PTE Prediction July 2019

PTE Prediction July 2019  

PDF : Buy now

READ ALOUDS

  1. The next wave of leaders in industrial manufacturing will build an ecosystem that capitalizes on the promise of analytics and connectivity to maximize efficiency for themselves and their customers. They will map out their strategies and prioritize measures that will bring the most value to their business, starting now with pilot projects, and building greater strengths in data analytics with cross-functional teams of experts.

 

  1. The elephant is the largest living land mammal. During evolution, its skeleton has greatly altered from the usual mammal, design for two main reasons. One is to cope with the great weight of huge grinding cheek teeth and elongated tusk, making the skull particularly massive. The other is to support the enormous bulk of such a huge body.

 

  1. Business school admissions officers said the new drive to attract younger students was in part the result of a realization that they had inadvertently limited their applicant pool by requiring several years’ work experience. Talented students who might otherwise have gone to business school instead opted for a law or policy degree because they were intimidated by the expectation of work experience.

 

  1. A Hazard Assessment should be performed for work involving distillations of organic liquids and should thoroughly address issues relating to residual water and possible decomposition of the solvent in question, as well as the physical placement of the distillation apparatus and heating equipment to be employed.

 

  1. Shrimp farmers used to hold animals in nursery ponds for 30 to 60 days: now they try to move them into grow-out ponds in less than 30 days. This reduces stress on the animals and dramatically increases survivals in the grow-out ponds. Many farms that abandoned nursery ponds have gone back to them, and the results have been surprisingly positive. They’re using the old, uncovered, earthen, nursery ponds.

 

  1. The preparation of abstract is an intellectual effort requiring generally familiar with the subject to bring out the points of an author’s argument course for skills and experience. Consequently, a considerable amount of qualified manpower that could be used to advantage in other ways must be diverted to task of facilitating or to information.

 

  1. Although Botswana’s economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country’s future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors, it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who needed them, and by March 2004, Botswana’s infection rate has dropped significantly.

 

 

 

  1. Public demand for education has remained strong, reflecting the importance of education as a means of social progress. Aware of the added value of education to the world of work, the government continues to innovate and update the education system in order to produce a qualified and competent workforce.

 

  1. Imagine living all your life as the only family on your street. Then, one morning, you open the front door and discover houses all around you. You see neighbors tending their gardens and children walking to school. Where did all the people come from? What if the answer turned out to be that they had always been there—you just hadn’ t seen them?

 

  1. Internal combustion engine, enabling the driver to decide which source of power is appropriate for the travel requirements of given journey. Major US auto manufacturers are now developing feasible hybrid electric vehicles, and some are exploring fuel-cell technology for their electric cars.

 

  1. A unique characteristic of online shopping environments is that they allow vendors to create retail interfaces with highly interactive features. One desirable form of interactivity from a consumer perspective is the implementation of sophisticated tools to assist shoppers in their purchase decisions by customizing the electronic shopping environment to their individual preferences.

 

  1. Beauty contests, whether it’s Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. Opponents say that they are nothing more than symbols of decline. Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country.

 

  1. Public demand for education has remained strong, reflecting the importance of education as a means of social progress. Aware of the social value of education to the world of the work, the government continues to innovate and update the education system in order to produce a qualified and competent work force.

 

  1. The preparation of abstract is an intellectual effort requiring general familiarity with the subject to bring out of the points of an author’s argument course for skills and experience. Consequently, a considerable amount of qualified manpower that could be used to advantage in other ways must be diverted to task of facilitating or to information.

 

  1. In the past, Naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction.

 

 

 

  1. Scientists know little about how exactly it works, especially when it comes to complex functions like memory formation. Research is more advanced in animals, but experiments on humans are hard. Yet, even today, some parts of the brain, like the motor cortex, are better understood. Nor is complete knowledge always needed. Machine learning can recognize patterns of neural activity; the brain itself gets the hang of controlling BCIS with extraordinary ease. And neurotechnology will reveal more of the brain’s secrets.

 

  1. It seems that when it comes to love, men and women are designed to misconstrue misread and misunderstand one another and themselves. You discover that in fact they make good sense. Being a deluded romantic is often the best way to make a good-biologically successful-choice about a potential partner on the basis.

 

  1. Since Plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate or we ‘blink’ and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind’s black box with the latest tools of neuro science, they’re discovering that this is not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason — and the precise mix depends on the situation.

 

  1. Cheerful sunny yellow is an attention getter. While it is considered an optimistic color, people lose their tempers more often in yellow rooms, and babies will cry more. It is the most difficult color for the eye to take in, so it can be overpowering if overused. Yellow enhances concentration, hence its use for legal pads. It also speeds metabolism.

 

  1. A smoking ban is a public policy that includes criminal laws and health regulations that prohibit smoking in certain public places and workspaces. There are varying definitions of smoking employed in this legislation. The strictest definitions define smoking as being the inhalation of any tobacco substance while the loosest define smoking as possessing any lit tobacco product.

 

  1. Another administration option is to bake marijuana at a relatively low temperature to kill any dangerous microorganisms and then allow that patient to eat it or drink it. Both of these methods of administration make smoking the drug unnecessary. However, criticism of medical marijuana has also been raised because as a natural plant, it cannot be patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies and is unlikely to win widespread medical acceptance.

 

  1. Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research purposes.

 

  1. The coastal wetlands have environmental and economic importance. Wetlands provide natural wealth. They have important filtering capabilities. As the runoff water passes, they retain excess nutrients and some pollutants. They maintain water flow during dry periods. Thousands of people depend on groundwater for drinking. They act as natural sponges of flood waters and contain soil erosion. They control floods and save the buildings from collapsing during heavy rains. The hardwood-riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River can store sixty days of floodwater.

 

  1. In a genuine republic the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States make it dependent on the will of the society.

 

  1. In 2005, donor countries agreed on an accord to harmonize their practices. Since then, aid officials have complained that too little has changed on the ground. Conferences of donors in developing countries still tend to be dominated by a small group of north European governments, with the US often absent.

 

  1. Dolphins, whales and porpoises are all social animals, but some species are more sociable than others. This depends on the environment because a species adopts the lifestyle most suitable for this. Among dolphins, forming groups makes it easier for them to find food, reproduce and gain knowledge. They are safer too, because dolphins can communicate danger when there are threats around.

 

  1. For the purposes of argument, culture is divided into material and non-material, and the speaker’s aim is to show how they both affect each other. Material developments in tools and technology can affect non-material culture, our customs and beliefs, and the other way around. Genetics is used as an example as it has changed the way we think about life, but also our beliefs have affected its rate of development.

 

  1. Usually, age is determined by physical characteristics, such as teeth or bones. Great’if you have a body. Researchers have tried unsuccessfully to use blood. But in this study, the scientists used immune cells called T-cells. T-cells recognize invaders through receptors that match molecules on bacteria, viruses, even tumors. The cellular activity that produces these receptors also produces a type of circular DNA molecule as a by-product.

 

  1. “Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride,” writes Judith A. Adams in The American Amusement Park Industry. “His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights.”

 

  1. Today’s technological market is dominated by two contrasting business models: the generative and the non-generative. The generative models – the PCs, Windows, and Macs of this world – allow third parties to build upon and share through them. The non-generative model is more restricted; appliances might work well, but the only entity that can change the way they operate is the vendor.

 

  1. Margaret Simons explains the changes taking place in the Australian media. She analyses audiences, our major media organisations, the role of government and the implications of all of these for our society and our democracy. Her examination leads her to the conclusion that the challenges facing the content providers in the modern world are part of a broader striving.

 

  1. By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work having been finished in good time, he has a long interval of rest in the evening before the timely hour when he goes to bed. After a sound night’s rest, he rises early next morning in good health and spirits for the labors of a new day.

 

  1. Each tube-shaped mic-robot is a sandwich of three materials. A graphene outer layer, which binds to heavy metals. A middle layer of nickel, which gives the bots magnetic polarity, so they can be pulled through wastewater with magnets. And platinum inside for propulsion. Just add a bit of peroxide to the wastewater, and it’ll react with the platinum to form water and oxygen bubbles, which propel the tubes along.

 

  1. Trump has threatened to declare China a currency manipulator, but experts say he has little legal or economic basis to take such a step. He has also threatened to impose a tariff of up to 45 percent on Chinese imports if Beijing doesn’t behave a move that could lead to a trade war and damage the economies of both nations.



