsible for spatial reasoning, visual processing and logic, and the corpus callosum, which pulls together information from both sides of the body.

The researchers used a faster version of a type of scanner called a HARDI (high-angular resolution diffusion imaging) — think of an MRI machine on steroids — that takes scans of the brain at a much higher resolution than a standard MRI. While an MRI scan shows the volume of different tissues in the brain by measuring the amount of water present, HARDI tracks how water diffuses through the brain’s white matter — a way to measure the quality of its myelin.


“HARDI measures water diffusion,” said Thompson, who is also a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro-Imaging. “If the water diffuses rapidly in a specific direction, it tells us that the brain has very fast connections. If it diffuses more broadly, that’s an indication of slower signaling, and lower intelligence.”



  1. Life expectancies have been rising by up to three months a year since 1840, and there is no sign of that flattening. Gratton and Scott draw on a 2009 study to show that if the trend continues, more than half the babies born in wealthier countries since 2000 may reach their 100th birthdays.


With a few simple, devastating strokes, Gratton and Scott show that under the current system it is almost certain you won’t be able to save enough to fund several decades of decent retirement. For




example, if your life expectancy is 100, you want a pension that is 50 per cent of your final salary, and you save 10 per cent of your earnings each year, they calculate that you won’t be able to retire till your 80s. People with 100-year life expectancies must recognise they are in for the long haul, and make an early start arranging their lives accordingly.


But how to go about this? Gratton and Scott advance the idea of a multistage life, with repeated changes of direction and attention. Material and intangible assets will need upkeep, renewal or replacement. Skills will need updating, augmenting or discarding, as will networks of friends and acquaintances. Earning will be interspersed with learning or self-reflection. As the authors warn, recreation will have to become “re-creation”.




  1. How can we design great cities from scratch if we cannot agree on what makes them great? None of the cities where people most want to live — such as London, New York, Paris and Hong Kong — comes near to being at the top of surveys asking which are best to live in.


The top three in the most recent Economist Intelligence Unit’s liveability ranking, for example, were Melbourne, Vancouver and Vienna. They are all perfectly pleasant, but great? The first question to tackle is the difference between liveability and greatness. Perhaps we cannot aspire to make a great city, but if we attempt to make a liveable one, can it in time become great?

There are some fundamental elements that you need. The first is public space. Whether it is Vienna’s Ringstrasse and Prater park, or the beaches of Melbourne and Vancouver, these are places that allow the city to pause and the citizens to mingle and to breathe, regardless of class or wealth. Good cities also seem to be close to nature, and all three have easy access to varied, wonderful landscapes and topographies.


A second crucial factor, says Ricky Burdett, a professor of urban studies at the London School of Economics, is a good transport system. “Affordable public transport is the one thing which cuts across all successful cities,” he says.



  1. What do great managers actually do?


In my research, beginning with a survey of 80,000 managers conducted by the Gallup Organization and continuing during the past two years with in-depth studies of a few top performers, I’ve found that while there are as many styles of management as there are managers, there is one quality that sets truly great managers apart from the rest: They discover what is unique about each person and then capitalize on it. Average managers play checkers, while great managers play chess. The difference? In checkers, all the pieces are uniform and move in the same way; they are interchangeable. You need to plan and coordinate their movements, certainly, but they all move at the same pace, on parallel paths. In chess, each type of piece moves in a different way, and you can’t play if you don’t know how each piece moves. More important, you won’t win if you don’t think carefully about how you move the pieces. Great managers know and value the unique abilities and even the eccentricities of their employees, and they learn how best to integrate them into a coordinated plan of attack.


This is the exact opposite of what great leaders do. Great leaders discover what is universal and capitalize on it. Their job is to rally people toward a better future. Leaders can succeed in this only




when they can cut through differences of race, sex, age, nationality, and personality and, using stories and celebrating heroes, tap into those very few needs we all share. The job of a manager, meanwhile, is to turn one person’s particular talent into performance. Managers will succeed only when they can identify and deploy the differences among people, challenging each employee to excel in his or her own way. This doesn’t mean a leader can’t be a manager or vice versa. But to excel at one or both, you must be aware of the very different skills each role requires.



  1. Here’s a term you’re going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It’s what you and many other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car – your plug-in vehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometres through city traffic.


When you arrive at work you’ll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car’s batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your favourite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car’s batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys form your car would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, even biofuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.


Concerns over ‘peak oil’, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five times as many motor vehicles registered world-wide as there are now, mean that the world’s almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.



  1. I knew it was a good idea because I had been there before. Born and reared on a farm I had been seduced for a few years by the idea of being a big shot that lived and worked in a city rather than only going for the day to wave at the buses. True, I was familiar with some of the minor disadvantages of country living such as an iffy private water supply sometimes infiltrated by a range of flora and fauna (including, on one memorable occasion, a dead lamb), the absence of central heating in farm houses and cottages, and a single track farm road easily blocked by snow, broken down machinery or escaped livestock. But there were many advantages as I told Liz back in the mid Seventies. Town born and bred, eight months pregnant and exchanging a warm, substantial Corstorphine terrace for a windswept farm cottage on a much lower income, persuading her that country had it over town might have been difficult.




25.Water is at the core of sustainable development. Water resources, and the range of services they provide, underpin poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental sustainability. From food




and energy security to human and environmental health, water contributes to improvements in social well-being and inclusive growth, affecting the livelihoods of billions.In a sustainable world that is achievable in the near future, water and related resources are managed in support of human well-being and ecosystem integrity in a robust economy. Sufficient and safe water is made available to meet every person’s basic needs, with healthy lifestyles and behaviors easily upheld through reliable and affordable water supply and sanitation services, in turn supported by equitably extended and efficiently managed infrastructure. Water resources management, infrastructure and service delivery are sustainably financed. Water is duly valued in all its forms, with wastewater treated as a resource that avails energy, nutrients and freshwater for reuse. Human settlements develop in harmony with the natural water cycle and the ecosystems that support it, with measures in place that reduce vulnerability and improve resilience to water-related disasters. Integrated approaches to water resources development, management and use – and to human rights – are the norm. Water is governed in a participatory way that draws on the full potential of women and men as professionals and citizens, guided by a number of able and knowledgeable organizations, within a just and transparent institutional framework.




  1. A tiny tree frog preserved in amber is believed to have lived about 25 million years ago, a Mexican researcher says. The chunk of amber containing the centimetre-long frog was uncovered by a miner in southern Chiapas state in 2005 and bought by a private collector, who lent it to scientists for study.Only a few preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber — a stone formed by ancient tree sap — mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas was of the genus Craugastor, whose relatives still inhabit the region. Gerardo Carbot, the biologist with the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute who announced the discovery on Wednesday, said it was the first such frog found in amber in Mexico. Carbot said he would like to extract a sample from the frog’s remains to see whether they contain well-preserved DNA, in order to identify the frog’s species. However, he expressed doubt that the stone’s owner would allow researchers to drill a small hole into the chunk of amber.



  1. American English is, without doubt, the most influential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There are many reasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation on earth and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, the distinction between a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference to power. As has been said, a language is a dialect with an army. Second, America’s political influence is extended through American popular culture, in particular through the international reach of American films (movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, The internationally dominant position of a culture results in a forceful expansion of its language…. the expansion of language contributes… to the prestige of the culture behind it. Third, the international prominence of American English is closely associated with the extraordinarily quick development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates. This means a computer s default setting for language is American English, although of course this can be changed to suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence of American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion of




American culture and media, technological advance and the rapid development of communications technology.



  1. Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or in crevices within the reef, the Nurse sharks seem to prefer specific resting sites and will return to them each day after the nights hunting. By night, the sharks are largely solitary. Nurse sharks spend most of their time foraging through the bottom sediments in search of food. Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, molluscs, tunicates and other fish such as spiny lobsters, crabs, shrimps, sea urchins, octopuses, squid, marine snails and bivalves and in particularly, stingrays.

Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch, although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way, Nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral. Nurse sharks have been observed resting on the bottom with their bodies supported on their fins, possibly providing a false shelter for crustaceans which they then ambush and eat.


  1. What makes teaching online unique is that it uses the Internet, especially the World Wide Web, as the primary means of communication. Thus, when you teach online, you don’t have to be someplace to teach. You don’t have to lug your briefcase full of papers or your laptop to a classroom, stand at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard, or grade papers in a stuffy room while your students take a test. You don’t even have to sit in your office waiting for students to show up for conferences. You can hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner. You can do all this while living in a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok, even if you’re working for a college whose administrative offices are located in Florida or Dubai. You can attend an important conference in Hawaii on the same day that you teach your class in New Jersey, longing on from your laptop via the local cafe’s wireless hot sport or your hotel room’s high speed network.


Online learning offers more freedom for students as well. They can search for courses using the Web, scouring their institution or even the world fro programs, classes and instructors that fit their needs. Having found an appropriate course, they can enrol and register, shop for their books, read articles, listen to lectures, submit their homework assignments, confer with their instructors, and receive their final grades – all online. They can assemble in virtual classrooms, joining other students from diverse geographical locales, forging bond and friendships not possible in conventional classrooms, which are usually limited to students from a specific geographical area.



  1. According to the United States Constitution, a presidential election is to be held once every fourth year. The process of electing a President and Vice-President begins long before Election Day. Candidates from both major and minor political parties and independent candidates begin to raise money and campaign at least one year in advance of the general presidential election. In order to officially represent a political party, a candidate must be nominated by that party.




This primary nomination process is a contest that often produces factions within political parties. These divisions impact the policy stances and agendas of the candidates running for nomination as they attempt to garner the support of party leaders and activists. The nominating process officially begins with the first state primaries and caucuses, which usually occur in the month of February of the election year. It is at these local events that voters are given their first chance to participate in electing the nation’s next President.


There are many factors that influence who will ultimately become the candidate for a party. The public’s perception of the candidates is influenced by such things as media reports, public opinion polls, candidate preference surveys, and advertising. These factors will help determine the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the candidates in the months leading up to the caucuses and primaries.




  1. All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has bequeathed them through natural selection. They are not capable of striving towards truth; they simply absorb information, and behave in ways useful for their survival. The kinds of knowledge they require of the world have been largelypre-selected by evolution. No animal is capable of asking questions or generating problems that are irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily-designed needs. When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies’ south, it doesn’t wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south. Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally-defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to establish human-created goals. Some contemporary thinkers believe that there are indeed certain questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that “Our minds evolved by natural selection to solve problems that were life-and- death matters to our ancestors, not to commune with correctness or to answer any question we are capable of asking. We cannot hold ten thousand words in our short-term memory. We cannot see ultra-violet light. We cannot mentally rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot solve conundrums like free will and sentience.







  1. Do you think consumer should avoid over packed products or it is responsibility of producer to avoid extra packaging of products?” Give your views or any relevant example with your own experience.


  1. Many people think regions affect successful persons. What is your opinion about native regions and accomplished person influence on the regions they belong to?


  1. The environment we are living in is in danger due to various problems. What are the underlying causes? Who do you think should be responsible to solve it? Is it the governments, organization or each individual? What measures?


  1. The mass media including TV, radio and newspaper influence our society and shape our opinions and characters. What is your opinion?


  1. Nowadays TV has become an essential part of life. Medium to spread news & awareness and for some it acts like a companion. What is your opinion about this?


  1. Company top-level Authorities should or should not take employees suggestions or ideas to take any decisions. Discuss.


  1. Successful sports stars and glamorous film stars are a role model for youngsters. Do u support it or not? (Agree/Disagree)


  1. In education system, assessment through written formal examinations is valid or not.


  1. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.


  1. Talk about the pros/ cons of this era as is full of daily inventions.


  1. Any new technological development in the recent years is a boon or curse for the society in general.


  1. Parents should be held legally responsible for their children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.


  1. Marketing strategy for big companies should be placed on offer and discounts, and in what ways this can impact on their reputation.


  1. Dangerous activities like extreme skiing, bungee jumping etc. And whether u support them or not.


  1. Do you think that place where the person grew has an influence on his accomplishments? Explain with example.


  1. Climate change and about the roles that Government, Corporate and Individuals can play to improve it.


  1. Some people believe laws change human behavior. Do you agree with it?


  1. Illiterate of the future would not be one who does not know to read, but people who do not know how to learn. Agree or disagree?


  1. Information revolution has changed the way of mass communication and had some negative and positive effects on individual lives as well as on society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


  1. Pro and cons of extreme/ adventures sports.




  1. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Do you think it is a good or bad change? Discuss with appropriate examples.


  1. Dangerous activities like extreme skiing. bungee jumping etc. And weather u supports them or not.


  1. It is argued that getting married before finishing school or getting a job is not a good choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


  1. Imitating celebrities in sports and movies is good or bad?


  1. Any recent Invention that you think proved beneficial or detrimental to society.


  1. In the past 100 years, there are many inventions such as antibiotics, airplanes and computers. What do you think is the most important invent for the past 100 years? Why?


  1. Do you think that formal written examinations are a good way to assess knowledge at school?


  1. Learning a new language at an early age is helpful for children, is it more positive for their future aspect or have some adverse effects. Do u agree or disagree? Give examples from your experience.


  1. In under developed countries, tourism has disadvantages and can be said the opposite as well, what is your opinion?


  1. Communication has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of this change.


  1. The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education – Einstein. What do you mean by this? And do you think Einstein was correct in saying that.


  1. Positive and Negative effects of today’s communication.


  1. The space travel is fantastic these days, but there are many issues, such as environmental problems, our planet that we should be focusing. What do you think about the money allocation?


  1. Do you think English will remain to be a global language despite globalization?


  1. Some people think placing advertisements in schools is a great resource for public schools that need additional funding, but others think it exploits children by treating them as a captive audience tot corporate sponsors. Choose which position you most agree with and discuss why you chose that position. Support your point of view with details from your own experiences, observations or reading.


  1. Television has many useful functions to play in everyone’s life, for some its relaxation, for some it is companion. Discuss your viewpoint and support your answer with examples and discussion point.


  1. You are given climate as the field of study. Which area will you prefer? Explain why you picked up the particular area for your study?


  1. People pursue dangerous activities like sky diving, motorcycle sports, white-water river rafting etc. Do you support? If yes. why and if not, why?


  1. What does generosity mean to you?


  1. Value added by travel in Education. Is travel a necessary component of education or not? Will scholar sitting at home have more knowledge than one who travels?


  1. Travel to study is over rated, we have brilliant scholars who studied locally. Is travel really required for higher studies?




  1. In a war of ideas, it is people who get killed. Does a common man suffer from a group’s ideology? Express your opinion and support with reasons and example.


  1. In future illiterate will not be those who cannot read, but those who do not learn -By some writer. Discuss what do you understand by this statement and state your reason.


  1. Some people said women are more loyal than men in a relationship. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


  1. Marketing in companies should be based on reputation or short term strategic?


  1. Do you think English will remain a global language despite globalization?


  1. What are the pros and cons of staying connected on social media 24 hours a day?


More  Eassay with answer 

PTE Essays With sample Answer 





  1. International Date Line:


  1. For example, if an airplane were to travel westward with the sun, 24 hrs. would elapse as it circled the globe, but it would still be the same day for those in the airplane while it would be one day later for those on the ground below them.