REPEAT SENTENCES

1. Care needs to be taken for vulnerable groups during the periods of turmoil.

2. The older equipment has been put at the back of the building.

3. The genetic biology technology lab is located at the North Wing of the library.

4. We want to attract the very best students regardless of their financial circumstances.

5. We need to make sure the school principal knows about the changes.

6. Expertise in particular areas distinguishes you from other graduates.

7. Make sure the financial director knows the full details of the pay agreement.

8. Being a vegan means not consuming any animal meat.

9. We didn’t mean to ask him to do it because he cannot manage it.

10. There is considerably less supervision at university.

11. The part of the story is the story of my father.

12. Many of the urban poor lived in extremely cramped conditions.

13. The economic class will take place in the main lecture room.

14. Overcrowding, poor sanitary affected the daily lives of the majority of the population.

15. England is parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.

16. During the next few centuries, London will become one of the most powerful and prosperous cities in Europe.

17. This year we are applying to use a different type of assessment to this module.

18. International students can get help with locating housing near university.

19. They were struggling to pay their fees last year.

20. In the past, students were required to complete two long written assignments.

21. We like people to write a case study, describing an organization they know.

22. The drama society is now auditioning for parts in the student play.

23. Please hand in assignments at the main office.

24. We welcome international students from all over the world.

25. We are warning the clients that the rates are increasing.

26. We’ve decided to ask you to write four short pieces of written coursework this year.

27. Essays should be typed with double space on white paper.

28. There will be a significant rise in tuition fees starting next year.

29. We are delight to have professor Robert joint our faculty.

30. If you forget your student number, you should contact Jenny Brice.

31. You should raise your concern with head of school.

32. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

33. Would you prepare some PowerPoint slides with appropriate graphs?

34. The psychology department is looking for volunteers to be involved in research projects.

35. The college welcomes students from all over the world.

36. You can have student discount in many campus stores including the coffee house.

37. There will be an open book exam on Monday, the twenty-eighth.

38. The café will close soon but you can still access the snack machine which is running throughout the night.

39. We’re constantly looking for ways to bring industry and agriculture closer together.

40. To measure distance, it could take as much as three weeks.

41. All students on engineering courses will spend one year working on the wall experience.

42. Higher fees make students think more critically about what universities can offer.

43. Meeting with mentors could be arranged for students who need additional help.

44. Fishing is a sport and a means for survival.

45. The student welfare officer can help students with different issues.

46. I don’t agree with the author’s argument, but his presentation is good.

47. You can pay using cash or a credit card.

48. Your watch is fast; you need to reset it.

49. His lecture is always useful and simulative.

50. In my free time, I would like to read newspapers.

51. The hypothesis needs to be tested in a more rigorous way.

52. We didn’t have any noticeable variance between the two or three tasks.

53. Today, we will be discussing the role of the government in preventing injustice.

54. It seems that language appeared from nowhere.

55. Animals grow larger and stronger to hunt better.

56. As a student union member, we can influence the change of the university.

57. They have enough works to keep them going.

58. There is a plan in place for those who have difficulty paying their bills.

59. The conference is predicted to draw greater numbers than last year.

60. Our professor is hosting the business development conference.

61. Those reference books are too old, while the others are OK.

62. You should enquire about the Direct Deposit.

63. The student service center is located on the main campus behind the library.

64. If you want to sell all your books, it must have a list of bibliography.

65. You can only choose one subject from biology or media.

66. Factors such as cost and functionality influence the design of a bridge.

67. Unlike applied arts, fine arts do not serve a practical function.

68. The university is working towards being more environmentally sustainable.

69. Economy of scale is the increase in efficiency that occurs when more goods are produced.

70. The research looked at neighbourhood cooperative schemes such as community gardens.

71. He is almost never in his office.

72. Most of the strategies are in a preclinical state.

73. Diagnosis is not a discrete or limited process.

74. You can find the student service centre on level one of Home Building.

75. Please do not bring food into the classroom.

76. Please make sure all works follow the department deadlines.

77. Please pass the handouts to the rest of people in your row.

78. Environmental friendliness is a new category in which campuses are competing.

79. Measuring distance could take as long as three weeks.

80. I expect a long and stagnant debate for a week or two on this issue.

81. Does anyone know how to use the new constitutional voting system?

82. The most modem agricultural equipment is now extremely expensive.

83. There are no places left in the morning tutorial.

84. This semester we plan to specialize in education psychology.

85. Visual aids can make presentations clear and more interesting.

86. You need to write a proposal for your research.

87. Extra seminars will be scheduled to assist you with revision.

88. The law library is closed on Sundays and public holidays.

89. The number of students registered for postgraduate research has risen.

90. The seminar will now take place once a week on Tuesday.

91. There is an hourly bus service from the campus into town.

92. They say Professor James’s lectures are always interesting and fun.

93. Exam results will be available next week from the course office.

94. Here is only one example, but there are lots of others.

95. Many privately-owned firms have been eaten up by larger corporations.

96. It’s important that humaw dispose of their waste in appropriate ways. Tech

97. Most students in last year’s course did well in this module.

98. The module develops our understanding of the theory behind advertising campaign.

99. Students who wish to apply for an extension should approach their tutors.

100. It is good for the environment and also good for your bill.

101. Opposition to the government tax policies are widespread across business sectors.

102. Would you please put the materials on the table?

103. You can change your courses on the website during the registration period.

104. Please pass the handouts along rest of the people in your row.

105. History is not the simple collection of dates and events.

106. Much of the evidence been used has only recently become available.

107. There is no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.

108. If you forget your student number, you should contact Jenny Brice

109. Physics is the subject of matters and energy.

110. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

111. Would you prepare some PowerPoint slides with appropriate graphs?

112. The psychology department is looking for volunteers to be involved in research projects.

113. Anyone who has a problem with their accomodation should speak to the welfare officer.

114. Being a student representative on the union really cuts into my study time.

115. Doing this research makes me think of the purpose of science.

116. Don’t forget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.

117. Farmers do not always receive the price for agriculture goods.

118. I still don’t understand the last sentence.

119. I’ve got a tutorial in an hour and I haven’t had any time to prepare for it.

120. Allergy problems do run in the family but we don’t understand why.

121. Any text or references you make should be cited appropriately in the footnotes.

122. Conferences are always scheduled on the third Wednesday of the month.

123. Distance learning has become far more popular these days.

124. Doing this research makes me think of the purpose of science.

125. Don’t forget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.

126. Farmers do not always receive the price for agricultural goods.

127. I think the university’s main campus is closed.

128. I thought the mid-term exam was only worth half of our course grade.

129. I will be in my office every day from eleven to twelve.

130. I will check again but I am pretty sure we are supposed to read chapter

131. I’ve got a tutorial in an hour and I haven’t had any time to prepare for it.

132. It is important that you work as a team on this project.

133. It is important to take gender into account when discussing the figures.

134. It’s time to finalize the work before the Wednesday seminar.

135. Journalism is the collection and publication or transmission of news.

136. Just wait a minute, I will be with you shortly.

137. Many of the most popular courses are available online.

138. Meeting with tutors could be arranged for students who need additional help.

139. Meteorology is a subject of earth’s atmosphere.

140. Modern poetry often tests the conventions of language and rhythm.

141. More females than males graduated from universities last year.

142. On this project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.

143. She is an expert of the 18th century French literature.

144. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.

145. Students must observe lab safety regulations at all time.

146. The agricultural sector in that country has been heavily subsidized.

147. The aesthetic implications of this study have not yet been fully explored.

148. Studies suggest there may be a correlation between educational achievement and family ties.

149. The application form is available in the office.

150. The current statistical evidence indicates the need of further research.

151. The development was mainly included in chapter nine.

152. The first few sentences of an essay should capture the reader’s attention.

153. The information on the internet becomes more reliable.

154. The inherent tension between these two features remains to be addressed.

155. The research paper should begin with a thorough review of the literature.

156. The school of Arts and Design has an open day on Thursday next week.

157. The study showed that people’s mood could be affected by news and weather reports.

158. There are lots of people competing for the places in computer courses.

159. There will be a guest lecturer visiting the department next month.

160. This can be used as a straight point of my discussion today.

161. To receive the reimbursement, you must keep the original receipts.

162. Try to explain how your ideas are linked so that there is a logical flow.

163. We don’t have enough evidence to draw conclusions.

164. We don’t teach in the same way as we used to.

165. We offer a broad range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

166. We’ve decided to ask you to write four short pieces of written coursework this semester.

167. Would you pass me the book on the left-hand side?

168. You will be informed of the results by email.

169. You will be stressed if you are well prepared for the exam.

170. Rules of breaks and lunch time vary from one country to another.

171. My tutorial class will begin at the next Monday’s morning.

172. Company exists for money, not for society.

173. The original Olympic game is one kind of original festival.

174. Don’t forget to do a library tour on the first week of your semester.

175. The results of the study underscored the discoveries from early detection.

176. The professor has promised to put his lecture notes online.

177. I don’t like cheese tomato sandwich on white bread.

178. Your enrollment information, results and fees will be available online.

179. We are delighted to have professor Robert to join our faculty.



RETELL LECTURE

I. Politics and international relations

Audio is available on the website Transcript: This course provides students with an in-depth understanding of the exciting disciplines of politics and international relations. Students will learn about the workings of political institutions in countries around the world and explore the complex field of relations between nations. Topics in governance, public policy, public administration, national security, and border control ensure that students receive a broad and current education in the range of issues which are covered under the label of politics and international relations.

Students will undertake four compulsory units and two majors, one in politics and international relations and the other in governance and policy. They will also choose an elective major from a wide choice of options including political communication, international studies, international business and national security studies.

In addition to acquiring specialist knowledge and competencies in Politics and International Relations and Commerce, students will graduate with a range of generic skills such as critical thinking, enhanced communication abilities, problem solving and strong capacities to work with others. They will also develop ethically based and socially responsible attitudes and behaviours.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is the course of politics and international relations, and it comprises that in this course students will learn about the political realm around the world. Additionally, students will receive a broad education associated with politics and international relations, and they need to undertake four compulsory units and two majors. Considering the most substantial insights which are specified here, it can be stated that students will graduate with a range of generic skills and a sense of social responsibility.

2. Former civilization

Audio is available on the website Transcript: The first thing I want to argue is that the former civilization is running into pretty profound crisis in its relationships to the rest of nature, which we do and what we have depended on for survival and for flourishing. And this is the most widely and well-recognized in relation to climate change, CO2 emissions, greenhouse gas emissions. But I want to argue the certain dangers in the way that has been presented as the central question that we have to address. Because it’s interlocked with a number of other crises that is most noticeably as the crisis in access to fresh water, crisis in access to food, biodiversity loss on a huge scale, and associated problems of human in equality not just in a common world, but actually in the kinds of environmental resources, and pleasures that I can enjoy. So all those together, have to be looked at as an interconnected set of really deep profound crisis.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is former civilization, and it comprises that there is crisis between former civilization and nature. Additionally, former civilization is interlocked with a number of other noticeably crises including the crisis in access to fresh water and food, natural resource allocation as well as biodiversity loss on a huge scale etc. Considering the most substantial insights which are specified here, it can be stated that all of aforementioned factors need to be considered while looking into the issue.

3. Melk

Audio is available on the website Transcript: The Melk is not typical of all monasteries for many reasons. Firstly, it is very grand which most especially later foundations aren’t. Secondly, it was founded in the countryside, whereas in 17th and 18th centuries, a good proportion of foundations were made in Towns. Thirdly, it still owns substantial amount of land, because fourthly it lies in the Austrian Republic, the only European country where grand old monasteries have been in continuous existence, since they were founded 900,1000, even in one case 1200 years ago.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is that Melk is a unique monastery for a number of different reasons, and it comprises that it is quite grand and founded in countryside where as the majority of foundations back in 17’h and 18th century was made in towns. Additionally, it occupies a substantial amount of land and lies in the Austrian Republic, which is the only European country where grand old monasteries have been in continuous existence.

4. Newton and gravity Audio is available on the website

We’ve all heard the story. A young Isaac Newton is sitting beneath an apple tree contemplating the mysterious universe. Suddenly — boink! – an apple hits him on the head. In a flash he understands that the very same force that brought the

apple crashing toward the ground also keeps the moon falling toward the Earth and the Earth falling toward the sun: gravity. Or something like that. The apocryphal story is one of the most famous in the history of science and now you can see for yourself what Newton actually said. Squirreled away in the archives of London’s Royal Society was a manuscript containing the truth about the apple. So it turns out the apple story is true — for the most part. The apple may not have hit Newton in the head, but I’ll still picture it that way. Meanwhile, three and a half centuries and an Albert Einstein later, physicists still don’t really understand gravity. We’re gonna need a bigger apple.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is Newton and gravity and it comprises that a falling apple caused him to speculate upon the nature of gravitation. Additionally, it also denotes that Newton discovered gravity and understood that the same force that brought the apple crashing toward the ground also kept the moon falling toward the Earth and the Earth falling toward the sun. Considering the most substantial insights which are s ecified here, it can be stated that the most of the a le sto is true

5. Discovering the Port of Roman London

Transcript: But what we are going to discuss today is how the port of London was discovered and what we discovered about it. Now if you look at the historical records of Roman London, there is only about 14 actual references to London in antiquity I contemporary references. And all those only one is in the first century, there are none at all at the second or third century. There is only one in the late third century and there is four in the fourth century. So if you are a historian trying to write the history of Rome in London, it’s really difficult. You don’t really have much data, you’re going to depend on the archaeological evidence, the material evidence of the port and indeed the town to have any understanding of what happened then. And so, what we’re looking at here is how did we discover about the port of London, there is no historical documentations, no customs books, no terrorists, no idea of the taxes. We have to understand the port entirely from the archaeological evidence. So that’s what we are going to do today.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is Port of Roman London and it comprises that there are only 14 references about Roman London. Additionally, archaeological evidence can be taken as a reference due to a lack of data. Considering the most substantial aspects, it can be stated that, there is no historical documentations or books regarding how the port of London was discovered and researchers have to understand the port entirely from the archaeological evidence

6.

What live decided to provide is the steps that I take when analysing my own questionnaires. However, before I begin, it would be useful to remind you of a

few terms we use when talking about questionnaires. Questions can be divided into three

types. This is sometimes called level measurement. Firstly, we have category type questions, which are also known as nominal questions. These are when participants select from a list of categories for their response, such as male or female or they may include ethnic origin. Secondly, we have ordinal type questions. These are similar to category questions. But instead of the categories being independent, there is some sort of order between them. If we ask people to indicate their age in categories. This is an ordinal type question. Thirdly, we have continuous questions. These are any questions that can be answered by a number. It could be an open-ended question asking participants to tell you how many times they attended lectures or how often they used a VLE. Or it could involve asking them to rate the importance of intensity of some experience.

7.

The silk road is not like what we thought it would be. People travelled in groups to other countries through the silk road, exchanged things, and then came back. There were also some side groups who went to other countries such as India, which was called the ‘Amber Route’. At that time, there was also gift changing happened on the silk road.

8.

Community service is an important component of education here at our university. We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called “One On One” helps elementary students who’ve fallen behind. Your education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching, that is, tutoring in math and English. You’d have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester. You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both. Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week. Professor Dodge will act

as a mentor to the tutors. He’ll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities. He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon. You can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week. I’m sure you’ll enjoy this community service and you’ll gain valuable experience at the same time. It looks good on your resume, too, showing that you’ve had experience with children and that you care about your community. If you’d like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge’s office this week. V1: Community health worker, HIV, heart disease, trainings can prevent spreading of the disease, Indian has quarterly meetings, seminars not necessary in some citiesV2: The lecture talks about Community Service Worker

in India. Diseases, such as HIV, are difficult to control. Training is essential for workers to understand the precaution knowledge and prevent disease from spreading. Some large hospitals and organizations provide consultations. Sample answer: This is an anti-HIV program carried out in India. There are quarterly meetings to provide training and consultation to people in the program. They would know the service and how to prevent catching the diseases. The training is provided by professionals in hospital and weekly meetings are held to follow up and give consultation. The risks include contagious diseases such as HIV which is quite difficult to control. Training is essential for workers to understand the precaution knowledge.

9.

10 years ago, before the use of iPhone or iPad, people’s attention interval is about 25 minutes. This number is good. However, nowadays the attention interval has dropped from 25min to only 8 seconds, which means our memories are shorter than that of a goldfish.

10.

With over 40 years unrivalled experience and a worldwide reputation, BSI leads the way in testing and certification of fire safety products. Based on our dedicated labs in Hemel Hempstead, our team provides BSI height mark and Cee testing and certification for a broad range of products, including fire extinguishers, hoses, alarm panels, and heat and smoke detectors. We help clients to gain access into the European market by ensuring that products meet all the CE mark requirements. And we are familiar with the market access regulations of most countries across the world, enabling customers to enter markets globally. The BSI height market is categorized as a British super brand and acknowledged the world over as a symbol of trust, integrity, and quality. It provides the reassurance that vital product safety and performance requirements have been met. Our team subject each product to a rigorous set of tests along with robust production control audits designed specifically to ensure that they perform two required standards of safety and quality. We test for compatibility of fire detection and fire alarm system components to ensure that they’re compatible and connectable. This service meets the growing requirement of European regulatory authorities to meet national installation guidelines. We also perform tests on individual detection components. Fire suppression products such as fire extinguishers are subjected to rigorous tests designed to ensure that they’re effective, safe and capable of performing in environments and conditions in which they’re stored and used. The symbols for BSI kite mark and C certification represent quality, safety, and trust. For specifiers, they demonstrate a commitment to best practice procurement. And for the public, they provide the reassurance that fire safety products are effective and reliable.

11.

Now the economists’ calculated, it’s a back of the envelope calculation, that removing all immigration controls would double the size of the world economy, and even a small relaxation of immigration controls would lead to disproportionally big gains. Now for an ethical point of view, it’s hard to argue against a policy that will do so much to help people that are much poorer than ourselves. The famous Rand Study reckons that a typical immigrant who arrives in US ends up with $20,000 a year, that’s rough. It’s not just the migrants themselves who gain, it’s the countries they come from. Already, the migrants working for poor countries working in rich countries send home around 200 billion dollars a year, through formal channels, and about twice as that through informal channels. And that compares to the neat a hundred million dollars that Western governments give in aid. These remittances are not wasted on weapons or siphoned off into Swiss bank accounts; they go straight into the pockets of local people. They pay for food, clean water, and medicines, they help kids in school, they help start up new business. Sample answer: Removing immigration control would double the world economy. This policy will do so much to help poor people. Immigrants ends up with 20000 a year from gain and countries they

come from. They send home around 200 billion dollars a year through formal channels which are twice as that through informal channels. These remittances can help local people for living straightly.

12.

But in the face of the sense of disempowerment, there surprisingly is no decline in involvement in organizations which seek to share wealth and opportunities, protect one another’s right and work towards the common good. according to the United Nations, Civil Society groups have Grown 40-fold since the turn of last century. Internationally the non -profit sector is worth 1 trillion dollars, and there are 700,000 such organizations in Australia alone. the UN recognizes 37000 specifically Civil Society organizations across the global, and gave 3500 accreditation to the 2002 World Summit on sustainable development. This profound movement towards harnessing voices and resources from outside realm of governments and officialdom reflects a profound growth in NGOs, “the third sector” as some call it. Putnam discovered in the field of local government in the best predictor of governmental success was the strength and density of a region’s civic associations.

13.

The lecture is about a research on young people aged from 3 to 25 years old to see how they participate in their communities and how they form values, as well as their character education. The outcome involves parents, friends, and school. We try to figure out which one is the most important.

14.

I’m a dietitian and I work in clinical weight-loss recently. Accurately estimating portion size is critical in research or real-world settings. For example, if you’re trying to watch your weight and you’re out to dinner and you’re presented with a bowl of food, there’s no really good way to actually estimate how much you’re eating unless you’re gonna whip some scales out of your bag. So we wanted to find a more objective way for people to quantify what they’re eating when they’re out and about. I came up with a more hands-on approach. We got people to measure the dimensions of the food using the width of their fingers and remembering back to primary school maths. We use the geometric volume formulas to estimate the weight of the food. To show you how this works, I’ve ordered a piece of lasagne. And that’s my box, a glass of wine and that’s my cylinder. And I’m feeling pretty healthy, so I order some watermelon for dessert. And that’s my wedge. So this was I know it’s seven by five, by four fingers. In the future, I see this method be incorporated into smartphone applications. So you put your finger, it’s in along with your height and your weight. And the app will do all of the calculations for you. And then you’ve got a more accurate way to estimate the portion size.