  1. International date line, imaginary line on the earth’s surface. generally following the 180′ meridian of longitude, where, by international agreement, travelers change dates.


  1. The apparent paradox is resolved by requiring that the traveler crossing the date line change his date, thus bringing the travelers into agreement when they meet.
  2. The same problem would arise if two travelers journeyed in opposite directions to a point on the opposite side of the earth, 180′ of longitude distant.


  1. The date line is necessary to avoid a confusion that would otherwise result.



Answer: b, e, a, d, c


  1. Volkswagen Share Trade:


  1. Many investors have been disappointed and frightened away.


  1. The main problem with Volkswagen is the past.


  1. A disastrous capital hike, an expensive foray into truck business and uncertainty about the reason for a share buyback have in recent years left investors bewildered.
  2. Volkswagen shares trade at about nine times the 2002 estimated earnings, compared to BMW’s 19 and are the second cheapest in the sector.


  1. Despite posting healthy profits. Volkswagen shares trade at a discount to peers due to bad reputation among investors.


Answer: e, c, b, a, d


  1. Chimpanzee are incapable of Language:


  1. Chimpanzees cannot speak because. unlike humans, their vocal cords are located higher in their throats and cannot be controlled as well as human vocal cords.


  1. Perhaps they can acquire grammar and speak if they could only use grammar some way other than with a voice.
  2. A simple way to disprove this Innateness Hypothesis, as linguists call it. is to demonstrate that other species have the capacity to speak but for some reason simply have not developed speech.


  1. It does not follow from their lack of speech. however, that chimpanzees are incapable of language. that is a human-like grammar.


  1. A logical candidate for such a species is the chimpanzee, which shares 98.4% of the human genetic code.



Answer: d, e, c, b, a




  1. SEPAHUA Log Gable Area:


  1. Instead, it auctioned 40-year concessions to areas ruled off on a map, with the right to log 5% of the area each year. The aim was to encourage strict management plans and sustainable extraction.


  1. It abolished the previous system of Annual contracts.


  1. In 2001 the government, egged on by WWF, a green group, tried to regulate logging in the relatively small part of the Peruvian Amazon where this is allowed.
  2. SEPAHUA, a ramshackle town on the edge of Peru’s Amazon Jungle. Nestles in a pocket on the map where a river of the same name flows into the Urubamba.


  1. That pocket donates a tiny patch of legally log gable land sandwiched between four natural reserves, all rich in mahogany and accessible from the town, “Boundaries are on maps,” says a local logger, “maps are only in Lima.” the capital.




  1. Sydney Fireworks:


  1. From 8:40pm. the bridge will be turned into a canvas showing the Welcome to Country ceremony.


  1. “It’s about how we’re all so affected by the harbor and its surrounds, how special it is to all of us and how it moves us,” said the Welcome to Country’s creative director, Rhoda Roberts.


  1. Fireworks and special effects, including a red “waterfall” from the bridge base. will turn the structure built in 1932 into a giant Aboriginal flag shortly after the sun sets for the last time in 2013.


  1. Fireworks and special effects will also turn the bridge into a giant Aboriginal flag before the 9 pm fireworks display.


Answer: c, b, a, d


  1. Pilot deliver mails:


  1. During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances.
  2. He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH-4 biplane to Springfield. Illinois. Peoria and Chicago.


  1. After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria’s airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.


  1. After finishing first in his pilot training class. Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri.


Answer: d, b, a, c


  1. A German Writer:


  1. It has book list for ***, a German writer


  1. The lists also have other publications


  1. It is sorted by dates and category


  1. But it doesn’t provide search function


Answer: Above is the correct order



Answer: a, c, e, d, b




  1. American Civil Right Movement:


  1. Parks was chosen by King as the face for his campaign because of Parks’ good standing with the community, her employment and her marital status.
  2. She was attested for her civil disobedience.


  1. Parks’ arrest, a coordinated tactic meant to spark a grassroots movement, succeeded in catalysing the Montgomery bus boycott.


  1. Earlier in 1955. Claudette Colvin. a 15-year old African American girl, had been arrested for the same crime; however, King and his civil rights compatriots did not feel that she would serve as an effective face for their civil rights campaign.


  1. It was there that Rosa Parks, an African American woman, refused to vacate her seat in the middle of the bus so that a white man could sit in her place.


Answer: e, b, c, a, d


  1. A problematic boy:


  1. There is one 11-year-old boy who had been adopted by five families.


  1. Moreover, he had been studying in four different schools.


  1. The consequence is that he has problem fitting in the society.


  1. Moreover, his academic performance was not good.


  1. He was sent to his relatives’ family in order for him to be well taken care of.


Answer: above is the correct order


  1. Sea Level Raise:


  1. Many people are living under the threat of flood.


  1. There would be inure people are living in risk once the sea level rises.


  1. Scientists predict that every 0.5 cm sea level rises will lead “** lives in risk.


  1. And every I cm sea level rise will lead*** lives in risk


Answer: above is the correct order


  1. A project about father:


  1. A University of Canberra modern has launched the nation’s first father-led literacy project, to encourage fathers to become more involved in their children’s literacy.
  2. Teachers depend on parent helpers in the earlier school years, though research shows that nationally only live percent of these helpers are male she said, “A male Mar values reading sets a powerful role model, particularly for young boys, who are statistically more likely to end up in remedial literacy programs.


  1. Julia Bocking’s Literacy and Dads (LADS) project aims to increase the number of fathers participating as literacy helpers in K-2 school reading programs at Queanbeyan Primary Schools.


  1. Having worked as a literacy tutor with teenager, Ms. Hocking saw the need for good altitudes towards reading to be formed early on – with the help of more male role models.
  2. “There’s no program like this in Australia,” Ms. Bucking said, who devised the project as the final component of her community education degree at the University?






  1. Jet Stream:


  1. Instead of moving along a straight line, the jet stream flows in a wavelike fashion; the waves propagate eastward (in the Northern Hemisphere) at speeds considerably slower than the wind speed itself.


  1. Jet stream, narrow, swift currents or tubes of air found at heights ranging from 7 to 8 mi (11.3-12.9 km) above the surface of the earth.


  1. They are caused by great temperature differences between adjacent air masses.


  1. Since the progress of an airplane is aided or impeded depending on whether tail winds or head winds are encountered, in the Northern Hemisphere the jet stream is sought by eastbound aircraft, in order to gain speed and save fuel, and avoided by westbound aircraft.



Answer: b, c, a, d


  1. The shortage of scholars:


  1. “Not only are there some good career opportunities, but there’s a lot of money going into the research side, too.
  2. With the pressures of climate change and the energy gap, in the last few years funding from the research councils has probably doubled.”


  1. “The energy sector has a fantastic skills shortage at all levels, both now and looming over it for the next 10 years.” he says.
  2. Engineers are much needed to develop greener technologies, he says.


Answer: d, c, a, b


  1. Scottish Bank:


  1. The first Scottish bank to do this was the Bank of Scotland.


  1. When this hank was founded in 1695, Scots coinage was in short supply and of uncertain value, compared “jib English. Dutch Flemish or French coin.


  1. In most countries it is only the government. through their central banks, who are permitted to issue currency.
  2. But in Scotland three banks are still allowed to issue banknotes.


  1. To lace growth of trade it was deemed necessary to remedy this lack of an adequate currency.


Answer: c, d, a, b, e



  1. Barners’ books:


  1. But even the Evil American Corporate Magnate is a pretty likable guy.


  1. Unlike Barnes’ previous books. Mother of Storms has a fairly large cast of viewpoint characters.


  1. This usually imitates me, but I didn’t mind it here, and their interactions are well-handled and informative, although occasionally in moving them about the author’s manipulations are a bit blatant. (Especially when one character’s ex-girlfriend, who has just undergone a sudden and not entirely credible change in personality, is swept up by a Plot Device in Shining Armor and transported directly across most of Mexico and a good bit of the States to where she happens to hump into another viewpoint character.)




  1. They’re not all necessarily good guys. either, although with the hurricanes wreaking wholesale destruction upon the world’s coastal areas, ethical categories tend to become irrelevant.


Answer: c, d, a, b, e


  1. Marquez:


  1. The town had flourished, nearing 400 residents, since its establishment more than a decade earlier in 1566, by Pedro Menendez de Aviles who had founded La Florida and St. Augustine the year before


  1. He erected fort San Marcos in six days in defense against a Native American attack such as the one that forced the abandonment of the town a year earlier.


  1. In 1571, it became the capital of La Florida.


  1. Marquez arrived in October 1577 at the abandoned town of Santa Elena with two ships carrying pie fabricated posts and heavy planking.



Answer: d, b, a, c


  1. Earth-like planets:


  1. A team of scientist, has discovered two Earth-like planets in the habitable orbit of a Sun-like star.
  2. In addition, one of the live was a toughly Mm-sited planet. halt the site of Earth.


  1. These new super-Earths have radii of 1.3. 1.4. I .6. and 1.9 times that of Earth.


  1. Using observations gathered by NASA’s Kepler Mission, the team found five planets orbiting a Sun-like star called Kepler-62.
  2. Four of these planets are so-called super-Earths. huger than our own planet, but smaller than even the smallest ice giant planet in our Solar System.


Answer: a, d, e, c, b


  1. Karl Marx:


  1. Particularly moving pieces’ highlight social inequality and starvation in Britain. while others explore his ground-breaking views on the slave and opium trades – Marx believed Western powers relied on these and would stop at nothing to protect their interests.


  1. Karl Marx is arguably the most famous political philosopher of all time, but he was also one of the great foreign correspondents of the nineteenth century.


  1. During his 11 years writing for the New York Tribune (their collaboration began in 1852) . Marx tackled an abundance of topics, from issues of class and the state to world affairs.


  1. Above all, Marx’s fresh perspective on nineteenth-century events encouraged his readers to think, and his writing is surprisingly relevant today.


Answer: b, c, a, d


  1. Sea Life:


  1. This complicated analysis was published in a journal.


  1. To find out if sea lives is as diverse as land lives, some biologists started to do a research.


  1. The range is extremely wide, from those ones in the history to the ones in restaurants


  1. They had spent 3 years counting all living beings that they can count.




Answer: b, d, c, a





  1. Fruit and vegetable Intake:


  1. This is giving us the message that we need new and enhanced efforts to increase fruit and vegetable intake that we haven’t been doing in the past.


  1. Fruit and vegetable intake is important for the prevention of future chronic disease. So it’s important to know whether intakes of teens are approaching national objectives for fruit and vegetable consumption.


  1. The study, part of a larger initiative on factors influencing eating habits of adolescents, gathered information about fruit and vegetable intake among 944 boys and 1.161 girls in 1999 and again in 2004.


  1. Larson and colleagues from the University of Minnesota undertook the study to examine whether or not teens in the state were increasing their intake of fruits and vegetables.


  1. Teens in middle adolescence are eating fewer fruits and vegetables than in 1999, Larson and colleagues found.



Answer: b, d, c, e, a


  1. IT Innovation:


  1. He suggests the country’s computer services industry can simply outsource research to foreign universities if the capability is not available locally.


  1. Innovation in India is as much due to entrepreneurialism as it is to IT skills, says Arun Maria. chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India.
  2. Indian businessmen have used IT to create new business models that enable them to provide services in a more cost-effective way. This is not something that necessarily requires expensive technical research.


  1. “This way, I will have access to the best scientists in the world without having to produce them myself,” says Mr. Maria.


Answer: b, e, a, d


  1. Advertisement:


  1. Over the years, I have had the opportunities to observe and understand the thought processes behind the ads that have been flooding both the print and the TV media.


  1. There is an increasing attempt by most companies to be seen as cool and funky.


  1. Although there is a huge shift in the quality of ads that we come across on a daily basis– thanks essentially to improvement in technology–I somehow can’t help but feel that the quality of communication of the message has become diluted.


  1. Proportionally, the number of ads that lack in quality, have gone up exponentially as well.


  1. Another reason could be the burgeoning number of companies, which means an exponential increase in the number of ads that are being made.


Answer: a, c, b, e, d




  1. Memory Loss:


  1. Studies of this man led scientists to a breakthrough: the part of our brains where habits are stored has nothing to do with memory or reason.
  2. Every day he was asked where the kitchen was in his house, and every day he didn’t have the foggiest idea.


  1. In 1992 a retired engineer in San Diego contracted a rare brain disease that wiped out his memory.
  2. Yet whenever he was hungry he got up and propelled himself straight to the kitchen to get something to cat.


  1. It offered proof of what the US psychologist William James noticed more than a century ago


— that humans “are mere walking bundles of habits”.



Answer: c, b, d, a, e


  1. Map:


  1. This is because it chops the world up equally by longitude, without regard to the reality of either political divisions or the changing seasons.
  2. This is somewhat surprising given the London Underground’s historic difficulty in grasping the concept of punctuality.


  1. For as long as I can remember, there has been a map in the ticket hall of Piccadilly Circus tube station supposedly showing night and day across the time zones of the world.
  2. But the map has always fascinated me, and still does, even though it now seems very primitive.


Answer: c, b, d, a


  1. Electronic transactions:


  1. To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.
  2. The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money have to be.


  1. Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the panics nor the transaction history.
  2. Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it.


  1. Electronic transactions are happening in closed group networks and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of Internet to emerge.


Answer: c, d, b, e, a


  1. Mother of storm:


  1. Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.


  1. Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.
  2. Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by watchdog groups.


  1. But beginning in the 1990’s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.


Answer: d, a, c, b



Answer: b, d, c, a
Answer: b, d, c, a


  1. Mario de Andrade:


  1. Regrettably, Brazilian mission’s collection ended up languishing in vaults here.


  1. Early in 1938, Mario de Andrade, the municipal secretary of culture here, dispatched a four-member Folklore Research Mission to the northeastern hinterlands of Brazil on a similar mission.


  1. They recorded whoever and whatever seemed to be interesting: piano carriers, cowboys, beggars, voodoo priests, quarry workers, fishermen, dance troupes and even children at play. D


  1. His intention was to record as much music as possible as quickly as possible, before encroaching influences like radio and cinema began transforming the region’s distinctive culture.




  1. The Second World War:


  1. The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets.
  2. During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh’s solo transatlantic flight in 1927, and Charles Kingslbrd Smith’s transpacific flight the following year.


  1. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available.
  2. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service.



  1. Piano construction:


  1. Black keys were traditionally made of ebony, and the white keys were covered with strips of ivory. However, since ivory- yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, makers use plastics almost exclusively.


  1. Today they are usually made of spruce or basswood, Spruce is typically used in high quality pianos
  2. Also, ivory tends to chip more easily than plastic.


  1. In the early years of piano construction, keys were commonly made from sugar pine.


Answer: d, b, a, c


  1. Carbon detox:


  1. our views are formed by the views of the people with whom we mix.


  1. He proposes that instead of arguing for sacrifice, environmentalists should show where the rewards might lie.


  1. In his fascinating book Carbon Detox, George Marshall argues that people are not persuaded by information.
  2. Of the narratives that might penetrate these circles, we are more likely to listen to those which offer us some reward.




  1. We should emphasize the old-fashioned virtues of uniting in the face of a crisis, of resourcefulness and community action.


Answer: c, a, d, b, e


  1. Charles Lindbergh:


  1. After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria’s airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.


  1. He flew the mail in a de Havilland DG-4 biplane to Springfield, Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.


  1. After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in ST. Louis, Missouri.


  1. During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances.


Answer: c, b, d, a


  1. Cardiovascular health:


  1. These compounds may work in several ways to improve cardiovascular health.


  1. They theorized that the 1.2 liters of green tea consumed by many Asians each day, provides high levels of polyphenols and other antioxidants.


  1. Specifically, green tea may prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol (the “bad” type), which in turn can reduce the buildup of plaque in arteries, the researchers wrote.
  2. They pointed to the “Asian paradox.” Iowa rates of heart disease and cancer in Asia despite high rates of smoking.


  1. In May 2006, researchers at Yale University weighed in on green tea’s health benefits with a review ankle that examined more than 100 studies on the subject.



Answer: e, d, b, a, c


  1. Stored food:


  1. But stored food is essential for feeding non-food-producing specialists, and certainly for supporting whole towns of them.
  2. A consequence of a settled existence is that it permits one to store food surpluses, since storage would he pointless if one didn’t remain nearby to guard the stored food.


  1. So, while some nomadic hunter-gatherers may occasionally bag more food than they can consume in a few days, such a bonanza is of little use to them because they cannot protect it.


  1. Hence nomadic hunter- gatherer societies have few or no such full-time specialists, who instead first appear in sedentary societies.


Answer: b, c, a, d


  1. Weather in Delhi:


  1. As a result, dust was everywhere and the city’s trees and flowers all looked as if they had been lightly sprinkled with talcum powder.
  2. Normally in Delhi, September is a month of almost equatorial fertility and the land scans refreshed and newly-washed.


  1. Nevertheless, the air was still sticky with damp-heat. and it was in a cloud of perspiration that we began to unpack.




  1. But in the year of our arrival, after a parching summer, the rains had lasted for only three weeks.


Answer: b, d, a, c


  1. Hypothesis:


  1. In that case, there may be a psychological tendency to find “something wrong”, such as systematic effects, with data which do not support the scientist’s expectations, while data which do agree with those expectations may not be checked as carefully.


  1. Ideally, the experimenter is open to the possibility that the hypothesis is correct or incorrect.


  1. Another common mistake is to ignore or rule out data which do not support the hypothesis.


  1. Sometimes, however, a scientist may have a strong belief that the hypothesis is true (or false), or feels internal or external pressure to get a specific result.
  2. The lesson is that all data must be handled in the same way. Answer: c, b, d, a, e


  1. False memories:


  1. During the process, individuals may forget the source of the information.


  1. False memories are constructed by combining actual memories with the content of suggestions received from others.
  2. This is a classic example of source confusion, in which the content and the source become dissociated.


  1. Put another way, although experimental work on the creation of false memories may raise doubt about the validity of long-buried memories, such as repeated trauma, it in no way disproves them.


  1. Of course, because we can implant false childhood memories in some individuals in no way implies that all memories that arise after suggestion are necessarily false.



Answer: b, a, c, e, d


  1. 3- D Print:


  1. Even the internal structure could be modified in new ways; different materials could be incorporated as the process goes along.
  2. Researchers have developed a system that can 3-D print the basic structure of an entire building.


  1. Structures built with this system could he produced faster and less expensively than traditional construction methods allow.
  2. Ultimately, the researchers say, this approach could enable the design and construction of new kinds of buildings that would not be feasible with traditional building methods.


Answer: b, c, a, d


  1. Battle with enemy


  1. With regard to defence, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battle with its enemy.


  1. The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case.



Answer: a, d, b, c


  1. So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is bum his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.
  2. But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities.


  1. How do you do battle with your enemy?


  1. Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure.


Answer: a, e, b, c, d, f


  1. A history of God:


  1. My study of the history of religion has revealed that human beings are spiritual animals. Indeed, there is a case for arguing that Homo sapiens is also Homo religious.
  2. This was not simply because they wanted to propitiate powerful forces.


  1. These early faiths expressed the wonder and mystery that seems always to have been an essential component of the human experience of this beautiful yet terrifying world.


  1. Men and women started to worship gods as soon as they became recognizably human; they created religions at the same time as they created works of art.




  1. Opinion compromise:


  1. It is not just a matter of putting forward a set of facts and expecting the other person immediately to accept the logic of the exposition.


  1. People need time to make this adjustment in attitude and react badly to any attempt to rush them into an agreement.
  2. They (and probably you) have to be persuaded and helped to feel comfortable about the outcome that is eventually agreed.


  1. The reason is that achieving agreement requires people to accept the reality of views different from their own and to accept change or compromise.
  2. In general, there is a tendency to underestimate how long it takes to discuss and resolve an issue on which two people initially have different views.


Answer: e, d, a, c, b


  1. Educational Scholars:


  1. And they pointed to Mr. Bloomberg ‘s aggressive style as an example of what not to do.


  1. Education scholars generally agree that mayors can help failing districts, but they are starting to utter warnings.


  1. Last summer the editors of the Harvard Educational Review roamed that mayoral control can reduce parents’ influence on schools.
  2. All this must be weighed up by the New York state legislature in 2009, when mayoral control is up for renewal—or scrapping.


Answer: b, e, a, d


  1. The habits of ants:


  1. And it is a lesson to us. that no one has ever yet seen a quarrel between any two ants belonging to the same community.



Answer: a, e, d, c, b


  1. I have over and over again introduced ants from one of my nests into another nest of the same species: and they were invariably attacked, seized by a leg or an antenna, and dragged out.


  1. The communities of ants are sometimes very large. numbering even up to 50,.000 individuals.


  1. On the other hand, it must be admitted that they are in hostility not only with most other insects, including ants of different species, but even with those of the same species if belonging to different communities.


  1. It is evident, therefore, that the ants of each community all recognize one another, which is very remarkable.


Answer: c, a, d, b, e


  1. The town of liberal:


  1. Town of Liberal is said to have been named for an early settler famous among travelers for being free with drinking water.


  1. Denoyer voted for Mr. Trump by being impressed by his promise. though he thinks it unlikely that the president will keep his promises.
  2. Liberal’s mayor, Joe Denoyer, who was raised in a Democratic family near Chicago and moved to Liberal in search of work.


  1. This should make the town receptive to Democrats, but Mr. Trump easily won the county of which it forms part.
  2. Liberal is conservative in a moderate Midwestern kind of way which is changing fast due to big National Beef Packing plant which relies on Hispanic migrants and thus four-fifths of the children in Liberal’s public-school system are Hispanic.




  1. English Language:


  1. Anyone wanting to get to the top of international business, medicine or academia (but possibly not sport) needs to be able to speak English to a pretty high level.


  1. Because so many English-speakers today are monoglots, they have little idea how difficult it is to master another language.
  2. Many think the best way to make foreigners understand is to be chatty and informal.


  1. This may seem friendly but, as it probably involves using colloquial expressions, it makes comprehend on harder.


  1. Equally, any native English speaker wanting to deal with these new high achievers needs to know how to talk without baffling them.


Answer: a, e, b, c, d






  1. Festival in the desert:


  1. It is held annually near Essakane, an oasis some 40 miles north-west of Timbuktu. the ancient city on the Niger River.
  2. The reward of navigating this rough terrain comes in the form of a three-day feast of music and dance.


  1. Reaching it tests endurance, with miles of impermanent sand tracks to negotiate.


  1. The Festival in The Desert is a celebration of the musical heritage of the Town, a fiercely independent nomadic people.


Answer: d, a, c, b


  1. Historical records:


  1. For example, tree rings. Dendrochronology (literally, —tree time) dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.


  1. The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.


  1. However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.
  2. Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help – if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records – written in nature’s hand.



Answer: d, b, c, a


  1. Greener Technologies:


  1. Not only are there some good career in engineering, but there’s a lot of money going into the research side, too.
  2. With the pressure of climate change, funding from the research council has probably doubled.


  1. Engineers, in particular, are much needed to develop greener technologies.


  1. The energy sector has a fantastic skills shortage at all levels.


Answer: d, c, a, b


  1. Electronic money:


  1. Electronic transactions are happening in closed group network and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of Internet to emerge.


  1. Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history.
  2. To support c-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.


  1. The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money help to be.
  2. Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it


Answer: b, e, d, a, c






  1. Innovation:


  1. a) You have to let people think and act outside their corporate —boxes. You have to create an atmosphere of innovation.
  2. Innovation is about doing what delights the customer. not just satisfying the customer.


  1. But you can’t invent revolutionary products in a conservative environment.


  1. It’s giving the customer something they didn’t expect. They can’t ask for it because they can’t know what it is before it is created.
  2. Once it has been invented, customers can’t imagine ever having lived without it


Answer: b, d, e, c, a



  1. De-industrialization:


  1. As manufacturing continues to shrink in an economy, overall growth will increasingly depend on boosting productivity in services.


  1. Policy should therefore focus on removing obstacles (such as trade barriers and regulation), to such productivity growth, and creating a labor market in which workers can move freely from factory employment to services.


  1. Protection and subsidies push just the wrong way.


  1. But those who would tackle this by subsidies or trade barriers are missing the point.


  1. De-industrialization causes problems in economies unable to absorb the workers released by manufacturing.


Answer: e, d, a, b, c






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  1. DNA Barcoding


DNA barcoding was invented by Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph, in Ontario, Canada, in 2003. His idea was to generate a unique identification tag for each species based on a short stretch of DNA. Separating species would then be a simple task of sequencing this tiny bit of DNA. Dr Hebert proposed part of a gene called cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) as suitable to the task. All animals have it. It seems to vary enough, but not too much, to act as a reliable marker. And it is easily extracted, because it is one of a handful of genes found outside the cell nucleus, in structures called mitochondria.



Barcoding has taken off rapidly since Dr Hebert invented it. When the idea was proposed, it was expected to be a boon to taxonomists trying to name the world’s millions of species. It has, however, proved to have a far wider range of uses than the merely academic—most promisingly in the realm of public health.


One health-related project is the Mosquito Barcoding Initiative being run by Yvonne-Marie Linton of the Natural History Museum in London. This aims to barcode 80% of the world’s mosquitoes within the next two years, to help control mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are responsible for half a billion malarial infections and lm deaths every year. They also transmit devastating diseases such as yellow fever, West Nile fever and dengue. However, efforts to control them are consistently undermined by the difficulty an


  1. Beijing Language Institution


There were twenty-six freshmen majoring in English at Beijing Language Institute in the class of 1983.1 was assigned to Group Two with another eleven boys and girls who had come from big cities in China. I was told that language study required smallness so that we would get more attention from the skilful teachers. The better the school, the smaller the class. I realized that my classmates were already all talking in English, simple sentences tossed 0111 to each other in their red-faced introductions and carefree chatting. Their intonations were cursing and dramatic and their pronunciation refined and accurate. But as I stretched to catch the drips and drops of their humming dialogue. I couldn’t understand it all, only that it was English. Those words now flying before me sounded a little familiar. I had read them and tried to speak them, but I had never heard them




spoken back to me in such a speedy. fluent manner. My big plan of beating the city folks was thawing before my eyes.


  1. William Shakespeare


For all his fame and celebration. William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.



  1. Top US Business Schools


Top US business schools are recruiting younger. Less experienced candidates in an effort to boost applications and head off competition for the best students from other graduate programmes such as law and public policy. In an attempt to lure new students, leading business schools – including Harvard, Stanford. the University of Chicago and Wharton – have moved away from the unofficial admissions prerequisite of four years’ work experience and instead have set their sights on recent college graduates and “early career” professionals with only a couple years of work under their belt


  1. How a country defined?


What is a country, and how a country defined?


When people ask how many countries there are in the world, they expect a simple answer. After all, we’ve explored the whole planet, we have international travel, satellite navigation and plenty of global organizations like the United Nations, so we should really know how many countries there are! however, the answer to the question varies according to whom you ask. Most people say there are 192 countries, but others point out that there could be more like 260 of them.


So why isn’t there a straight forward answer? The problem arises because there isn’t a universally agreed definition of ‘country’ and because, for political reasons, some countries find it convenient to recognize or not recognize other countries. For example, Taiwan claims to be a country. but China states that Taiwan is just another part of China. The consequence is that the USA. that doesn’t want to upset China, doesn’t recognize Taiwan as a country. Conversely, from the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union annexed the countries of Estonia. Latvia and Lithuania but the USA continued to regard them as independent countries that were ‘occupied’ because it didn’t really get on with the USSR. So, how do governments define what makes a country?




  1. Stay



Researchers already know that spending long periods of time in a zero-gravity environment —such as that inside the International Space Station (In) — results in loss of bone density and damage to the body’s muscles. That’s partly why stays aboard the ISS are capped at six months. And now, a number of NASA astronauts are reporting that their 20/20 vision faded after spending time in space, with many needing glasses once they returned to Earth.


  1. Medical Education



It has been a year since I started writing my Graduate Journal column for Nature jobs. the past 12 months have been marked with fundamental changes and fundamental constants, both of which I’m glad to have experienced.


When I enrolled in my master’s course at Oxford last year. I had come straight from medical school with the decision to leave clinical science for good. Thinking back, I realize that I did not put very much weight on this decision at the time. But today, I more clearly understand the consequences of leaving my original profession. When I meet old friends who are now physicians and surgeons, I sense how much our views on medical problems have diverged.


They the effects of disease and try to eliminate or alleviate them: I try to understand


how they come about in the first place. I feel happier working on this side of the problem, although I do occasionally miss clinical work and seeing patients.


However, when I think about the rate at which my medical skills and knowledge have dissipated, the years spent reading weighty medical textbooks, the hours spent at the bedside, I sometimes wonder if these years were partly a waste of time now that I am pursing research career.


Nonetheless, I know the value of my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of the biosciences when working with model organisms in basic research that seem to have nothing to do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet, I still have vivid memories of the cruel kaleidoscope of severe diseases and of how they can strike a human being. I hope to retain these memories as a guide to my current occupation.


Nonetheless. I know the value of my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of the biosciences when working with model organisms in basic research that seem to have nothing to do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet. I still have vivid memories of the cruel




kaleidoscope of severe diseases and of how they can strike a human being, I hope to retain these memories as a guide to my current occupation.


  1. Bands


Plants & Animals are a Montreal-based indie rock trio that began playing together as kids. Touring arduously for about five years after their proper full-length debut in 2008. they pretty much made their records on the go until 2013. So the band’s decision to be slow, deliberate, and thorough on their latest offering. Waltzed In From The Rumbling, represents a major change of pace. Finally sleeping in their in own beds while recording. the hand assembled the album over the course of nine seasons. It’s a return to their origins, but it also pushes audaciously forward.