15. Water on Mars

• In the past five years, the temperature of Mars has increased.

• The research conducted on the Mars indicates the prior existence of liquid water.

• The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate.

• Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.

16. Dogs tell growl apart:

• In this video, when a dog approaches some food, different snarls are played back.

• Sometimes a dog doesn’t stop from taking the bones when hearing the voices, in other cases, it will be deterred.

• Therefore, a dog can tell different growls.

17. Edmund Wilson

• This lecture talks about Wilson.

• He comes from a very different world and is the focal point an American culture.

• He believes that literature is a part of life for everyone as for conversation.

• In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary journalist.

18. Pavlov’s experiments with dogs:

• This lecture talks about a phenomenon— how brain works. It answers a very old question how motivation works.

• In an experiment, Pavlov studied a dog. When dog hear sounds, the salivation increases with the noise.

• This is an experiment that tries to reveal why brain works in this way.

19. UK’s expenditure in Education

• The UK spend approximately 1.08% of its total GDP in educational institution which is much lower than the OECD average, which is about 2.34%.

• UK’s educational expenditure is ranked at the bottom five among 20 OECD countries. This is at the same level of Italy and Mexico.

• Finland and Denmark invest the most in its educational institutions which is twice as much as that of UK.

20. Artificial intelligence

• Human brain is a symbol processor. People have been talking about symbolic representation of computers long before they were invented. Computers rely on analysing message into bits and bytes to work, which is just exactly like what human is doing.

• According to some assumptions mentioned by the speaker, computers have high potential to develop intelligence.

21. Course in Stanford University:

• The Stanford university held a speech which stressed the importance of management and leadership in business school.

• The education purpose is to learn management and leadership.

• Students should be responsible for their management performance.

• The responsibility means that the accomplishments achieved by others does not indicate what you are capable of.

22. Drug Advertisement on TV

Drug advertisement is shown on TV during prime time frequently.

The amount of money spent has doubled.

The information provided by the advertisement is technically correct, but the tone is misleading.

Drug may help patients to recover but life changes also have some effects.

23. Conditions for species to survive:

This lecture talks about the general conditions of how animals can survive and reproduce, how they maintain their bodies under water, how they tolerate different temperature and seasons, how they use their habitats, and how about their daily activities and behaviours. For example, if the specie is put into the fridge, it will die, which highlight the

24. Laugh as a therapy:

The speech is about benefits of laughing, especially in adversity.

People realized the importance of laughing a long time ago and there are different understandings about humour in different regions.

There were war jokes about the Berlin Wall spreading among east regions for 30 years during the second World War that could ease the harm of the war

As humour, laughing can help people get through bleak and boring time. As a therapy, laughing can effectively improve people’s self-respect and identity.

25. Coffee industry in Vietnam

The lecturer talks about the changes that have taken place in coffee production in Vietnam.

In the past 10 years the coffee production in Vietnam increased from 6 billion to 30 billion.

The huge demand in Europe and America has helped Vietnam to become the second largest coffee producer, which had a great impact on Colombia’s production.

The output in central America has significantly decreased and people are also going through changes in coffee drinking habits.

26. Public Tertiary Education expenditure in EU:

This lecture compares the public expenditure on tertiary education in European countries.

UK spent 1.4% of its GDP on tertiary education, which was insufficient compared to other European countries such as Finland, Denmark.

The spending of Spain is dose to that of the UK. Countries like Denmark and Finland spent much more than other European countries, which is about 2% of their GDP.

EU countries on average spend 4.6% of GDP on tertiary education.

27. Citizens well informed:

The western countries are democratic countries. But the government policies are often interpreted in a wrong way and mislead people.

But in some societies people are deliberately hidden from the truth.

Governments do all tricks in the book (not sure what does this mean) to cover their mistakes.

28. Minority languages die:

Globalization and urbanization have resulted in the disappearance of many languages.

Many small languages are disappearing at an unprecedented rate.

The reason is that as people are moving to urban areas they are influenced by the mainstream language and give up speaking their mother tones.

The ideal place for small languages to survive is in isolated areas.

29. Dimensions:

There is a PPT, on which are given five labels: 1-longitude, 2-latitude, 3-altitude,

4-time, 5-event: where/when

The number of variables used to specify a position. Use one number: longitude to define a location. This is called one dimension; Any location on Earth’s surface is described by two numbers–its latitude and its longitude. This is two dimension; Over the surface, we use three numbers: longitude, latitude, altitude (three dimension), In the space, we use four numbers: longitude, latitude, altitude, and time (four dimension)

Only in four dimensions, we can explain the space. where does it happen and when does it happen?

30. Environmental law:

The lecture is about environmental law. British government launched the environmental law in order to control the impact of humans on environment. The enforcement of environmental law was an aggressive regulation innovation which aimed to improve environment locally and globally. Companies applied the Adam Smith theory to increase their profitability. Managers were unsatisfied about environmental law because companies would pay more money to ensure the health of their employees under the environmental law, which made companies less competitive in the market.

31. Latin America Economic Growth:

This lecture mainly talks about the economic development in Latin America.

In the past 20 years, the Latin American economy grew about 80%.

However, after the globalization and reform, the growth rate slow down from 80% to 10%. Therefore, the speaker mentions the economy after reform become unsustainable.

And some people start to consider whether the reform is positive or negative for the economic development.

32. Business Entity:

The essence of business entity is exchange. You exchange your goods to other goods.

The goal of marketing is transfer products from suppliers to consumers to meet the demands of customers.

Capital gain is very important because only if by making profits, company would reinvest and produce more.

33. Population Growth Mega City

The lecture is about population growth and resource consumption from 1990 to 2000.

In 1900. the population was about 1.5 billion and it increased to 6 billion in 2000. The increase of energy consumption was much more significant which is increased by 16 folds. Due to the urbanisation, cities, which only account for 2% of the land, have 50% of the total population and consumes 75% of the resources.

At the end, the lecturer emphasizes that people not only use every resource on the planet but also produce tons of wastes.

34. Government Powers:

This lecture first states that the need to modify government power from federal to state level, which is a philosophical question.

Then it is followed by the disputes in the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. The Republican Party thinks the government should share its power with its states and people, while the Democratic Party claims that government should hold the strong power and entitlements.

35. General Biology:

Biology provides profound insights into the world around us. All creatures are related. Bacteria, butterfly, dolphin and elephant, they all are made of cells, and have same metabolism process. Also, they all based on similar DNA, RNA to transmit genetic inheritable information.

36. Aztec Cultures:

Cocoa was mainly used as a beverage during the time of Aztecs. Cocoa beans were used to make chocolate drinks and they were also used as a currency by Aztecs. The oily layer floating in the chocolate drink cocoa butter was used to protect skin against the sun. Cocoa had a religious significance for the Aztecs because they believed that cocoa trees were a bridge between earth and heaven.

37. Secret Life of Bees:

This lecture appears in summarize spoken text:

A novelist took a long detour in writing but she had no regret about it. The word ‘no art ever came out of not risking your neck’ said by Eudora Welty inspired the novelist and she first started writing when she was thirty years old in the early 90s. Later she finished the first chapter of her novel called The Secret Life of Bees.

38. Voynich Manuscript: Summary:

There are different theories proposed for voynich manuscript, some of which claims it is a hoax dated from the 15th century, whereas other people argue it teaches people how to make money. Mother group believes it is the encoded secrets which have not been revealed. The author suggests, however, the manuscript is genuine, a sort of human-devised script behind which is an Asian language other than European.

39. The first Robot:

• These robots are the first robots; they are characters in the play

• People think they are toys, initially, but in fact they were created after political turmoil, after the end of WW1.

• People are thinking about their meaning to human

• After all, they are assembled on production line and are designed to labor.

40. Industrial Revolution and regulation:

The notion of pragmatism and democracy had succeeded in tempering the market economy in developed countries. In the past. the Industrial Revolution had negative effects on the working class in terms of living standards, so legislations were set on working conditions to avoid worst consequences. Regulations were made in the 20th century to reverse damages so that benefits of the market economy are far widely shared than 100 years ago.

41. Drug safety:

Drugs have to be stored properly to discourage the access by children. Some people mistake drugs, causing allergy reaction and if the wrong dosage was

taken, drug resistance may develop. It is advised that physicians should stress the importance of taking the right drugs.

42. Interpreters and Translators:

The lecture compared and contrasted the similarities and differences between interpreters and translators. Firstly, translators have to translate written texts whereas interpreters deal with verbal communication. Secondly, translators are required to write comprehensively in the foreign language, but interpreters have to speak both languages professionally. Lastly, qualification and experience requirements are different.

43. Urbanisation:

The lecture accentuates the dynamic associated with urbanization as development. The progress of cities demands more people which is only attainable when the productivity of the countryside increases dramatically. The decreased need for labouring in the countryside as a result of increased productivity compels people to move to cities, search jobs and provide the labour force to the market.

44. Why not burn coal/soot emission:

• Soot is black, and is second to CO2 in terms of warming.

• Its lifetime is shorter, so if we reduce soot, we can make changes in months.