The aesthetic varies wildly and wonderfully from track to track, each song having its own hermetic seal but somehow still melding cohesively as a body of work. Jangling guitars, drums leaning toward the off- kilter swing of J Dilla, found sounds, a hint of shoegaze, and unorthodox instrumentation come together to keep the ear constantly engaged with a feeling of constant evolution. They found an antique guiro next to a broken VCR and recorded both. They made an empty fridge sound like a timpani drum. They recorded gossip on a city bus. They brought in classical string flourishes. They sometimes left mistakes if they felt they were perfectly imperfect. It’s truly DIY. but with a feel of big production value that makes the album soar.


Contemplative lyrics anchor the album through all the exploratory wandering. The words are delivered melodically, belying their potency. but listening beyond the pretty aesthetic reveals piercing observations and an undeniable translation of feeling. The simplicity of the penetrating refrain on the three-pan mini opus.


“Je Voulais Te Dire” is a paragon of how the lyrics effortlessly cut through the instrumentation.


Guitarist/vocalist Warren Spicer sings “It’s only love, but you want it bad,” encompassing how we try to avoid and downplay our desire for love and affection, but ultimately search and long for it anyway.


  1. Coral formation


The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2.000-km-long coral formation off the north-eastern coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities. depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun’s energy, however.




penetrates at most only about 300 in below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, subpolar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment with few life (onus.


In 1977. scientists discovered hot springs at a depth of 2.5 km. on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a surprise. Since the early I970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centers along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma. at temperatures over 1.000 °C. presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. More exciting. because it was totally unexpected. was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life — giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels — that thrived around the hot spring.



  1. Foreign Students


Federal Education Minister Julie Bishop says she has seen no evidence that foreign students are graduating from Australian universities with poor English skills.


Research by Monash University academic Bob Birrell has found a third of foreign students arc graduating without a competent level of English. But Ms. Bishop says Australian universities only enroll foreign students once they have achieved international standards of language proficiency. “This has been an extraordinary attack by Professor Birrell on our universities.” she said. “International students must meet international benchmarks in English language in order to get a place at a university in Australia and they can’t get into university without reaching that international standard.” University of Canberra vice chancellor Roger Dean also says international students are required to sit an English test before being admitted to nearly all Australian universities. “There are, of course, intercultural difficulties as well as language difficulties.” he said. “There are, of course, also many Australian students who don’t speak such fantastically good English either. So we’re trying to push the standard even higher than present but it’s a very useful one already.”


Ms Bishop says Australia’s university system has high standards. “I’ve seen no evidence to suggest that students are not able to complete their courses because they’re failing in English yet they’re being passed by the universities.” she said. “I’ve not seen any evidence to back that up. International education is one of our largest exports, it’s our fourth largest export and it’s in the interest of our universities to maintain very high standards because their reputation is at stake.”






  1. Black Diamonds


An exotic type of diamond may have come to Earth from outer space, scientists say. Called carbonado or “black” diamonds, the mysterious stones are found in Brazil and the Central African Republic. They are unusual for being the color of charcoal and full of frothy bubbles. The diamonds, which can weigh in at more than 3,600 carats. can also have a face that looks like melted glass.


Because of their odd appearance, the diamonds are unsuitable as gemstones. But they do have industrial applications and were used in the drill bits that helped dig the Panama Canal. Now a team led by Stephen Haggerty of Florida International University in Miami has presented a new study



suggesting that the odd stones were brought to Earth by an asteroid billions of years ago. The findings were published online in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters on December 20.


The scientists exposed polished pieces of carbonado to extremely intense infrared light. The test revealed the presence of many hydrogen-carbon bonds, indicating that the diamonds probably formed in a hydrogen-rich environment—such as that found in space.


The diamonds also showed strong similarities to tiny Nano diamonds, which are frequently found in meteorites. “They’re not identical,” Haggerty said. “but they’re very similar.” Astrophysicists, he added, have developed theories predicting that Nano diamonds form easily in the titanic stellar explosions called supernovas, which scatter debris through interstellar space.


The deposits in the Central African Republic and Brazil, he said, probably come from the impact of a diamond-rich asteroid billions of years ago, when South America and Africa were joined. So even though the two diamond fields are now thousands of miles apart, they’re remnants of a single, original deposit. Haggerty estimated that the asteroid must have been about half a mile (one kilometer) in diameter.


  1. Advertising


Drive down any highway, and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants—most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee’s. and Wendy’s. the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though. Burger King has fallen short of claiming the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald’s No. I sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride. Burger King Remains No.2.




Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three contenders have increased. I The decline has been attributed to


inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be rectified before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place.



The importance of consistency in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s order must communicate the same message as Burger King’s famous tagline, “Have it your way,” or the customer will just bun up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more reliable.


  1. Vegetarian Foods


Mintel Consumer Intelligence estimates the 2002 market for vegetarian foods, those that directly replace meat or other animal products. to be $1.5 billion. Note that this excludes traditional vegetarian foods such as produce. pasta, and rice. Mimicl forecasts the market to nearly double by 2006 to $2.8 billion, with the highest growth coming from soymilk, especially refrigerated brands.


The Food and Drug Administration’s 1999 decision to allow manufacturers to include heart-healthy claims on foods that deliver at least 6.25 grams of soy protein per serving and are also low in saturated fat and cholesterol has spurred tremendous interest in soymilk and other soy foods. A representative of manufacturer Food Tech International (Veggie Patch brand) reported that from 1998 to 1999, the percentage of consumers willing to try soy products jumped from 32% to 67%. Beliefs about soy’s effectiveness in reducing the symptoms of menopause also attracted new consumers. A 2000 survey conducted by the United Soybean Board showed that the number of people eating soy products once a week or more was up to 27%. Forty-five percent of respondents had tried tofu, 41% had sampled veggie burgers, and 25% has experience with soymilk (Soy foods USA e-mail newsletter). Mintel estimates 2001 sales of frozen and refrigerated meat alternatives in food stores at nearly $300 million, with soymilk sales nearing $250 million.




  1. Drinking vessels



By the Bronze Age drinking vessels were being made of sheet metal, primarily bronze or gold. However, the peak of feasting – and in particular, of the ‘political’ type of feast – came in the late Hallstatt period (about 600¬450 BC). soon after the foundation of the Greek colony of Massalia (Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhine. From that date on, the blood of the grape began to make its way north and east along major river systems together with imported metal and ceramic drinking vessels from the Greek world.



Wine was thus added to the list of mood-altering beverages – such as mead and ale- available to establish social networks in Iron Age Europe. Attic pottery fragments found at hillfons such as Heuneburg in Germany and luxury goods such as the monumental 5th century Greek bronze krater (or wine mixing vessel) found at Vix in Burgundy supply archaeological evidence of this interaction. Organic containers such as leather or wooden wine barrels may also have travelled north into Europe but have not survived. It is unknown what goods were traded in return, but they may have included salted meat, hides, timber, amber and slaves.


  1. Just in time


‘Just-in-time’ is a management philosophy and not a technique. It originally referred to the production of goods to meet customer demand exactly, in time, quality and quantity, whether the ‘customer’ is the final purchaser of the product or another process further along the production line. It has now come to mean producing with minimum waste. “Waste’ is taken in its most general sense and includes time and resources as well as materials.


  1. The ecosystem in the park


From the wolves’ perspective, this is clearly good news. But it also had beneficial effects on the ecology of the park, according to a study published in 2004 by William Ripple and Robert Reschta from Oregon State University. In their paper in Bioscience, the two researchers showed that reintroducing the wolves was correlated with increased growth of willow and cottonwood in the park. Why? Because grazing animals such as elk were avoiding sites from which they couldn’t easily escape, the scientists claimed. And as the woody plants and trees grew taller and thicker, beaver colonies expanded.


Of course, not every wolf story is positive. National Public Radio in the US reported last July that a nine-year-old programmer to reintroduce the endangered Mexican grey wolf in the south-western




US was struggling because some wolves weren’t learning to hunt in the wild and because others were simply being shot. Perhaps the shotgun response of locals in the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico was unsurprising, for the wolves had been preying on livestock. The reintroduction area is apparently grazing land.


  1. Reality


Surely, reality is what we think it is: reality is revealed to us by our experiences.


To one extent or another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only implicitly. I certainly find myself thinking this Way in day-to-day life; it’s easy to be seduced by the face nature reveals directly to our senses. Yet, in the decades since first encountering Camus’ text, I’ve learned that modem science tells a very different story.



The overarching lesson that has emerged from scientific inquiry over the last century is that human experience is often a misleading guide to the true nature of reality.


  1. Pink Onion


With its capacity for bringing down governments and scarring political careers, the onion plays an explosive role in Indian politics. This week, reports of rising onion prices have made front-page news and absorbed the attention of the governing elite.


The most vital ingredient in Indian cooking, the basic element with which all dishes begin and, normally, the cheapest vegetable available, the pink onion is an essential item in the shopping basket of families of all classes. But in recent weeks, the onion has started to seem an unaffordable luxury for India’s poor. Over the past few days, another sharp surge in prices has begun to unsettle the influential urban middle classes. The sudden spike in prices has been caused by large exports to neighboring countries and a shortage of supply. But the increase follows a trend of rising consumer prices across the board — from diesel fuel to cement, from milk to lentils.


  1. The role of a doctor


In the fast-changing world of modem healthcare. the job of a doctor is more and more like the job of chief executive. The people who run hospitals and physicians’ practices don’t just need to know medicine. They must also be able to balance budgets, motivate a large and diverse staff and make difficult marketing and legal decisions.




“The focus in medical school is to train good doctors, but part of being a good doctor is being a good manager,” says Fawn Siddiqi, a neurosurgical resident at the London Health Sciences Centre in Canada. “It’s having a core understanding of how to work within the context of an organization.”


The desire to be a “good manager” is precisely the reason Dr. Siddiqi, who aspires one day to run a hospital, decided to go back to school. This past autumn he enrolled in a health-sector MBA programme at the Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario


  1. Chinese Communist Party



The book advances five fundamental and, in my view, fundamentally correct propositions.


First, for all its manifest achievements. the Chinese attempt to marry a communist party-state with the market is unsustainable. Hutton does not deny the economic achievements of the past three decades. But he stresses that the result has been “not free-market capitalism but Leninist corporatism”. This is not a viable new model. but an ultimately dysfunctional hybrid.


The inevitable consequences include rampant corrupted an absence of globally competitive Chinese companies, chronic waste of resources, rampant environmental degradation and soaring inequality. Above all, the monopoly over power of an ideologically bankrupt communist party is inconsistent with the pluralism of opinion, security of property and vibrant competition on which a dynamic economy depends. As a result, Chinese development remains parasitic on know-how and institutions developed elsewhere.


  1. Arabic MBA — study at a distance


Arab students will be able to sign up to study at a distance for the business courses in their own language. The Edinburgh Business School announced the project at a reception in Cairo on Saturday. It is hoped the course will improve links between the university and the Arab business world. A university spokeswoman said: ‘The Arabic MBA will raise the profile of Heriot-Watt University and the Edinburgh Business School among businesses in the Arabic-speaking world and will create a strong network of graduates in the region.’ The first intake of students is expected later this year. Professor Keith Lumsden, director of Edinburgh Business School. said: “Arabic is a major global language and the Arab world is a center for business and industrial development. We are proud to work with Arab International Education to meet the demands of the region.”




  1. Jean Piaget



Jean Piaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of his professional life listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchers around the world who were doing the same. He found, to put it most succinctly that children don’t think like grownups. After thousands of interactions with young people often barely old enough to talk, Piaget began to suspect that behind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and their own special logic. Einstein called it a discovery “so simple that only a genius could have thought of it.”



Piaget’s insight opened a new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide-ranging and remarkably


prolific research career that spanned nearly 75 years. from his first scientific publication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84, Piaget had developed several new fields of science: developmental psychology. cognitive theory and what came to be called genetic epistemology. Although not an educational reformer, he championed a way of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today’s education-reform movements. It was a shift comparable to the displacement of stories of ‘noble savages” and “cannibals” by modem anthropology. One might say that Piaget was the first to take children’s thinking seriously.


  1. Mud Volcano


Gas drilling on the Indonesian island of Java has triggered a “mud volcano” that has killed 13 people and may render four square miles (ten square kilometers) of countryside uninhabitable for years.


In a report released on January 23. a team of British researchers says the deadly upwelling began when an exploratory gas well punched through a layer of rock 9.300 feet (2.800 meters) below the surface, allowing hot. high-pressure water to escape.


The water carried mud to the surface, where it has spread across a region 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) in diameter in the eight months since the eruption began.


The mud volcano is similar to a gusher or blowout, which occur in oil drilling when oil or gas squirt to the surface, the team says. This upwelling. however, spews out a volume of mud equivalent to a dozen Olympic swimming pools each day.




Although the eruption isn’t as violent as a conventional volcano, more than a dozen people died when a natural gas pipeline ruptured.


The research team, who published their findings in the February issue of GSA Today. also estimate that the volcano, called Lusi, will leave more than 11,000 people permanently displaced.


  1. Stress


Stress is what you feel when you have to handle more than you are used to. When you are stressed, your body responds as though you are in danger. It makes hormones that speed up your heart, make you breathe faster, and give you a burst of energy. This is called the fight-or-flight stress response.



Some stress is normal and even useful. Stress can help if you need to work hard or react quickly. For example, it can help you win a race or finish an important job on time.


But if stress happens too often or lasts too long, it can have bad effects. It can be linked to headaches, an upset stomach, back pain, and trouble sleeping. It can weaken your immune system, making it harder to fight off disease. If you already have a health problem. stress may make it worse. It can make you moody, tense or depressed. Your relationship may suffer, and you may not do well at work or school.


  1. Nature


Nature is no longer an alien enigma, but instead something immediately beautiful, an exuberant opus with space for us to join in. Bird melodies have always been called songs for a reason.


  1. America’s sky


By 2025. government experts say. America’s skies will swarm with three times as many planes. and not just the kind of traffic flying today. There will be thousands of tiny jets. seating six or fewer, at airliner altitudes. competing for space with remotely operated drones that need help avoiding mid-air collisions, and with commercially operated rockets carrying satellites and tourists into space.


  1. Edison


Matthew Josephson does an excellent job of covering the life and works of Thomas Alva Edison. The author of the book covered every aspect of Thomas Edison life from the time his grandparents lived in the original Thirteen colonies to the point where he was born in Milan, Ohio and later up to the




point where he died in 1931. Thomas Alva Edison was both a scientist and an inventor. When he was born in 1847, Edison would see tremendous change take place in his lifetime. He was also to be responsible for making many of those changes occur. When Edison was born, society still thought of electricity as a novelty, a fad. By the time he died, entire cities were lit by electricity.


Much of the credit for that progress goes to Edison. In his lifetime, Edison patented 1,093 inventions, earning him the nickname The Wizard of Menlo Park.” The most famous of his inventions was the incandescent light bulb, which was quite a time consuming process and quite interesting how Thomas Edison went about finding the right fibre for his incandescent bulb. He went so far as to send people around the world after various fibres to be tested as possible fibres for his light bulb. Besides the light bulb. Edison developed the phonograph and the “kinetoscope.” a small box for viewing moving films. Thomas Edison is also the first person in the US to make his own filmstrip. He also improved upon the original design of the stock ticker, the telegraph, and Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. He believed in hard work, sometimes working twenty hours a day or more. depending upon the situation.



He has been known to spend several days working on I project without sleep until it worked. Edison was quoted as saying, “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.” In tribute to this important American, electric lights in the United States were dimmed for one minute on October 21,1931, a few days after his death.


  1. Richard Morris


Richard Monis, of the school of accounting at the University of NSW which requires an entrance score in the top 5 percent of students says attendance has been a problem since the late 1990s.


“Sometimes in the lectures we’ve only got about one third of students enrolled attending,” he said.


“It definitely is a problem. If you don’t turn up to class you’re missing out on the whole richness of the experience: you don’t think a whole lot, you don’t engage in debates with other students – or with your teachers.”


It is not all gloom, said Professor John Dearn, a Pro Vice Chancellor at the University of Canberra. who said the internet was transforming the way students access and use information?


“It is strange that despite all the evidence as to their ineffectiveness, traditional lectures seem to persist in our universities.”




  1. The genetic test for PD



While Morey researchers have also created a genetic test for PD (10% of PD cases are caused by genetic factors), this new test has a broader application by screening for many different types of PD and monitoring treatment, as well as measuring the effectiveness of drugs being developed to treat the disease.


Dr Qiao-Xin Li and colleagues from The University of Melbourne and The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria. along with Prof Malcolm Home from the Howard Florey Institute, found people with PD had low levels of the brain-secreted protein ‘alpha-synuclein’ in their blood, while people without PD had high levels of the protein.



Prof Home said the test they developed measured alpha-synuclein levels in blood.


“Currently there is no specific PD diagnostic test so doctors rely on their observations to make a


diagnosis. which means some patients may not be prescribed the most suitable medication and


around 15% of those diagnosed may actually be suffering from something else.” Prof Home said.


“Further studies are required to establish whether this test can distinguish between people who are responsive to treatment and those who are not,” he said.


The researchers are now conducting are now conducting a large- scale study to determine the effectiveness of the test, to discover whether it is applicable for all typed of PD, and to find out if it can measure the rate of progression and severity of the disease.


  1. Insects


More than 1000 species of insects’ arc served up around the world. For example, “kungu cakes” – made from midges- are a delicacy in parts of Africa. Mexico is an insect-eating – or entomophagous – hotspot. where more than 200 insect species are consumed. Demand is so high that 40 species are now under threat. including white agave worms. These caterpillars of the tequila giant-skipper butterfly fetch around 5250 a kilogram.


Eating insects makes nutritional sense. Some contain more protein than meat or fish. The female gypsy moth, for instance, is about 80 per cent protein. Insects can be a good source of vitamins and minerals too: a type of caterpillar (Usta terpsichore) eaten in Angola is rich in iron, zinc and thiamine




  1. Welfare



The morality of the welfare state depends on contribution and responsibility. Since some people don’t contribute and many are irresponsible, the choices of those who do contribute and are responsible is either to tolerate the free riders, refuse to pay for the effects of their irresponsibility or trust the state to educate them.


  1. Kashmiri houseboat-owners


Two decades ago. Kashmiri houseboat-owners rubbed their hands every spring at the-prospect of the annual influx of tourists. From May to October, the hyacinth-choked waters of Dal Lake saw flotillas of vividly painted shikaras carrying Indian families. boho westerners, young travellers and wide-eyed Japanese. Carpet-sellers honed their skills, as did purveyors of anything remotely embroidered while the houseboats initiated by the British Raj provided unusual accommodation. The economy boomed.



Then, in 1989. separatist and Islamist militancy struck and everything changed. Hindus and countless Kashmiri business people bolted, at least 35.000 people were killed in a decade, the lake stagnated and the houseboats rotted. Any foreigners venturing there risked their lives – proved in 1995 when five young Europeans were kidnapped and murdered.


  1. Violin


In the 250 years of its active evolution Funerary Violin moved from the formal to the personal. It is clear from the earliest consciousness of the form that its role during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was largely heraldic: to exemplify the continuity of the social structure. The few works that have survived from this period an often surprisingly unemotional and at times overtly grandiose.


  1. Father’s bookcase


None of the books in my father’s dusty old bookcase were forbidden. Yet while I was growing up. I never saw anyone take one down. Most were massive tomes—a comprehensive history of civilization, matching volumes of the great works of western literature, numerous others I can no longer recall—that seemed almost fused to shelves that bowed slightly from decades of steadfast support.




  1. Entrepreneurs



Entrepreneurs seek the best opportunities for production and coordinate all the other resources in order to carry them out. An entrepreneur visualizes needs and takes the necessary actions to initiate the process by which they will be met. This often means innovating/classifying and taking risks.


  1. Job hunting


When it comes to job-hunting, first impressions are critical. Remember, you are marketing a product


  • yourself -to a potential employer. The first thing the employer sees when greeting you is your attire; thus, you must make every effort to have the proper dress for the type of job you are seeking. Will dressing properly get you the job? Of course not, but it will give you a competitive edge and a positive first impression.



How should you dress? Dressing conservatively is always the safest route, but you should also try and do a little investigating of your prospective employer so that what you wear to the interview makes you look as though you fit in with the organization. If you overdress (which is rare but can happen) or under dress (the more like scenario) the potential employer may feel that you don’t care enough about the job.


  1. Genetically modified foods


Genetically modified foods provide no direct benefit to consumers; the food is not noticeably. The greater benefit, proponents argue, is that genetic engineering will play a crucial role in feeding the world’s burgeoning population.


Opponents disagree. Food First/Institute for Food & Development Policy asserts that the world already grows more food per person than ever before-more, even, than we can consume.


  1. Fanning binge


In the last years of the wheat boom, Bennett had become increasingly frustrated at how the government seemed to be encouraging an exploitive farming binge. lie went directly after his old employer, the Department of Agriculture, for misleading people. Fanners on the Great Plains were working against nature, he thundered in, speeches across the country.




Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. It is more than simply putting flowers in a container. ikebana is a disciplined art form in which nature and humanity are brought together.




Contrary to the idea of a particolored or multicolored arrangement of blossoms, ikebana often emphasizes other areas of the plant. such as its stems and leaves, and puts emphasis on shape, line, and form. Though ikebana is an expression of creativity, certain rules govern its form. The artist’s intention behind each arrangement is shown through a piece’s color combinations, natural shapes, graceful lines, and the implied meaning of the arrangement.


  1. Heart Disease


If you have a chronic disease — such as heart disease, diabetes, asthma, or back or joint pain — exercise can have important health benefits. However, it’s important to talk to your doctor before starting an exercise routine. He or she might have advice on what exercises are safe and any precautions you might need to take while exercising.



  1. Sportswomen


Sportswomen’s records arc important and need to be preserved. And if the paper records don’t exist, we need to get out and start interviewing people, not to put too fine a point on it, while we still have a chance. After all, if the records aren’t kept in some form or another, then the stories are lost too.


  1. Poverty


Measuring poverty on a global scale requires establishing a uniform poverty level across extremely divergent economics. which can result in only rough comparisons. The World Bank has defined the international poverty line as U.S. $1 and $2 per day in 1993 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)l, which adjusts for differences in the prices of goods and services between countries. The SI per day level is generally used for the least developed countries, primarily African; the 52-per-day level is used for middle income economies such as those of East Asia and Latin America.


  1. Medical Examination


The most common reasons for carrying out a detailed medical examination of a dead person – a post-mortem or autopsy – is when it is necessary to establish the cause of death. In some circumstances, a doctor may be allowed to perform a post-mortem in pursuit of medical knowledge. The examination is usually performed by a pathologist, and involves dissection of the body, and tests done on blood, tissues and internal organs. but sometimes it is performed by a doctor.




  1. Australia



Twelve hundred miles east of Australia lie the islands of New Zealand. Long before they were discovered by Europeans, a Polynesian race of warriors, the Maoris. had sailed across the Pacific from the northeast and established a civilization notable for the brilliance of its art and the strength of its military system. When Captain Cook visited these islands towards the end of the 18th century. he estimated that the population numbered about a hundred thousand.


  1. Stress



Stress — that tense feeling often connected to having too much to do, too many bills to pay and not enough time or money — is a common emotion that knows few borders.


About three-fourths of people in the United States. Australia. Canada. France. Germany. Italy. South Korea and Britain reported experiencing stress on a daily basis, according to AP-Ipsos polling. Anxious feelings were more intense during the holidays.


Germans feel stress more intensely than those in other countries polled. People in the United States cited financial A pressures as the top worry. About half the people polled in Britain said they frequently or sometimes felt that G life was beyond their control, the highest level in the 10 countries surveyed.


  1. Australia


Australia is a dynamic multi-cultural society, viewed by many as the world’s most desirable place to live. Here Frank Welsh traces Australia’s intriguing and varied history to examine how this society emerged, from its ancient Aborigine tribes and earliest British convict settlements to today’s modem nation – one that retains strong links with its colonial past but is increasingly independent and diverse.


  1. Artists


In the U.S., artists in the mid-1950s began to create a new style of art, strongly influenced by Dada and its emphasis on appropriation and everyday objects. Artists increasingly worked with collage, consumer products, and a healthy dose of irony. Jasper Johns re-imagined iconic imagery like the American flag; Robert Rauschenberg employed silk-screen printings and found objects: and Larry Rivers used images of mass-produced goods. These three are considered to be the forerunners of American Pop.




  1. People who see doctors



People who visit health professionals tend to be older than the general population. because illness increases with age. However, the proportion of the population who visited complementary health therapists was highest between the ages 25 and 64 years. The lower rates for people aged 65 years and over contrasted with the rate of visits to other health professionals which increased steadily with increasing age. The reasons for this difference might include lower levels of acceptance of complementary therapies by older people. Alternatively, older people may have different treatment priorities than do younger people because their health on average is wat Got while their incomes are generally lower.



  1. Teenagers’ brain


Your teenage daughter gets top marks in school, captains the debate team, and volunteers at a shelter for homeless people. But while driving the family car, she text-messages her best friend and rear-ends another vehicle.


How can teens be so clever, accomplished, and responsible—and reckless at the same time? Easily, according to two physicians at Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School (HMS) who have been exploring the unique structure and chemistry of the adolescent brain. “The teenage brain is not just an adult brain with fewer miles on it,” says Frances E. Jensen, a professor of neurology. “It’s a paradoxical time of development. These arc people with very sharp brains, but they’re not quite sure what to do with them.”


  1. Neurons


In animals, movement is coordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cord called the central pattern generator (CPC). This produces signals that drive muscles to contract rhythmically in a way that produces running or walking. depending on the pattern of pulses. A simple signal from the brain instructs the CPG to switch between different modes, such as going from a standstill to walking.


  1. Essays


Essays are used as an assessment tool to evaluate your ability to research a topic and construct an argument. as well as your understanding of subject content. This does not mean that essays are a ‘regurgitation’ of everything your lecturer has said throughout the course.







  1. Cocoa




During the time of the Aztecs, cocoa was mainly used as a beverage. Wines and drinks were made from white pulp around the seeds of the cocoa pod. The beans themselves were used to make hot or cold chocolate drinks. Both the Maya and the Aztec secular drinks used roasted cocoa beans, a foaming agent sugar, toasted corn and water. Vanilla and/or chilli were also used as an ingredient in the drinks. Cocoa beans were also used as a currency and as a tribute tax from peoples ruled by Aztecs. The oily layer floating in the chocolate drink cocoa butter was used to protect the skin against the sun. For the Aztecs cocoa had a religious significance. Cocoa was believed to be of divine origin: the cocoa tree was a bridge between earth and heaven. Human sacrifices to propitiate God or sun were first sanctified by giving him chocolate. Cocoa beans were given to priest’s assistants at children’s coming of age ceremonies. During marriage ceremonies, the couple drank a symbolic cup of chocolate and exchanged COCO, beans. Aztecs believed that drinking chocolate gas mortals some of Quetzalcoatl wisdom, – God of learning and of the wind.





The lecture talks about cocoa dot mg the tone of Aztecs. It was mainly used as a beverage as people can use them to make chocolate drinks. Furthermore, cocoa beans were also used as a currency and cocoa butter can used to protect skin against the sun. Cocoa also has the religious significance because they believed that drinking chocolate can give people wisdom.


  • Beverage


  • Cocoa beans were also used as a currency and as a tribute tax


  • Skincare


  • Religion




  1. Sea Creatures




Sea creatures are inspiring the latest devices that harness wave power.


This one called the Oyster, sits on the sea floor and opens and closes as waves pass over it. Cables attach it to generator, on the shore. Since November 2009, it’s been powering 9000 homes in the Orkney Islands.


Another device looks like a snake. The anaconda is made from a rubber tube filled with water that floats just below the surface. When the swell hits the front of it, the tube squeezed above ripples done its links and power, a turbine in its tail. Prototypes are currently being tested, but the full- scale version will be 2000 meters long.




This System also looks like a snake. But this one is made of steel. It floats near the surface, where waves make its joints move, this drive hydraulic system that power electrical generators, like the anaconda. It’s still being tested: results will prove that these devices are up to the job of supplying variable sources of green energy.




The lecture introduces 3 devices.


  • The first one looks like oyster, which sits on the ocean floor. it can close and open as a wave passes.


  • The second one is a snake-shape rubber tube; it floats below the surface of the ocean. where wave. hit the tube and then powers the turbine.


  • The third one is also like a snake but it is made of steel, which can power a generator to produce electricity.



  1. Artificial intelligence



This lecture talks about computer and artificial intelligence.


  • Human brain is a symbol processor.


  • Human tell computers what and how to do. Computers can operate, given the meaning of certain words.


  • Computers have systems and symbols.


  • Computers rely on analysing messages into bytes, which is similar to the human brain.


  • In conclusion, both the human brain and computer are symbol processor, so computers have the potential to develop artificial intelligence.



  1. Talent War


Reference Reading:


The war for talent refers to an increasingly competitive landscape for recruiting and retaining talented employees. In the book, Michaels, et al., describe not a set of superior Human Resources processes, but a mindset that emphasizes the importance of talent to the success of organizations.


The war for talent is intensified by demographic shifts (primarily in the United States and Europe). This is characterized by increasing demand along with decreasing supply (demographically). There are simply fewer post-baby-boom workers to replace the baby-boom retirement in the US and Europe (though this is not the case in most of East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Central America, South America, or the Middle East; Eastern Europe also tends to have similar demographics, namely an aging and/or shrinking labor force).


While talent is vague or ill-defined, the underlying assumption is that for knowledge-intensive industries, the knowledge worker (a term coined by Peter Drucker) is the key competitive resource




(see the Resource-based view of the firm). Knowledge-based theories of organizations consistently place know ledge workers as a primary, competitive resource.