• The amount of warming from soot is about one quarter from CO2

• There will be immediate effects in reducing warming in areas where soot emissions were large.

45. Decline of species:

Main points:

• There are various conclusions. The decline of bees is well-documented by scientific evidence.

• The drivers are many and dependent on species. The pollinator loss is catastrophic

• However, the positive side is that people are aware of this issue and are taking actions.

The apparent conclusion of the decline of bees is well-documented by strong scientific evidence, the cause of which is various and dependent on individual species. Although the pollinator loss is huge and catastrophic as predicted, the positive side is that people are aware of this issue and are taking actions firmly.

46. Faults and earthquakes:

Main points:

• The lecture is described as the relationship between faults and earthquake.

• Faults are breaks in the earth crust.

• Earthquake occurs on the faults, starts at the particular point on the faults plane and we call that the focus of the earthquake.

• The epicentre is just the surface projection of the focus of the earthquake, which is just a point vertically above the focus at the surface of the earth.

47. Food and income in Africa: Main points:

• Wildlife is important for people’s livelihood, especially fish.

• Billions of people in the world rely on fish as their main food source, the source of protein, and source of income.

• As food source, fish is beneficial to health. as a source of income, it alleviates poverty.

• It is expected that fish industry will become the prime source of foreign income because it attracts tourists

48. Political Words: Main points:

• The Socialism was born in 1880s and the Communism was originated in 1840s, which became as ideologies after the French Revolution.

• The words political left and political right were originated from the French Revolution.

• Political left is more aggressive while political right tends to be more conservative to the old regime.

49. Prevention of epidemic transmitting: Main points:

• In the developed world, like the United States, it uses various methods to prevent epidemic transmission with a wide range of resources such as invention of antiviral drugs and vaccines and health management.

• However, epidemic prevention can be a big challenge for some less developed countries since they do not have the same level of resources as rich countries do.

50. Risks and safety:

The lecture focuses on the literal definition of risk and safety. Two parts of the definition of risk include consequences of some kind of dangers, and possibilities of loss, whereas the definition of safe, though involves a circular argument, is free from harm, which is an absolute notion being either safe or not safe.

51. Using science to solve problems: Suggested sample answer:

At CBAN, it addresses water purification and human health issues across the globe via individual and collaborative research. The key focus of the lecture is water problem, such as lack of access to clean water in the developing world and potential problems in getting tap water with rising energy cost. It is advised that nanotechnology could be a promising technology to tackle these challenges.

52. Climate change: Suggested sample answer:

The lecturer mainly talked about climate change as its effects were becoming obvious worldwide. Despite the fact that population bomb theory did not become a reality, which states that the growth of population would outpace agriculture production and will cause catastrophe, we cannot ignore the convincing scientific evidence of the changing climate, as the warmest years of records have been in past few years.

53. Space time: Main points

• If we want to talk about relativity, we have to talk about space-time.

• Space-time is the four dimensional world we live in 3. We need four numbers to specify a point in space.

• Also, the four dimensional world is the arena of physics. everything happens physically in space-time.

54. Productivity and cost: Main points:

• Productivity is the number of output per unit.

• Cost per item is the unit cost.

• Prices dropped dramatically during the manufacturing process.

• In particular, for computers, the average prices dropped so dramatically because of the revolution we have.

55. Visual arts and WWII

Main points:

• The author was born from the Island or Moreton

• He learnt to write letters about WWII and how to ask visual questions. which gives him more clues about the War.

• For example, he asked about his mother what does the shelter look like. His mother depicts the details, then he would draw into pictures.

56. Wilson in American Literature Main points:

• This lecture talks about Wilson.

• He comes from a very different world and is the focal point a American culture.

• He is a major player in his generation to equate innovative culture to great culture of Europe.

• He believes that literature is a part of life for everyone as for conversation.

• He is a various man. In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary journalist, investigative reporter.

57. Linguistic and language authority: Main points:
• With linguistic training, we can be authorities of a chosen subject.

• But when working with communities, it is communities that have to be their own authority of language. We don’t have the authority.

• Language are lost because of the dominance of one group over another.

• If we want to work towards language revival, we cannot continue to hold authority.

58. Bilingual in raising children: Main points:

• Lots of people are concerned about raising children bilingually because they think brain is monolingual

• They also think that children will be confused if they hear two languages

• So my advice is one parent speak one language so that children can easily associate with that language.

• Theory also told us that speaking two languages at the same time. child will be not being able to separate the languages.

59. Myth between economic growth and human welfare:

Main points:

• The rich countries have reached a turning point in last few decades,

• we can call it the great transformation in past 200 years.

• In the early stages, they are good for human welfare. The economic growth is good for human welfare.

• However, the Western countries are in the late stages. The increase in the economic growth does not necessarily increases human welfare.

60. What forms clouds: Main points:

• Every cloud drop is a particle

• At sea, sea-spray, sea-salt are forming clouds

• But when you go inland, different sources form clouds more effective than others

• They reflect the light back to space, so keeping things much cooler

• 5. Also when more pollution is putting into the cloud, it affects weather pattern

61. Frog deformity (RL)

frog with normal limbs. frog with limb deformities.
frog with limb deformities in some locations

Main points:

• It is discovered that many parts of America, frogs have wrong numbers of limbs, that is either missing limbs or with extra limbs

• This phenomenon is pretty easy to find but it is a lethal condition.

• Many of these happened in the public drinking water, so that there are many public health issues to be explored.

62. 100 CEOs:

Main points of real test:

• There is a survey with 100 CEO, who has been through acquisition and merger, about which area of activity should contribute most effort

• Most of the responses say it is Information Technology, because it is the most time consuming and needed most of the work. The key is how quickly IT integration can be achieved, and clear understanding of consequences if it not done correctly.

• Other two aspects should be worked on are marketing and of sales and financial management. Both of them are selected by 49% of respond.

and their basic chemistry is all very similar as well. (66 words)

64. Genes in 500 years Main points of real test:
• The DNA in the picture has two lines, and genes provide protein

• Each cell has two million proteins. but we cannot conclude which cells perform what type of functions.

• Development of genes shows genetic difference on cognitive ability between present and ancestor. It also highlighted only a small number of genes are different between present and people from 5000 years ago.

• The way of modern people 92 is no difference with our ancestors in half million years ago. because the genes didn’t change much.

65. Monitor underwater fish (RL)

Main points of real test:

ANTARES is a type of remote monitoring technology.

A camera is placed in a cage and the cage is put underwater.

It observes fish reaction underwater without having to physically be there; monitor the environment change underwater. the water temperature and the water quality.

Also, the camera can monitor how the fish underwater react to the feeding and help people to change the feeding strategy when fish do not react positively.

66. Mr. Green-Amory Lovins (SST) Main point of real test:

Amory Lovins is an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge. but he is not an academic person. He has a consulting company and lives in a house which is built in the mountain. He has thought and used a lot of ways to save energy and solve problems with existing technologies for 30 years. People tend to regard him as genius and crazy Mr. Green

67. HTML

When90’s comes around, more and more people could get online.

Thanks to UK, the invention of HTML allowed people to create a wide variety of works.

During the first decade, people created things like web pages and lessons without fears, religion, motivation or profitability

Because people can feel a sense of enjoyment through their creation

68. Vitamin D

Vitamin D is, in fact, a kind of hormone which can be ingested from dietary.

It is not necessary to ingest Vitamin D via food only if it can be sufficiently absorbed from sunshine.

However, people have been migrating from the equator to other places where they need to put clothes on.

Therefore, more Vitamin D via food is needed now as people’s skin are less exposed to sunshine.



Answer Short Questions

1. In medical terms, are antibodies harmful or beneficial for patients?

[Beneficial]

2. Simplest and smallest form of plant life, present in air, water and soil; essential to life but may cause disease? [Bacteria]

3. How do you call a student that has finished his first year? [Sophomore]

4. How many extra days in February in a leap year? [One]

5. What is the collection of pictures called? [Album]

6. What attitude would you have when you are in a job interview, enthusiastic or passive? [Enthusiastic]

7. What is the item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot?

[Shoes]

8. What is the red liquid that flows through a body? [Blood]

9. What electronic device wakes you up in the morning? [Alarm clock]

10. What is the table that lists chemical elements in order to atomic numbers in rows and columns? [Periodic table]

11. If you want to buy a ring, who do you approach, a jeweller or pharmacist? —

[Jeweller]

12. What stage is a ten-year old child in? — [Teenage]

13. What is the correlation with cause? — [Effect]

14. What do bees collect from flowers? — [Pollen]

15. What does human and animal skeleton consist of? — [Bone]

16. What device do you use to measure your weight? — [Scale]

17. What are the people who study history and historical evidence? —

[Historian]

18. What fruit is used in a winery? — [Grapes]

19. How do we describe a person who is educated? — [Literate]

20. After a busy working day, what do you feel, exhausted or excited? —

[Exhausted]

21. What do we call the science that are concerned about the study of earth materials and nutrients, geology or geography? – [Geology]

22. In which subject can you learn the tellurian? — [Geography]

23. What do we call the person who kills animals and sells their flesh, butcher or barber? — [Butcher]

24. What do we call a great lover of books? – [Bookworm/Bibliophile]

25. A fishes where fishes are kept. [Aquarium]

26. What do you call system of government where people vote for people?

[Democracy]

27. What do we call a period of 10 years? [Decade]

28. What is the economic sector that deals with farming? [Agriculture]

29. What key mineral makes sea water different from freshwater? [Salt]

30. A specialist who repairs leaking water pipes is called as? [Plumber]

31. Which sweet food bees produce? [Honey]

32. What do you call a sleep that is enjoyed in the afternoon. Siesta or Nap?

[Siesta]

33. What is the string or lace for fastening the shoes usually called? [Shoe lace]

34. Name the month that falls between September and November? [October]

35. Where do you pay for your purchases at a supermarket? [checkout]

36. What do you call an apartment that is below ground level: a basement apartment or a penthouse [Basement apartment]

37. What feature do pianos and computers have in common? [Keyboard]

38. If you are feeling fed up, is it a positive or negative feeling? [Negative feeling]

39. What kind of medal is awarded to the winner in a race? [Gold]

40. What do we call it when the Moon completely blocks out the light from the Sun? [A Solar Eclipse]

41. What word describes moving a program or other material from a website to your computer? [Downloading]

42. What are the things that ‘hens lay’ called? [Eggs]

43. What appliance uses electromagnetic waves to heat food in the kitchen?

[Microwave]

44. What crime has someone stealing items from a shop committed: shop fitting or shoplifting? [shoplifting]

45. KM and KG, which is to measure length/distance? [Km]

46. Who is the person in charge of a football match? [Referee]

47. What do we call the last game in a sporting competition, which decide the champion? [Finals]

48. What is the general term of paintings of the countryside or natural views?

[Landscape]

49. Which of these would probably be found in an office: a printer, a blanket or a nail brush? [a printer]

50. Where would you store meat you wish to keep frozen at home? [Freezer]

51. What type of shape has four corners, four lines that are equal in length?

[Square]

52. Who cuts men’s hair? [Barber]

53. What piece of equipment would you use to go diving in the sea, an aqualung or an aquaplane? [aqualung]

54. Where would you go to work out on a treadmill? [Gym]

55. What is more fuel-efficient, car or truck? [Car]

56. Which hospital department would you go to for an x-ray: radiology or cardiology? [Radiology]

57. Where would you go to see an exhibition of sculpture? [Art gallery/Museum]

58. How does a bird fly? [With wings]

59. If you forget the way what will you buy to find your destination? [A map]

60. What do you call a system of government in which people vote for the people who will represent them? [Democracy]

61. There are two types of sporting contests: one is amateur; and other is ___?

[Professional]

62. What do you call the document that gives details about your qualifications and work experience? [Resume]

63. How would you describe an economy based largely on farming?

[Agricultural]

64. What is the study of stars and planets called? [Astronomy]

65. What do vegans eat? [vegetables]

66. What instrument would you use to examine very small objects or life forms?

[Microscope]

67. How do you call the tower containing a beacon light to warn or guide ships at sea? [Lighthouse]

68. What is the name for the huge natural body that orbits the sun? [A planet]

69. Who specialises in the study of psychological effect of words?

[Psychologist]

70. Who specialises in the study of earth and its composition? [Geologist]

71. What emergency service is usually called when someone is in trouble at sea?

[Coastguard]

72. Vegetables that are grown naturally without fertilizers are known as what?

[Organic]

73. A list of books representing some scholarly work for reference.

[Bibliography]

74. What organ do cardiologists specialize in? [Heart]

75. What is piece of paper with official information written on it? [Document]

76. What material is the tire made of? [Rubber]

77. What do you call the number of people living in a specific area?

[Population]

78. How many hemispheres does the earth have? [2]

79. What are the people that plant food, raise crop are commonly known as?

[Farmers]

80. A business doesn’t want to make a loss – what does it want to make?

[Profit/Profits]

81. What piece of equipment shows a person what direction they are traveling?

[Compass]

82. What piece of equipment would you use for floating on the sea?

[Aquaplane]

83. What organ controls your speech, feelings, body movement and thoughts?

[Brain]

84. How do you describe the line that segment a circle? [Chord]

85. What kind of punishment is less severe, an imprisonment or community service? [Community service]

86. Where would you most likely go to buy some flour; a bakery, a florist or a supermarket? [Supermarket]

87. In the animal kingdom, the purpose of camouflage to attract a mate, to find food or to hide? [To hide]

88. What do you call an apartment that is below ground level? [Basement apartment]

89. One who is having a lot of fat. [Obesity]

90. What do you call a person who does not believe in the existence of god.

[Atheist]

91. How many months in a year? [12]

92. What do you call a tank where fish or water plants are kept. [Aquarium]

93. What is the shape of an egg? [Oval]

94. What do you call two children born at same time? [Twins]

95. What do you call which is subject to death? [Mortal]

96. What does it means by fortnight? [14 days]

97. What term is used for the amount of money we owe, asset or debt? [Debt]

98. What do you call a person coming to a foreign land to settle there?

[Immigrant]

99. What planet do we live in? [EARTH]

100. If one’s response is simultaneous, quick or slow? [Slow]

101. What type of plant is mint? [Herb]

102. Which Animal is not a mammal? Butterfly, dolphin or Goat? [Butterfly]

103. Would you measure the volume of bottle water in litres or Kilos? [Litres]

104. What do you call tax on goods produced and used in a country? [Excise

tax]

105. What do you call a government where the power is concentrated in the hands of one person? [Autocracy]

106. Where do you normally watch a play? [Theatre]

107. What is the name of device of computer having named the same to that of an animal? [Mouse]

108. What do you call the document that gives details about your qualification and work experience? [Curriculum Vitae/Resume]

109. What do you call long depression in the surface of the land that usually contains a river is called? [Valley]

110. At what ceremony, the students receive their degree or diploma at end of their study? [Graduation day/Convocation]

111. What’s the joint called where your hand is connected to your arm? [Wrist]

112. Which instrument is used for viewing objects at a distance. [Telescope]

113. What kind of food is an apple/mango? [Fruit]

114. “We went to the market” how do you understand it is a past sentence?

[Went]

115. What do we call the piece of paper that proves you have bought the item?

[Receipt]

116. If you invented something, what can you apply for to prevent others copying your invention. [Patent]

117. Which would be better to report the population of a major global city – hundred, millions or billions? [Millions]

118. A man dances to the tunes of his wife? [Henpecked]

119. What do you call the middle of something? [Centre]

120. Whose job is it to treat people that are ill or have an injury at a hospital?

[Doctor]

121. What kind of book is written by a person about their own life?

[Autobiography]

122. What century are we living in now? [THE 21ST CENTURY]

123. What is the payment of a student’s education by an organization called?

[Scholarship]

124. What is the main harmful content in a cigarette? [ NICOTINE]

125. Literary theft or passing off an author’s original work as one’s own.

[Plagiarism]

126. One who attends to sick people and prescribe medicines. [Physician]

127. What is someone that can’t see called? [Blind]

128. What is a violent conflict between two or more countries? [ War]

129. What is paper made from? [Wood]

130. Which kind of book can we find Africa maps? [Atlas]

131. What is the opposite to ‘still’? [MOVING/ACTIVE]

132. The property which a new wife brings to her husband. [Dowry]

133. Do scapegoats escape or undertake the crime? [Undertake]

134. What is 3 quarters of 100%? [75%]

135. If a button has come off a shirt, what would someone most likely use to put it back on? [A needle and thread]

136. On what geographical location would someone be living if their country is surrounded by water on all side? [An island]

137. A nursery where children are cared for while their parents are at work.

[Creche]

138. What does the letter ‘C’ represents for? [Copyright]

139. A list of headings of the business to be transacted at a meeting. [Agenda]

140. Historians use evidence to conclude the past, would a contemporary artist’s painting of an ancient battle be an original source or secondary source?
[Secondary source]

141. A place where birds are kept – aquarium or aviary. [Aviary]

142. Extreme fear from strangers. [Xenophobia]

143. One who is recovering from illness. [Convalescent]

144. To crossover from one side of the wide river to another without using boat, what is usually required? [A bridge]

145. What do you call a person who is active, lively and enjoys the company of others. [Extrovert]

146. What is the process of teaching and learning called? [Education]

147. If a species is described as venomous, what substance it has? [Toxin]

148. Which part of your leg can make it possible to bend? [Knee]

149. Oral English is different from academic English. Which is the best term to describe academic English? Tolerant or Rigorous. [Rigorous]

150. Which one has more interactions between teachers and students, a lecture or a tutorial? [Tutorial]

151. How do you call a public sale in which goods or property are sold to the highest price offered? [Auction]

152. What do meter and millimetre measure, height or length? [Length]

153. What is the force happened between the relative motion when objects are rubbed against each other? [Friction]

154. Which of the following is not a means of transportation: plane, public transportation or car model? [Car model]

155. What is the book that you cannot borrowed from library? [Reserved

Book]

156. Which objects can be put into a handbag, a bicycle or a book? [A book]

157. Which of these would probably be found in most homes around the world, a computer, a bed or a TV? [A Bed]

158. Which section of newspaper gives the editor an opinion? [Editorial]

159. What instrument used to examine very small thing? [Microscope]

160. What is the destructive program that spread from computer to computer?

[Virus]

161. What clothes are used to hike mountains and are used to keep dry?

[Outdoor jacket/Jacket]

162. What is the document you submit before you submit your assignment at university? [Proposal]

163. If a car is not stopping, what is it doing? [Running]

164. What kind of food that vegetarians do not eat? [meat]

165. What is the hard object in the centre of peaches, apples and pears?

[Stone/Pit/Core]

166. Which one is more widespread, Korean, Thai or Hindi? [Hindi]

167. Which country’s language is more widespread, Japanese North Korea or India? [Indian]

168. What kind of liquid do mammals feed their children? [Milk]

169. Tomorrow’s lecture is cancelled. if today is Tuesday then on which day was the lecture cancelled? [Wednesday]

170. How do we call that animals and pants preserved in the rocks? [Fossils]

171. How do you call the diagram which includes a horizontal line called X-axis and a vertical line called Y-axis? [Coordinate system]

172. What is the hardest part of your hand? [Nails]

173. What kind of thing can play the role of protection that orange and bananas all have? [Pell]

174. Can you find alligators in a swamp or a lake? [A swamp]

175. What device can be used to take photos? [Camera]

176. How do you describe the money that citizens must contribute to the government for public use? [Tax]

177. Skeleton is made of what kind of material? [Bones]

178. Why are bees very important to agriculture? [Pollination/Polliating]

179. What do bees collect from flowers? [Pollen]

180. what stage is a ten-year old child in? [Adolescence]

181. What is correlation with a cause? [Effect]



 

Summarize Written Text

1.

Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level – productivity, creativity, engagement – improves. Yet happiness is perhaps the most misunderstood driver of performance. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness. “Once I get a promotion, I’ll be happy,” they think. Or, “Once I hit my sales target, I’ll feel great.” But because success is a moving target – as soon as you hit your target, you raise it again, the happiness that results from success is fleeting. In fact, it works the other way around: People who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of challenge. I call this the “happiness advantage” – every business outcome shows improvement when the brain is positive. I’ve observed this effect in my role as a researcher and lecturer in 48 countries on the connection between employee happiness and success. And I’m not alone: In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers Sonja Lyubomirsky, Laura King, and Ed Diener found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes. Another common misconception is that our genetics, our environment, or a combination of the two determines how happy we are. To be sure, both factors have an impact. But one’s general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. The habits you cultivate, the way you interact with coworkers, how you think about stress – all these can be managed to increase your happiness and your chances of success.

2.

Ethics is a set of moral obligations that define right and wrong in our practices and decisions. Many professions have a formalized system of ethical practices that help guide professionals in the field. For example, doctors commonly take the Hippocratic Oath, which, among other things, states that doctors “do no harm” to their patients. Engineers follow an ethical guide that states that they “hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.” Within these professions, as well as within science, the principles become so ingrained that practitioners rarely have to think about adhering to the ethic – it’s part of the way they practice. And a breach of ethics is considered very serious, punishable at least within the profession (by revocation of a license, for example) and sometimes by the law as well. Scientific ethics calls for honesty and integrity in all stages of scientific practice, from reporting results regardless to properly attributing collaborators. This system of ethics guides the practice of science, from data collection to publication and beyond. As in other professions, the scientific ethic is deeply integrated into the way scientists work, and they are aware that the reliability of their work and scientific knowledge in general depends upon adhering to that ethic. Many of the ethical principles in science relate to the production of unbiased scientific knowledge, which is critical when others try to build upon or extend research findings. The open publication of data, peer review, replication, and collaboration required by the scientific ethic

all help to keep science moving forward by validating research findings and confirming or raising questions about results.

3.

Working nine to five for a single employer bears little resemblance to the way a substantial share of the workforce makes a living today. Millions of people assemble various income streams and work independently, rather than in structured payroll jobs. This is hardly a new phenomenon, yet it has never been well measured in official statistics and the resulting data gaps prevent a clear view of a large share of labor-market activity. To better understand the independent workforce and what motivates the people who participate in it, the McKinsey Global Institute surveyed some 8,000 respondents across Europe and the United States. We asked about their income in the past 12 months-encompassing primary work, as well as any other income-generating activities, and about their professional satisfaction and aspirations for work in the future. The resulting report, Independent work: Choice, necessity, and the gig economy, finds that up to 162 million people in Europe and the United States-or 20 to 30 percent of the working-age population – engage in some form of independent work. While demographically diverse, independent workers largely fit into four segments (exhibit): free agents, who actively choose independent work and derive their primary income from it; casual earners, who use independent work for supplemental income and do so by choice; reluctants, who make their primary living from independent work but would prefer traditional jobs; and the financially strapped, who do supplemental independent work out of necessity.

4.

A day would come, Percy Shelley predicted in 1813, when “the monopolizing eater of animal flesh would no longer destroy his constitution by eating an acre at a meal”. He explained: “The quantity of nutritious vegetable matter consumed in fattening the carcass of an ox would afford 10 times the sustenance if gathered immediately from the bosom of the earth.” Two hundred years later, mainstream agronomists and dietitians have caught up with the poet. A growing scientific consensus agrees that feeding cereals and beans to animals is an inefficient and extravagant way to produce human food, that there is a limited amount of grazing land, that the world will be hard-pressed to supply a predicted population of 9 billion people with a diet as rich in meat as the industrialized world currently enjoys, and that it’s not a very healthy diet anyway. On top of this, livestock contribute significantly towards global warming, generating 14.5% of all manmade greenhouse gas emissions, according to one much -quoted estimate from the United Nations. Now that the problem has been identified, the challenge is to persuade people in wealthy countries to eat less meat. That might seem a tall order, but governments have successfully persuaded people to quit smoking through a combination of public information, regulation and taxation.

5.

Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms among themselves and with their environment. It seeks to understand patterns in nature (e.g., the spatial and temporal distribution of organisms) and the processes governing those patterns. Climatology is the study of the physical state of the atmosphere – its instantaneous state or weather, its seasonal -to-interannual variability, its long-term average condition or climate, and how climate changes over time. These two fields of scientific study are distinctly different. Ecology is a discipline within the biological sciences and has as its core the principle of natural selection. Climatology is a discipline within the geophysical sciences based on applied physics and fluid dynamics. Both, however, share a common history.

The origin of these sciences is attributed to Aristotle and Theophrastus and their books Meteorological and Enquiry into Plants, respectively, but their modern beginnings trace back to natural history and plant geography. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century naturalists and geographers saw changes in vegetation as they explored new regions and laid the foundation for the development of ecology and climatology as they sought explanations for these geographic patterns. Alexander von Humboldt, in the early 1800s, observed that widely separated regions have structurally and functionally similar vegetation if their climates are similar. Alphonse de Candolle hypothesized that latitudinal zones of tropical, temperate, and arctic vegetation are caused by temperature and in 1874 proposed formal vegetation zones with associated temperature limits.

6.

Over the years, language teachers have alternated between favoring teaching approaches that focus primarily on language use and those that focus on language forms or analysis. The alternation has been due to a fundamental disagreement concerning whether one learns to communicate in a second language by communicating in that language (such as in an immersion experience) or whether one learns to communicate in a second language by learning the lexicogrammar – the words and grammatical structures – of the target language. In other words, the argument has been about two different means of achieving the same end.

As with any enduring controversy, the matter is not easily resolved. For one thing, there is evidence to support both points of view. It is not uncommon to find learners who, for whatever reason, find themselves in a new country or a new region of their own country, who need to learn a new language, and who do so without the benefit of formal instruction. If they are postpubescent, they may well retain an accent of some kind, but they can pick up enough language to satisfy their communicative needs. In fact, some are natural acquirers who become highly proficient in this manner. In contrast, there are learners whose entire exposure to the new language comes in the form of classroom instruction in lexicogrammar. Yet they too achieve a measure of communicative proficiency, and certain of these learners become highly proficient as well. What we can infer

from this is that humans are amazingly versatile learners and that some people have a natural aptitude for acquiring languages and will succeed no matter what the circumstances.

7.

On October 12, 1492 (the first day he encountered the native people of the Americas), Columbus wrote in his journal: They should be good servants. I, our Lord being pleased, will take hence, at the time of my departure, six natives for your Highnesses. These captives were later paraded through the streets of Barcelona and Seville when Columbus returned to Spain.From his very first contact with native people, Columbus had their domination in mind. For example, on October 14, 1492, Columbus wrote in his journal,with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them. These were not mere words: after his second voyage, Columbus sent back a consignment of natives to be sold as slaves.Yet in an April, 1493, letter to Luis de Santangel (a patron who helped fund the first voyage), Columbus made clear that the people he encountered had done nothing to deserve ill treatment.

8.

To bring fresh water to the city, his hydraulic engineer, Eugène Belgrand, built a new aqueduct to bring clean water from the Vanne River in Champagne, and a new huge reservoir near the future Parc Montsouris. These two works increased the water supply of Paris from 87,000 to 400,000 cubic metres of water a day. He laid hundreds of kilometres of pipes to distribute the water throughout the city, and built a second network, using the less-clean water from the Ourq and the Seine, to wash the streets and water the new park and gardens. The population of Paris had doubled since 1815, with no increase in its area. To accommodate the growing population and those who would be forced from the centre by the new boulevards and squares Napoleon III planned to build, he issued a decree annexing eleven surrounding communes, and increasing the number of arrondissements from twelve to twenty, which enlarged the city to its modern boundaries. Beginning in 1854, in the centre of the city, Haussmann’s workers tore down hundreds of old buildings and cut eighty kilometres of new avenues, connecting the central points of the city. Buildings along these avenues were required to be the same height and in a similar style, and to be faced with cream-coloured stone, creating the signature look of Paris boulevards. Napoleon

III also wanted to build new parks and gardens for the recreation and relaxation of the Parisians, particularly those in the new neighbourhoods of the expanding city,] Napoleon Ill’s new parks were inspired by his memories of the parks in London, especially Hyde Park, where he had strolled and promenaded in a carriage while in exile; but he wanted to build on a much larger scale. Working with Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand, the engineer who headed the new Service of Promenades and Plantations, he laid out a plan for four major parks at the cardinal points of the compass around the city. Thousands of workers and gardeners began to dig lakes, build cascades, plant lawns, flowerbeds and trees,

construct chalets and grottoes. Napoleon III created the Bois de Boulogne (1852-1858) to the west of Paris: The Bois de Vincennes (1860-1865) to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (1865-1867) to the north, and Parc Montsouris (1865-1878) to the south.