Talent is never explicitly defined in the book, though the Preface notes, “A certain part of talent elude description: You simply know it when you see it.” After several further caveats, the authors go on: “We can say, however, that managerial talent is some combination of a sharp strategic mind, leadership Ability, emotional maturity, communications skills, the ability to attract and inspire other talented people, entrepreneurial instincts, functional skills, and the ability to deliver results, “The author offer no outside support for this assertion.”


A 2006 article in The Economist, which mentions the book, notes that, “companies do not even know how to define “talent”, it alone how to manage it. Some use it to mean people like Aldous Huxley’s alphas ‘ in “Brave New World”- those at the top of the bell curve. Others employ it as a synonym for the entire workforce, a definition so broad as to be meaningless.



The ‘War for talent is seen by various sources as becoming nicks irrelevant during economic downturns. However, there have been highly visible talent poaching by solvent firms of others who have economic hardship (e.g., JP Morgan was raided by a European Firm in March, 2009).




This lecture talks about war for talent. Because of talent shortage, lots of companies and countries recruit young talented people. Some young people immigrate after they graduate from universities and compete with local students. Countries and organizations should put talents at the primary position.


There are three reasons behind the phenomenon.


Firstly, the change of the economy structure raises the talent demand.


Secondly, the retirement of baby-boomers and shrinkage in population decrease the number of labour force and cause a shortage of skilled workers.


Thirdly, the collapse of loyalty also increases the employee turnover of a company.


Finally, it is the mismatch between what schools are producing and what companies need.




  1. Laugh


The lecture talks about the benefits of laughing, especially in the adversity,


  • People realized the importance of laughing a long time ago and there are different understandings about humour in different regions.


  • Laugh can he used as a great therapy, there were war jokes about the Berlin Wall prevailing in Europe during the Second World War, which can ease the harm of the war.


  • Moreover, laughing can help people get through break and boring time.


  • Laughing can effectively protect people’s self-respect and identity.




  1. DNA &RNA





All living organisms are constructed from cells, a colony of bacteria, a butterfly, a row, and a dolphin are all made of cells that have a fundamentally similar chemistry and operate according to the same basic principles.


All organism, inherit the genetic information specifying their structure and function from their parents. Likewise, all cells arise from pre-existing cells, so the genetic material must be replicated and passed from parent to progeny cell at each cell division. How genetic information is replicated and transmitted from cell to cell and organism to organism thus represents a question that is central to all of biology. Consequently, elucidation of the mechanisms of genetic transmission and identification of the genetic material as DNA were discoveries that formed the foundation of our current understanding of biology at the molecular level.





This lecture talks about biology.


  • dolphins. Bowers and other creatures are interconnected.


  • All animals on the earth are based on similes DNA and RNA to store and transfer genetic information.


  • DNA and RNA are the foundation of building organs: therefore, all organs have similar metabolism systems which convert energy from one form to another.


  • All living beings share the same chemical components, molecules and chemical reaction to generate energy.



  1. Indian peasants’ debt


  • In this lecture, the speaker talked about the Indian peasants. In the beginning of the lecture he mentioned that Indian peasants have very high economical pressure.


  • Indian peasants have no money and capital, so they depend on borrowed money to buy seeds and pesticides.


  • The pesticides have to be continuously once it is introduced, unfortunately, the price of pesticides has increased by 4000% in the past 5 years.


  • At the end of the lecture, he concluded that Debt on peasant is increasing due to high use of pesticide.





  1. Government Use Tricks


  • In this lecture, the speaker talked about government and democracy.




  • In a liberal and democratic society, citizens have rights to be kept well-informed, but the governments nowadays use various tricks to cover the truth and deliberately provide misleading or even deceptive information.


  • In some western countries, for example, governments may reduce responsibilities and blame third parties for their wrongdoings.


  1. Marry Mallon -‘Typhoid ‘


Reference Reading:


The most notorious carrier or typhoid fever, but by no means the most destructive, was Mary Mallon, an Irish immigrant also known as Typhoid Mary. In 1907, she became the first American carrier to be identified and traced. Some believe she was the source of infection for several hundred people, and is closely associated with fifty cases and five deaths.



While working as a cook in the New York City area between 1900 and 1907, Mary Mallon is said to have infected 22 people with the disease, of whom one died. Mary was a cook in a house in Mamaroneck, New York, for less than two weeks in the year 1900 when the residents came down with typhoid. She moved to Manhattan in 1901, and members of that family developed fevers and diarrhoea, and the laundress died. She then went to work for a lawyer. until seven of the eight household member, developed typhoid. Mary spent months helping to care for the people she apparently made sick, but her care further spread the disease through the household. In 1904, she took a position on Long Island. Within two weeks, four of ten family members were hospitalized with typhoid. She changed employment again, and three more households were infected. Often, the disease was transmitted by a signature dessert she prepared: Peaches and ice cream. Public health authorities told Mary to give up working as a cook or have her gall bladder removed. Mary quit her job, but returned later under a false name in 1915, infecting 25 people while working as a cook at New York’s Sloan Hospital; two of those infected died. She was then detained and quarantined. She died of a stroke after 26 years in quarantine. An autopsy found evidence of live typhoid bacteria in her gallbladder. Today, a Typhoid Mary is a generic term for a carrier of a dangerous disease who is a danger to the public because he or she refuses to take appropriate precautions.




  • Mary Mallon was born in Ireland and migrated to America later in her life. She was an excellent cook and satisfied with her life.


  • She had a chronic infection of Typhoid fever that kept her active as a carrier of the disease, which can be transmitted through water and food.


  • Even before she died, she always denied she was sick. Actually, there were 51 people infected by her and 5 of them died.




  1. Loan





I’m 43 years old and I owe tens of thousands of dollars in student loans. Oh sure, I knew the loans were piling up as I went through school. But with one loan coming from here, another from there, I had no idea of the rockslide that was building.


Fifteen years later, I still experience moments of sheer horror regarding my family’s financial situation. My monthly student loan payment is more than triple my car payment.


OK, so without my college degree, I would not have been able to get my current job. For that grateful; but at what cost?



My loans have been accruing at a rate of 10 percent, and now they have burgeoned to— well, I’m an English major, you do the math. I don’t think they’ll ever get paid off. Were in debt way past our eyeballs, and there’s no hope in sight.


I’m being kept in class — a financial class of graduates whose only hope for attending college meant borrowing money from the government. Because of our mounting credit card debt and monthly payments that far exceed our family’s income, my kids will also join the class of citizens who can’t rely on their parents for college support.


Do I wish I’d chosen another educational route? You bet. Perhaps trade school- I’ve thought that being a plumber might not he such it bad gig.


Bill if your job aspirations require: a four-year degree, take my advice and choose a college you can afford, both during and after graduation. Take a realistic look at your anticipated income, and factor in priorities that don’t carry a price — like the spouse and children you might want to have some day.


I was overconfident that my student-loan debt would pale in comparison to the lucrative writing career I’d enjoy after graduation. Now I’m paying for that decision — in more ways than I’d ever imagined.




  • This lecture talks about n 43 years old woman with massive student loan debt.


  • After 15 years later, she still experiences horrible financial situation. Her monthly loan payment is more than triple her car payment.
  • She is not able to find the current job without college degree, but it costs too much.


  • Her kids also need to join the class of citizens without obtaining support from parents.


  • She advises people to take a serious consideration about their anticipated income before choosing education route.






  1. Amory Lovins:


  1. This lecture talks about Amory Lovins, who has an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge, but he is not an academic.


  1. He has a consulting company and lives in a mountainside town above Snowmass.


  1. He spends around 30 years thinking about how to save energy with existing technology.


  1. Some people think he is crazy while others believe he is genius.


  1. A female writer wrote a book about him called Mr. Green





Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13. 1947) is an American physicist, environmental scientist, writer, and Chairman/Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute. He has worked in the field of energy policy and related areas for four decades. He was named by Time magazine one of the World’s 100 most influential people in 2009.


Lovins worked professionally as an environmentalist in the 1970s and since then as an analyst of a “soft energy path” for the United States and other nations. He has promoted energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources, and the generation of energy at or near the site where the energy is actually used. Lovins has also advocated a “negawatt revolution” arguing that utility customers don’t want kilowatt-hours of electricity; they want energy services. In the 1990s. his work with Rocky Mountain Institute included the design of an ultra-efficient automobile, the Hypercar.


Lovins does not see his energy ideas as green or left-wing, and he is an advocate of private enterprise and free market economics. He notes that Rupert Murdoch has made News Corporation carbon-neutral, with savings of millions of dollars. But, says Lovins, large institutions are becoming more “gridlocked and moribund”, and he supports the rise of “citizen organizations” around the world.


Lovins has received ten honorary doctorates and won many awards. He has provided expert testimony in eight countries, briefed 19 heads of state, and published 31 books. These books include Reinventing Fire. Winning the Oil Endgame, Small is Profitable. Brittle Power, and Natural Capitalism.




  1. Globalization



Reference Reading:


What is Globalization? Globalization can usefully be conceived as a process (or set of processes). which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations, and transactions, generating transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction and power. It is characterized by four types of change:


-First, it involves a stretching of social, political and economic activities across political frontiers, regions and continents.



-Second, it suggests the intensification, or the growing magnitude, of interconnectedness and flows of trade, investment, finance, migration, culture, etc.


-Third, the growing extensity and intensity of global interconnectedness can be linked to a speeding up of global interactions and processes. as the evolution of worldwide systems of transport and communication increases the velocity of the diffusion of ideas, goods. information, capital. and people.


-Fourth, the growing extensity, intensity and velocity of global interactions can be associated with their deepening impact such that the effects of distant events can be highly significant elsewhere and even the most local developments may come to have enormous global consequences. In this sense, the boundaries between domestic matters and global affairs can become increasingly blurred. Globalization has three definitions. There are more trade transactions, communications, services and multinational companies across the border. There are more travels and cooperation between different countries. A global and integrated economic system has been formed in the world. One country does not depend on itself only, but countries interact more with each other in terms of production and consumption.




There are 3 definitions of globalization.


  • First, globalization means the increase in international trade transactions and multinational companies across the border.


  • Secondly, Globalization represents an integrated economic system than ever before. Some countries produce goods whereas some countries consume goods, which means one country’s economy may rely on another country.


  • In the past, some countries such as the European Union are economically independent while they are now parts of global economy.



  1. Stanford University Speech — Management


  • A lecture held by Stanford University Business School stressed the importance of management and leadership in business schools.




  • It is clear that educational purpose is to learn management and leadership.


  • Students should be responsible for the management performance and identify how it can happen appropriately.
  • The responsibility means that the accomplishment achieved by others does not indicate what you’re capable of.



  1. Novelist





I have been written non – fictions for years actually and but secretly I wanted to be a novelist. When I first started writing at the age of thirty was with the intention of writing a fiction. But I took a long detour for ten or twelve years and wrote life fiction which I absolutely had no regret about it at all. I think it exactly the right thing for me to do this. But that was that dream took away and side of me to do this. Now I remember reading something that Eudora Welty wrote, who is, you know, the greatest novelist who has a big influence on me actually, and she said “No art ever came out of not risking your neck.” And I think she is absolutely right about that. It doubts that way to me at that time and it actually feels that way to me every time I sit down to write something. Finally, in the early 90s, I took my deep breath and started writing fiction. It felt risky to me at the time to do that. And one of the very first things that I wrote was what I thought was going to be, the first chapter of the novel called “tie Secret Life of Bees”. I wrote it in 1992 and it is actually an essentially true the first chapter of the novel, as it is now.




  • A female writer started writing from 30 years old and her intention was to become a novelist.


  • Although she took some detour but she never regretted because she believed it was the right thing to do.


  • She inspired by one pioneer who encouraged people to venture, and she started writing novel in 1990, and in 1992 the first chapter named “The Secret life of Bees” was finished.



  1. Government Power


  • The lecture firstly states the need to modify government power from Federal to State level, which is a philosophical question.


  • The Democratic and republican parties hold different opinions about government power. While the Democratic Party claims that government should hold strong power and entitlements, the Republican Party believes that government should share its power with its states and people.




  1. Genes


  • The lecture is about the development of human genes in the past 5000 years.


  • The way modern people piss has no difference with our ancestors in half a million years ago because the genes did not change too much.


  • However, there are some genetic difference in cognitive ability between present human beings and our ancestors.



  1. Vitamin D


Reference Rending:



Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc and multiple other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. Only a few foods contain vitamin D. The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVII radiation). The Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin D. made by the Institute of Medicine, assumes all of a person’s vitamin D is from oral intake. As recommendations about the amount of sun exposure required for optimal vitamin D levels are uncertain in view of the skin cancer risk.


As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sufficient sunlight, it is not an essential dietary factor, and so not technically a vitamin. Instead it could be considered as a hormone, with activation of the vitamin D pro-hormone resulting in the active form. calcitriol, which then produces effects via u nuclear receptor in multiple different locations. Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. Its discovery was due to effort to find the dietary substance lacking in rickets




  • Vitamin D is not a real vitamin but one type of hormone, it is produced by skin when skin is exposed to sunlight, then it can travel via the blood stream to have effects on other parts of the body.


  • The formation of Vitamin D can be affected by climate. For example, people need more Vitamin D supplements during winter when they wear more clothes due to the lack of sunshine.


  • Some regions where people are less exposed to sunlight don’t have enough Vd compared to those who live near the equator.




  1. International environmental laws




Reference Reading:


Before we consider international environmental law and climate change we need to consider domestic legislation, as it is within the sovereign states that international law is put into practise. This reflects the environmentalists’ maxim, ‘think globally act locally.


United Kingdom legislative control over the impacts of mans’ activity on the environment is not new. As long ago as the reign of Charles II the main concern was the production of smoke from the burning of ‘sea coal. Almost all areas of trade and industry were subject to very detailed legislative controls at that time, although some were governed by ‘self-regulation’ in the form of guilds, who regulated both supply and methods of production. However, the measures implemented were mostly ineffective because then, as now, the specifying of legal duties and standards without providing any appropriate enforcement merely indicated good intentions but were of little practical effect.



The next stage was prompted by the Industrial Revolution with the urbanisation of society and its profound effects on the environment. Local industrialists used the Adam Smith model to maximise their economic benefit, but this was to the detriment of the local environment with the operation of ‘Gresham’s Law’ that is, the bad drives out the good. Those industrialists who were concerned for either the health of their employees or the local environment faced higher costs than their competitors. The result was the need for increasingly comprehensive statutory controls on the discharge of pollutants into various receiving media.




This lecture talks about international environment law and climate change.


  • British government launched the environment law in order to control the impact of human activities and industrial revolution.


  • The environment law was aimed to improve environment locally and globally.


  • Many companies applied the Adam Smith theory to improve the overall health of employees.


  • Managers were unsatisfied with environment law because the cost is increasing, which makes the company less competitive in the market.



  1. Einstein Reference Reading:


  • For thousands of years, people believed that the stars and universe were absolutely fixed and unchanged.


  • This has been changed by Einstein in the 20h century. Earlier in 1917s, Einstein’s newly developed the General Theory of Relativity indicated that the universe must be either expanding or contracting, and he forecasted a dynamic expansion.


  • Actually, Einstein is not the first person who proposed the theory. Edwin Hubble discovered the Hubble’s law, which shows that the universe is expanding in 1931.




  1. University Competition



  • The lecture talks about university competition.


  • Universities are facing fierce competitions towards students, academic staffs, research funding, research resource.


  • The competition between students from different universities becomes more intense and thrilling, especially in English-speaking countries.


  • The fierce competition is also between staffs, they compare the performance in academy and job market.



  1. Citizenship Curriculum






Last month 1 published alongside my annual report a subject report on the development of citizenship in schools. The report celebrates the success of some schools in implementing the citizenship curriculum. It praises those schools where there have been substantial developments in the subject, and which now go a long way towards fulfilling national curriculum requirement’ In the report we are critical of schools which have not taken citizenship seriously, either through reluctance or lack of capacity to make appropriate provision in the curriculum. Citizenship is marginalised in the curriculum in one fifth of schools. It is less well established in the curriculum than other subjects, and less well taught and sonic critics have seized on this as a reason for wanting to step back from supporting it. Yet, the progress made to date by the more committed schools suggests that the reasons for introducing citizenship are both worthwhile and can be fulfilled, given the time and resources. Indeed, those reasons are given added weight by national and global events of the past few months. While not claiming too much, citizenship can address core skills, attitudes and values that young people need to consider as they come to terms with a changing world.


  • The lecture illustrates the importance of citizenship curriculum; however, it is neglected by many schools.


  • There are only 1/5 of schools introduced the course to campus and allocated less tune than other subjects.


  • Moreover, the professor pointed out if given enough time in citizenship curriculum, students are more likely to feel confident when they face the changing world, it also helps students to build up their leadership skills.


  • Criticism about citizenship education in schools argues that merely teaching students about the theory is ineffective, unless schools involve students in the process of decision making.


  • The competition has compelled universities to raise more funding from both private and public sectors.




  1. Tree Rings



  • Dendron chronology indicates the years of trees through rings, but the year of tree cut could be ambiguous.
  • The width of rings illustrates the climate situation of rain and drought that affects tree-growth.


  • The sequence message of narrow and wide represents hidden information like Morse code.


  • The information is even richer and more diagnosable for it provides more various possibilities than dash and dot.




  1. Robot


  • Robot production has witnessed a steady growth lately; moreover, nowadays robots are more and more widespread, especially in the factory, this is because, robots have the capacity to function as human.


  • Some robots will be used by more families such as vacuum-cleaner robots.




  1. Business Entity


  • The nature of business entity is exchange, exchange something you have to something you need.


  • The purpose of marketing is to deliver products from suppliers to customers to satisfy the consumers’ need.


  • Capital gain is important, this is because, capital reflow can further improve investment and production.



  1. Urbanization


This lecture talks about the development of urbanization and agriculture. Cities and rural areas ha a mutual trading relationship. The farmers should improve the efficiency so their family menthe! can go to cities to find jobs. Many people cannot live in countryside anymore, so they are compelled to move to cities to making a living there.


  • This lecture talks about the relationship between the agriculture and urbanization.


  • One farmer grows food can benefit many families in the city. And the food trade in city also can benefit people in countryside.


  • However, more and more people don’t want to live in countryside anymore. a lot of people move to urban area as there are more opportunities in the city.


  • If all people move to city, then they will start to lose jobs, which leads to an increasing unemployment rate.




  1. Welsh Speaker Reference Reading:





Welsh is a Celtic language spoken in Wales by about 740,000 people, and in the Welsh colony in Patagonia, Argentina by several hundred people. There are also Welsh speakers in England. Scotland. Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand.


At the beginning of the 20th century about half of the population of Wales spoke Welsh as an everyday language. Towards the n of the century. the of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%. According to the 2001 census 582,368 people can speak Welsh, 659,301 people can either speak, read or write Welsh, and 797,717 people. 28% of the population, claimed to have some knowledge of the language.



According to a survey carried out by S4C. the Welsh language TV channel, the number of Welsh speakers in Wales is around 750,000. and about 1.5 million people can ‘understand’ Welsh. In addition, there are an estimated 133,000 Welsh-speakers living in England, about 50.000 of them in the Greater London area.




  • Wash is a Celtic language spoken in Wales by about 700k people.


  • There are also Welsh speakers in England. Scotland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.


  • At the beginning of 20th century about half of the population of Wales spoke Welsh: however, at the end of the century the percentage of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%.



  1. Marshmallow Test:




They call it the “marshmallow test.” A four-to-six-year-old-child sits alone in a room at a table facing a marshmallow on a plate. The child is told: “If you don’t eat this treat for 15 minutes you can have both it and a second one.” Kids on average wait for five or six minutes before eating the marshmallow. The longer a child can resist the treat has been correlated with higher general competency later in life.


Now a study shows that ability to resist temptation isn’t strictly innate—it’s also highly influenced by environment.


Researchers gave five-year-olds used crayons and one sticker to decorate a sheet of paper. One group was promised a new set of art supplies for the project—but then never received it. But the other group did receive new crayons and better stickers.


Then both groups were given the marshmallow test. The children who had been lied to waited for a mean time of three minutes before eating the marshmallow. The group that got their promised materials resisted an average of 12 minutes.




Thus, the researchers note that experience factors into a child’s ability to delay gratification. When previous promises have been hollow, why believe the next one?




  • The child in the test was told: if you don’t eat this treat for 15 min you can have both of it and the second one.”


  • It turned out kids on average wait for 5 or 6 min before eating the marshmallow. The longer a child can resist the treat has been correlated with hither general competency later in life.
  • The study shows that the ability to resist treat is highly influenced by environment.




  1. ATM:


  • Some people forget to take their cards after taking the money from ATM, because more often than not, they just focus on the money only.


  • The United Kingdom has restructured the new AT, and cards will be released by machines before cash are dispensed.


  • Although you would forget to take your cash, it is more catastrophic to lose your card because it can access to your bank account.



  1. Ocean Floor


This is the first ocean deployment of two new, high- precision instruments designed to monitor the earth’s signals from the seafloor. This housing contains the tilt meter and Nano bottom pressure recorder and the associated electronics and cabling used for power and communications. The instruments were deployed on the seafloor by a remotely operated vehicle as part of the MARS seafloor observatory testbed, located at a depth of 3000 feet in Monterey Bay.


In the first test deployment in the ocean, they have already detected the ground motion from several large earthquakes, as far from the MARS site as Chile and the Mariana Trench. In the future, the instruments will be part of a global network of cabled seafloor observatories. Because of their precision, these two new instruments are already detecting signals which could never be measured before.




  • The lecture is about two instructions which can detect earth’s signals from the sea floor,


  • The instruments were deployed on the seafloor by a remotely operated vehicle.


  • There two new instruments can help to detect signals which could never be measured before.




  1. Three primary colours


This lecture mainly talks about magic natural colour. In order to answer where natural colours come from, the speaker talked about the three primary colours. Firstly, the yellow comes from many




plants. Secondly, red is derived from ground and some insects. Finally, the only natural source of blue is indigo, which is extracted from indigo molecules.



  1. Fossil Fuels


  • The lecture is about the use of fossil fuels in developing countries.


  • There are different motivations for them to utilize fossil fuels which include financial incentives and easy access.


  • However, the detrimental effect of fossil fuels to the planet should not be ignored, such as climate change.


  • As fossil fuels are running out very fast, we should look for green source to replace it to achieve sustainable development.




  1. Language


  • Languages develop unconsciously when people try to communicate with each other. The rules of language are convention.


  • Every language is unique, valuable and translatable; moreover, languages represent different ways of thinking and understanding.


  • Even a simple language is important to be documented for human heritage.







  1. Our medical school students must attend the talk about optional courses.


  1. The courses cover the several aspects of the subject.


  1. The bar chart provides useful means of data comparison.


  1. The course will help students to improve their pronunciation skills.


  1. Building trust is not something that can be achieved overnight.


  1. Every student has the right and ability to succeed.



7.One of the election promises is to decrease the income tax.


  1. The architectural numbers vary in that experiment


  1. This course provides the opportunity to get valuable industry experience.


  1. Some people believe that education should be free for all.


  1. Timetables about new term will be available next week.


  1. Art is an expression of creative skill and imagination.


  1. Find out how to get your resources before your research.


  1. Those who are considering a career of marketing should attend the talk.


  1. There is a pharmacy on campus near the bookstore.


  1. The marketing budget is doubled since the beginning of the year.


  1. Experts are now able to forecast weather for long periods.


  1. Collaboration between departments is a feature of successful companies.


  1. The ability to work with fellow students cannot be stressed enough.


  1. Enrolling a second major will increase the career option.


  1. Scientists learned through the observations and the analysis of the human behavior.


  1. Students are encouraged to monitor their own attendance.


  1. The summer course was canceled due to insufficient re-enrollments.


  1. In this language course, we focus on fluency and accuracy.


  1. Students are encouraged to think carefully about their accommodation needs.


  1. There are many types of governments in the world.


  1. There is a welcome party for all new students each term.




  1. The site is designed to be highly interactive.


  1. The undergraduates need some specific sources to analyze a program.


  1. The two variables in the study were very closely correlated.


  1. We support to do research in the field of archaeology such as forecasting and estimation.


  1. We can work together to achieve the higher educational standards.


  1. University fees are expected to increase next year.


  1. There will be a conference here next summer on using the web for academic research.


  1. The same issue featured both explanations of the problem.


  1. The same approach reached to the same explanation of the problem.


  1. The results of the study underscored the discoveries from early detection.


  1. The main concepts in this thesis were not new.


  1. The assessment of this course will begin next week.


  1. The features issued the same explanation of the problem.


  1. The cafeteria features sandwiches, salads, soup, fish and chicken.


  1. She received a scholarship from the state library.


  1. Remember, the prestigious selection has strict eligibility criteria.


  1. Most of these features were part of the previous system.


  1. Library reference desks hold a lot of materials on academic history.


  1. Despite the protest, the chemistry department was closed down.


  1. Although sustainable development is not easy, it is an unavoidable responsibility.


  1. Students should have awareness of how the business develops globally.


  1. Sea levels are expected to rise during the next century.


  1. The office opens on Mondays and Thursdays directly follows the freshman categories.


  1. You will acquire new skills during your academic studies.


  1. Create a playlist of your favorite music to help you relax in difficult situations.


  1. Studies show there is a positive correlation between two variables.


  1. Plants and living things are growing on the land or in water.


  1. A good architecture is always very useful, durable and beautiful.




  1. The introduction is an important component of a good presentation.


  1. A good scientific paper should have clear arguments.


  1. Science is found in society all around the world.


  1. You can use a laptop during the lecture.


  1. The students have the option to live in the college residences or apartments.


  1. The business class can hold with local students.


  1. Please confirm that you have received the textbook.


  1. There is clearly a need for further research in this field.


  1. The artists and conservative politicians earn their rules of politics.


  1. Students are instructed to hand in their assignments by the end of this week.


  1. Some people argue that education is not that important.


  1. She has made a significant contribution to the field of chemistry.


  1. The equality has not yet been achieved in this society.


  1. Before attending the lecture, you must register online or by post.



  1. All of the assignments should be submitted in person to the faculty office.


  1. Fashion trends help people to make life interesting.


  1. We have sophisticated ways to study in brain action.


  1. Student representatives will visit classes with voting forms.


  1. It is important to make clear notes while you are reading.


  1. There was a prize for the best student of the presentation.


  1. The new media have transformed the traditional national boundaries.


  1. The placement test of mathematics and science is open to every semester.


  1. People with active lifestyles are less likely to die early or have major illnesses.


  1. The development in the information technology has greatly changed the way people work.


  1. Eating too much can lead to too many health problems.


  1. The author is currently a professor at Cambridge University.


  1. The teacher asked the group to commence the task.


  1. I don’t think it’s possible to solve the problem easily.




  1. Tours operate all year round, but the busier dry season runs from May.


  1. There are still many people struggling in the lab.


  1. The most striking thing about this budget smartphone cannot be seen on its face.


  1. Most university teaching takes place in lectures and seminars.


  1. Increasing population results in an increasing demand in energy.


  1. The museum is closed on Thursday mornings every month.


  1. You have to learn how to use the library to save your time.


  1. The teaching group will perform in the concert hall.


  1. Supply and demand is one of the most fundamental factors in the economics.


  1. Parents are financially responsible for their children until they reach adulthood.


  1. The ways in which people communicate are constantly changing.


  1. Geography is generally divided into two branches: human and physical.


  1. Please note, submission deadlines are only negotiable in exceptional circumstances.


  1. You may need to purchase an academic gown before the commencement.


  1. Good research delivers practical benefits for real people.


  1. The lecturer tomorrow will discuss the educational policy in the United States.


  1. Most scientists believe that climate change threatens lives on the earth.


  1. The railway made long-distance travel possible for everyone.


  1. You may need to purchase an academic gown before commencing.


  1. Safety glasses should be worn while doing experiments in the lab.


  1. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became the law.


  1. Important details in the article are missing from the summary.


  1. Radio is a popular form of entertainment throughout the world.


  1. The plight of wildlife has been ignored by developers.


  1. Traffic is the main cause for pollution in main cities.


  1. The exam system has been upgraded due to professional exams.


  1. She used to be an editor of the student newspaper.


  1. It is important for students to keep up with the deadline.




  1. We study science to understand and appreciate the world around us.


  1. Making a mistake is fine as long as you’ve learnt from it.


  1. The business plan seminar includes an internship with a local firm.


  1. Please visit the website for the information about the opening times.


  1. Your lowest quiz grade has been omitted from the calculations.


  1. The nation achieved prosperity by opening its exports for trade.


  1. The aim is to reduce the risks that people take.


  1. Most of the students have not considered this issue before.


  1. Chemistry building is located at the entrance to campus.


  1. The history of this university is a long and interesting one.


  1. Scientists are always asking the government for money.


  1. Native speakers are examined by their language tests in their own languages.


  1. The scientists found most of the studies today.


  1. Remember to sign the attendance register before leaving the lecture hall.


  1. She began by giving an outline of the previous lecture.


  1. The university seeks the funds for renovation of the theater.


  1. An archaeologist’s new discovery stands out in previous overlooked foundations.


  1. Important details from the article are missing in this summary.


  1. The untapped potential of using the sun is enormous.


  1. The dance department stages elaborated performances each semester.


  1. I will come back to this in a moment.


  1. The article illustrates a number of interesting experiments.


  1. Many graduates of journalism get jobs in the communications field.


  1. We were able to contact a number of researchers.


  1. The same issue featured both the explanations and the problems.


  1. All educational reforms have been inadequately implemented.


  1. All dissertations must be accompanied by a submission form.


  1. Efforts are being made to reduce harmful emissions.




  1. The other book is not thorough but it’s more insightful.


  1. The article considered the leisure habits of teenagers in rural areas or places.


  1. Let me give you an example to explain what I mean.


  1. Archaeologists’ new discovery stands out in previously overlooked foundations.


  1. Rivers provide habitats for fish and other aquatic species.


  1. Recession triggers creativity and high rates of entrepreneurship due to past experience.


  1. Clinical placement in nursing prepares students for professional practice.


  1. The article covers interesting experience.


  1. Certain scientific principles need to be learned verbally or by logical deduction.


  1. In addition to the requirements, students must pass the qualifying examinations.


  1. Students must pass all the qualifying examinations.


  1. Money and how it is paid can affect the motivations to work.


  1. There are some doubts about whether these events actually occurred.


  1. Graduates from this course find careers in the financial department.


  1. The director of the gallery was grateful for the anonymous donation.


  1. Convincing evidence for this theory is hard to obtain.


  1. Some scientists argue that the entire financial system is fatally flawed.


  1. Read the first section before the next meeting.


  1. Theory and training are required to become a medical specialist.


  1. Students requiring for an extension should apply sooner rather than later.


  1. This is an integrated course with several elements.


  1. It is being made to reduce harmful emissions.


  1. The teaching staff are extremely approachable, helpful and friendly.


  1. You were able to contact a number of research subjects.


  1. The most popular courses still have a few places left.


  1. The library holds a substantial collection of materials of economic history.


  1. This guy is qualified to lead the groups into the mountain.


  1. All writers, consciously or unconsciously, represent their own culture.




  1. The theme of the instrumental work exhibits more of a demure, compositional style.


  1. If you need additional help, please visit the university source center.


  1. Members should make concentrated contributions to operating funds.


  1. The scientists will face both the explanations and the problems.


  1. You need to hand in the essay next semester.


  1. Let me know if anybody struggles in the lab.


  1. The aerial photographs were promptly registered for thorough evaluations.


  1. Traveling by boat on the river is not possible in winter.


  1. Peer group pressure has a great effect on young people.


  1. Those seeking for a further extension should contact their faculty for more information.


  1. If you seek for further extension, contact your faculty for more information.


  1. The earth’s atmosphere is mostly composed of oxygen and nitrogen.


  1. Participants initially select from a range of foundation subjects.


  1. Economic problems cause a rise in unemployment.


  1. Packaging is very important to attract intentioned buyers.


  1. Submitting your group assignment must be issued punctually by one of your group members.


  1. You are trained to be a special journalist.


  1. While reconciliation is desirable, the basic underlying issues must be addressed.


  1. Many birds migrated to the warmer areas for the winter.


  1. The celebrated theory is still a subject of controversy.


  1. Early streams of the economy in the Roman Republic will be examined.


  1. A very basic feature of computing is counting and calculation.


  1. Overcrowding and poor sanitation affected the lives of the majority of the population.


  1. No more than four people can be in the lab at once.


  1. That brief outline takes us to the beginning of the twentieth century.


  1. The campus tour will help you get familiar with the teaching facilities.


  1. While conceiving ideas is desirable, basic underlying issues must first be addressed.


  1. Daily practice can build confidence and improve skills.




  1. The key difference between courses is the kind of assessment.


  1. Textile manufacture plays a large role in improving economies.


  1. When bad drove out good, the local workers were more difficult than their competitors.


  1. The theme of the issue was the estimation of the problem.


  1. This class will look at the structure of the essay.


  1. Consumer confidence has a direct impact on sales.


  1. Statistic results should be expressed in different ways, depending on circumstances.


  1. The qualification will be assessed by using a conference criterion approach.


  1. The synopsis contains the most important information.


  1. The excursion for children is very much open to debate.


  1. Doctoral writings have the structure in place as well as scientific papers.


  1. The meeting has some struggling overlaps.


  1. Freshwater creatures didn’t appear in the painting until the modern period.


  1. These have also been found to contribute to the death of many marine animals.


  1. They have both grown up in the rural area and dislike the urban life.


  1. The whole point of the project was to look at the norms, not the exception.


  1. Below the heating controls in the middle is a small round plastic button.


  1. Many toxins originate from plants or animals.


  1. Government reforms have been proposed at all levels.


  1. The evaluation form will be reviewed by the university personnel.


  1. Listening is the key skill to succeed in this course.


  1. Scientific benefit to space exploration is frequently questioned.


  1. It is a really comprehensive program that covers both theory and practice.


  1. The consumer confidence has a direct effect on sales.


  1. The library holds substantial materials of economic history.


  1. Human beings compete with other species for space and resources.


  1. All students need to attend no less than 10 labs per semester.


  1. The garden behind the university is open to the public in the summer.




  1. Parents’ talk to children tends to be simplified.


  1. All answers must be examined and supported by relevant theory


  1. The university seeks funding for the renovation of the lecture theater.


  1. All industries consist of systems as inputs, processes, outputs and feedback.


  1. The faculty staff are very approachable, friendly and extremely helpful.


  1. The summer school program allows students to summarize their studies.


  1. Rivers provide habitats and migration places for many aquatic species.


  1. This course is very integrated because it has several parts.


  1. A very basic function of computing is counting and calculating.


  1. The properties should be appropriately distributed.


  1. The curriculum needed to be adjusted for development.


  1. He was regarded as the foremost economist in that time.


  1. Students find true or false questions harder than short answers.


  1. The lecture will cover the reason of climate change.


  1. Peer group pressure has a significant effect on young people.


  1. Listening is the key skill leading to success in this course.


  1. Packaging is very important to attract the attention of a buyer.


  1. When launching a product, researching and marketing are very vital.


  1. We can have a lecture on the morning of Thursday.


  1. If finance is the cause of concern, scholarship may be available.


  1. Companies want to protect their brands from negative comments.


  1. The massive accumulation of data was converted to a communicable argument.


  1. Organizational failure is considered in various perspectives in academic literature.


  1. The extent of advertising for children is open to much debate.


  1. You can find a lot more information on the university website.


  1. The author’s previous works are more philosophical and less experimental.


  1. The early work is more philosophical rather than experimental.


  1. Each group needs to submit the outlines of their projects to their tutors.




  1. You should include these two pictures from the lecture in your assignment.


  1. A recent article shows a number of interesting experiments.


  1. The early works of this research are more experimental.


  1. It is a slash to debate about the value of the knowledge.


  1. Water taps on the campus will discourage the frequent use of plastic bottles.


  1. The report contains the most important information.


  1. Books for children often contain many bits of illustrations.


  1. Before completing the exercise, you need to read the remaining chapters.


  1. Attracting skilled workers to the city with expensive housing is hard.


  1. An ancient text may hold secrets which were lost centuries ago.


  1. Agenda items should be submitted by the end of the day.


  1. Affordable housing is an important issue for all members of society.


  1. Rising sales figures mean a rise in demand.


  1. Some people regarded it as carelessness, while others regarded it as recklessness.


  1. Remember, the gifts purchased by the children should have a striped character.


  1. It is hard to anticipate all the different characters that were in react.


  1. Behind the group, there is a flat cart drawn by mules.


  1. The module of the work is more of a compositional style.


  1. When met with high potential risks, companies will raise their prices.


  1. It is absolutely vital to allocate your resources.


  1. Please make sure you have collected all the necessary materials.


  1. Software companies design and create new products.


  1. Medical researchers have focused on the causes of diseases and treatments.


  1. The findings of researchers are focusing on the causes of the diseases and treatments.


  1. The commissioner will collect fines for the sovereignty.


  1. Identity theft happens to thousands of people every year.


  1. Public perception about biotechnology is crucial for developing scientific consensus.


  1. The commission of funds supported among authorities has raised an argument.




  1. And in that regard, as well as in other regards, it stands as an important contribution.


  1. Some people regarded this as eyewash whereas some people asked for the status of their complaints and actions taken.


  1. Climate change is a fierce phenomenon concentrated by scientists.


  1. They have struggled since last year to make their services paid.


  1. If finance is a cause for concern, scholarship may be available.


  1. The glimpse of something is an enormously rewarding experience.


  1. Why has the project been held up for so long?


  1. A party is thrown in the small meeting room.


  1. Before submitting your dissertation, your adviser must approve your application.


  1. Inflation affects the demand, pricing and consumption of most products.


  1. Higher numbers of patients were infected than previous during outbreaks of illness.


  1. Upgrading manufacturing system can increase efficiency.


  1. Climate change is now an acceptable phenomenon among reputable scientists.


  1. Students were instructed to stand in a straight line outside the classroom.


  1. Your agents will collect the commission for each house they sell.


  1. Article numbers are collected through interesting experiments.


  1. The elective course introduces engineering students to construct practices and concepts.


  1. The student identification card will be issued by today or tomorrow.


  1. All writers, consciously or unconsciously, represent their own cultures.


  1. The coffee house has special student discounts throughout the week.


  1. Your thesis should have a fairly limited scope.


  1. You are required to complete your research paper by next Monday.


  1. The university library has most of the necessary books.


  1. There was no correlation between drugs used and cure rates.


  1. The first assignment will be due on the 14th September.


  1. Our group is going to meet tomorrow in the library conference room.


  1. Interim grades will be posted on the board outside the student lounge.


  1. Final year business students have to write a 5000-word essay on market trends.




  1. The time of the math lecture has been changed to ten thirty.


  1. The thief visits the homes of several people every day.


  1. The new technician dropped the microscope in the biology lab.


  1. In spite of the differences, all the species of life share certain characteristics.


  1. Many graduate students can find a job in the communications field.


  1. It is hard to observe the reaction of the character.


  1. Try to work with each other to build up a sense of cooperation and team spirit.


  1. She received a scholarship from the state university.


  1. There is a strict eligibility criterion to undertake background speaker studies.


  1. Most teaching staff make their lecture notes available online.


  1. It is vital that you acknowledge all your sources.


  1. Those who seek for formal extension should contact their faculty for information.


  1. Please remember to bring a highlighter to class next Wednesday.


  1. The slide shows there has been a minimal growth.


  1. Competition for places in this course is fierce.


  1. Today’s lecture material will be included in the next assignment.


  1. Relevant materials are reserved in the library. #1367 2017-07


  1. We support the research on problems related to tropical cyclone dynamics and forecasting.


  1. The curriculum is described in the course syllabus.


  1. Conferences ought to be scheduled two weeks in advance.


  1. Mutually exclusive events are neither complementary nor opposite.


  1. He has landed a job in a prestigious law firm.


  1. The schedule allows a lot of time for independent study.


  1. If it helps to take notes in order to concentrate, please do so.


  1. Animals raised in captivity behave differently than their wild counterparts.


  1. Materials and resources are on hold at the library’s front desk.


  1. Our professor is hosting the business development conference.


  1. Lectures’ outlines are available on the college internal website.




  1. You are required to submit your assignment by Friday.


  1. Everyone must evacuate the premises during the fire drill.


  1. A person’s education level is closely related to his economic background.


  1. Climate change is being acknowledged by many scientists.


  1. We can’t consider an increase in price at this stage.


  1. Resources and materials are on hold at the library reference desk.


  1. This is interesting in parliament.


  1. Career opportunities in this field are quite limited.


  1. Free campus tour runs daily during summer for prospective students.


  1. Assignments should be submitted to the department before the deadline


  1. The toughest part of the research for postgraduate students is the funding.


  1. The history of the movement was recorded by several writers.


  1. Americans have progressively found the growth in quantitative terms.


  1. Most theories are quite similar, but a few critics disagree.


  1. The importance of this event was not yet fully understood.


  1. I thought we would meet in the small meeting room.


  1. There is a need for constructive dialogue between leaders.


  1. You can contact all your tutors by email.


  1. Relative humidity is the amount of moisture that the air can hold.


  1. The schedule allows plenty of time for individual study.


  1. Artists, other than politicians, played their own roles as critics of the culture.


  1. The vocabulary that has peculiar meanings is called jargon.


  1. When workers ask for higher wages, the company raises their prices.


  1. Undergraduate students may participate in specific stages within the program.


  1. Our class is divided into two groups, you come with me, others stay here.


  1. Laws protect consumer rights and help avoid market problems.


  1. The results of the experiment are reported in the table below.


  1. The island is located at the north end of the bay.




  1. Sales figures for last year were better than expected.


  1. Most critics agreed with the new theory, but few disagreed.


  1. Avoid confusing the cause and effect of these changes.


  1. They were struggling last year to make their service payments.


  1. 368. Nurses specialize in clinical work and management.


  1. Experts believe that the industrial development will help the economy.


  1. Some of the features are part of the previous research.


  1. The dining hall will undergo renovation during the fall break.


  1. The university officer will help you locate the housing and transportation.


  1. Writing an essay is easy once the research is finished.


  1. It is important to allocate your time wisely when revising.


  1. The key findings seemed to contradict our initial hypothesis.


  1. The coffee house menu featured coffee, sandwiches and toast.


  1. Neurons are principally involved in biological processes.


  1. The economic books are at the back, on the left.


  1. Please note that the college laboratory will be closed for cleaning next week.


  1. The application process may take longer than expected.


  1. University departments should carefully monitor articles and publications by faculty.


  1. Control systems in manufacturing provide a high level of accuracy.


  1. It is hard to anticipate all their actions.


  1. The essay is easy to write once the research is completed.


  1. A number of students have volunteer jobs.


  1. This paper challenged the previously accepted theories.


  1. The new product failed due to a lack of demand.


  1. The scientists now study a wide variety of atmospheric processes.


  1. You come with me, and the others stay here.


  1. If you are not sure, phone student services for help.


  1. Heavy rain will fall throughout the country next week.




  1. The celebrated theory has a great degree of controversy.


  1. Observers waited nervously and bated their breath for the concert.


  1. The morning’s lecture on economic policy has been cancelled.


  1. Let me know if anybody struggles in the lab.


  1. Successful applicants will work with a large team of researchers.


  1. Presidential elections are held once every four years.


  1. Students have the options to live in college residences or apartments.


  1. Politics is not usually a safe topic of conversation.


  1. The students were instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.


  1. The toughest part of public education is funding.


  1. Preparation is important to avoid mishaps in the lab.


  1. Your summary should be as clear and concise as possible.


  1. Your task is to create demand for the product.


  1. The decision was made with the support of several faculty members.


  1. The nearest automatic teller is in front of the anatomy labs.


  1. To achieve full marks, an appropriate bibliography is required.


  1. The final year will consist of four taught courses and one project.


  1. There was not enough evidence to support these recommendations.


  1. Tribes worked with each other to build monolithic statues.


  1. Review all sources before drawing any conclusions.


  1. All staff must leave from the fire hydrant exit.


  1. The sociology department is highly regarded worldwide.


  1. The most important process of farming is weeding.


    1. The cart carries a single object.


  1. Teaching assistants will receive a monthly stipend for housing.


  1. This guide is qualified to lead the groups into the mountains.


  1. The university has a world-renowned school of archaeology.


  1. Student concession cards need to be obtained by completing an application form.


  1. The company needs to polish its image.


  1. Leading companies have changed their policies after reports were released.


  1. Newspapers are supported primarily by the sale of advertising space.


  1. You must submit your assignments by next Friday at the latest.



One thought on “PTE Prediction June 2019”

  1. Hi, my exam is on Thursday (06/06/2019). Please provide me if you have prediction file for the particular day.
    Thank you,
    Kind regards,
    Siji David.

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