9.

The worldwide population of wild giant pandas increased by 268 over the last decade according to a new survey conducted by the government of China. The increase in population brings the total number of wild giant pandas to 1864. The population increase represents 16.8% rise compared to the last panda survey in 2003. Wild giant pandas, a global symbol of wildlife conservation, are found only in China’s Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu provinces.

According to the report, formally known as the Fourth National Giant Panda Survey, the geographic range of pandas throughout China also increased. The total area inhabited by wild giant pandas in China now equals 2,577,000 hectares, an expansion of 11.8% since 2003.

“These results are a testament to the conservation achievements of the Chinese government,” said Xiaohai Liu, executive director of programs, WWF- China. “A lot of good work is being done around wild giant panda conservation, and the government has done well to integrate these efforts and partner with conversation organizations including WWF.

The report, the fourth in a series of decadal (10- year) surveys conducted by the State Forestry Administration of China, began in 2011 with financial and technical support from WWF. Much of the success in increasing the panda population comes as a result of conservation policies implemented by the Chinese government, including the Natural Forest Protection Project and Grain for Green.

The report found that 1,246 wild giant pandas live within nature reserves, accounting for 66.8% of the total wild population, and the habitat within nature reserves accounts for 53.8% of the total habitat area. There are currently 67 panda nature reserves in China, an increase of 27 since the last report.

10.

In a study conducted in Tubingen, Germany, chess experts and novices were shown geometric objects and chess positions and were later asked to identify each one of them. Their reaction times and brain activity closely monitored with the use of functional MRI scans. On the first part, which was recognizing the geometric objects, results reveal that the subjects’ performance didn’t show any dissimilarities, which implied that the experts’ visualization skills are no better than the amateurs’. However, during the identification of the chess position, the experts were seen to have performance significantly faster and better.

As the researchers geared toward an element of a study previously conducted on pattern and object recognition by the chess experts, they had anticipated to

notice areas of the left hemisphere of the experts’ brains (involved in object recognition) to be more reactive when they performed the tasks. However, the reaction times of the subjects were virtually identical. The very thing that sets the experts apart from the amateurs is that the former’s right brain hemispheres (involved in pattern recognition) were to seen to have also lit up during the activity. Therefore, both sides of the experts’ brains were active, processing information in two places simultaneously. The researchers added that when they showed the chess diagrams to the subjects, they observed that the amateur relied on looking at the pieces intently to be able to recognize them, whereas the experts merely relied on their peripheral vision and looked across the boards.

11.

Scientists have worked for many years to unravel the complex workings of the brain. Their research efforts have greatly improved our understanding of brain function. During the past decade alone, scientific and technical progress in all fields of brain research has been astonishing. Using new imaging techniques, scientists can visualize the human brain in action. Images produced by these techniques have defined brain regions responsible for attention, memory, and emotion. A series of discoveries (in multiple fields of study) has displaced the long-standing assumption that brain cells are stable and unchanging. Amazingly, new findings show that some adult brain cells can divide and grow! In addition, advances in research are allowing scientists to analyze and make progress toward understanding the causes of inherited brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Taken together, these discoveries provide hope for the recovery of nervous system function lost through injury or disease. Despite these and other significant advances in the field of brain research, most of the processes responsible for the integrated functioning of billions of brain cells remain a mystery. Research on the brain in the new millennium is crucial to our effort to come to a complete understanding of this fascinating organ. In turn, improved understanding makes the development of new treatment options possible. Research continues to bring new insights into how the brain is put together, how it works, and whether damage to the brain can be reversed.

12.

Their trade networks made the Phoenicians rich but also enabled cultural exchange and transfer between East and West in an unprecedented way: the most significant was the spread of the alphabetic script which was adopted all over the Mediterranean.

The Phoenician alphabet is a writing system consisting of only 22 signs representing exactly one sound (phoneme) each. The term “alphabet” derives from the names of the first two signs in the sequence, aleph (“cattle”) and beit(“house”): these names also reflect the letters’ shapes, each derived from the picture of an object whose name starts with the relevant sound.

The alphabetic script is simple enough to learn quickly, without the years of dedicated training required to master writing systems such as cuneiform or Egyptian hieroglyphs. Specialised schooling was unnecessary, and literacy was therefore disengaged from the institutional context of palaces and temples where the traditional scripts continued to be used. The alphabet suited the needs of long-distance merchants who needed to be able to record their business affairs on the go and who, for reasons of confidentiality and money, often preferred to write themselves rather than employ a specialist scribe. As the script could easily be used to record any language, it was, in the course of the first millennium BC, adapted for Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, Phrygian, Lydian, Etruscan and Latin, to name but a few.

13.

Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the ‘coffee experience’ has become a staple of our modern life and culture. While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee consumption on human health has been contradictory, a study in the June issue of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, which is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), found that the potential benefits of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health outcomes considered. Researchers at Ulster University systematically reviewed 1,277 studies from 1970 to-date on coffee’s effect on human health and found the general scientific consensus is that regular, moderate coffee drinking (defined as 3-4 cups per day) essentially has a neutral effect on health, or can be mildly beneficial. The authors noted causality of risks and benefits cannot be established for either with the research currently available as they are largely based on observational data. Further research is needed to quantify the risk-benefit balance for coffee consumption, as well as identify which of coffee’s many active ingredients, or indeed the combination of such, that could be inducing these health benefits.

14.

Life expediencies have been rising by up to three months a year since 1840, and there is no sign of that flattening. Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott draw on a 2009 study to show that if the trend continues, more than half the babies born in wealthier countries since 2000 may reach their 100th birthdays. With a few simple, devastating strokes, Gratton and Scott show that under the current system it is almost certain you won’t be able to save enough to fund several decades of decent retirement. For example, if your life expectancy is 100, you want a pension that is 50percent of your final salary, and you save 10 percent of your earnings each year, they calculate that you won’t be able to retire till your 80s. People with 100 -year life expediencies must recognize they are in for the long haul, and make an early start arranging their lives accordingly.But how to go about this? Gratton and Scott advance the idea of a multistage life, with repeated changes of direction and attention. Material and intangible assets will

need upkeep, renewal or replacement. Skills will need updating, augmenting or discarding, as will networks of friends and acquaintances. Earning will be interspersed with learning or self-reflection. As the authors warn, recreation will have to become re-creation.

15.

The English have the reputation of being a nation of tea drinkers, but this wasn’t always the case. By the end of the 17th century, the English were the biggest coffee drinkers in the Western world, and coffee houses became the places to be seen. As well as gossip, you could pick up talk of the latest intellectual developments in science, politics, and so on, in this age of scientific discovery and progress. At first coffee houses were very basic; a room with a bar at one end and a few plain tables and chairs. Customers paid a penny for a bowl — not a cup — of coffee. A polite young woman was usually in charge of the bar because it was thought her presence would ensure that the customers didn’t use bad language or cause any trouble. An added attraction was that coffee houses provided free newspapers and journals.

But people didn’t go to the coffee houses just to drink coffee. They went to talk. They soon developed from simple cafes, where anyone with a penny could go for a drink and a chat, into clubs. People started to go to coffee houses where they would find other people who had the same jobs or who shared their interests and ideas, to talk and conduct business.

The great popularity of coffee houses lasted about a hundred years. In the later 18th century, increased trade with other countries made such luxuries as coffee cheaper and more easily available to the ordinary person. As a result, people started to drink it at home. Also at this time more tea was imported from abroad, and the century of the coffee house was replaced by the domestic tea-party as the typical English social occasion.

16.

For those political analysts whose main interest remains class divisions in society the biggest split these days is that between those who control and work with informational technology (IT) and those we might still call blue-collar workers. The old divisions of class have become a lot more difficult to apply, if not completely outdated. There’s no escaping the enormous impact of information technology in the late 20th and, even more, the early 21st centuries, both economically and socially.

During the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, the spirit of experiment was in the air, and those involved were practical people working to practical ends — often on their own or with a small group of trusted friends. Secrecy was important as there was money to be made in new inventions.

What interested them were results, not theories. Most modern technological advances, however, were developed as theories first, and then made reality by

large teams of scientists and experts in the field. What we have now is that more and more of this type of expertise is being used to analyse and find solutions to all kinds of business and social problems, thus creating — in the eyes of the political analysts mentioned above — a whole large new economic and social class.

17.

As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.

The analysis of building types provides an insight into past cultures and eras. Behind each of the greater styles lies not a casual trend nor a vogue, but a period of serious and urgent experimentation directed toward answering the needs of a specific way of life. Climate, methods of labor, available materials, and economy of means all impose their dictates. Each of the greater styles has been aided by the discovery of new construction methods. Once developed, a method survives tenaciously, giving way only when social changes or new building techniques have reduced it. That evolutionary process is exemplified by the history of modern architecture, which developed from the first uses of structural iron and steel in the mid-19th cent.

18.

The saying “The camera never lies.” has been with us almost since the beginning of photography — yet we all now know that it can, and does lie, and very convincingly. Yet most of us still seem to trust the truth of a photographic image
— especially in our newspapers or on TV news reports — even though we may question its message. We think of photographs as an accurate reflection of unaltered reality. We’re convinced of this when we take unposed snaps on our family holidays or of colleagues the worse for wear at the office party. It is this property of photography that makes it hard to question the evidence before our eyes.

Our holiday snaps, though, like photographs showing life ten, fifty, a hundred years ago, tend only to bring about at most a feeling of nostalgia — not always a negative emotion. Many people keep albums to relive the better moments of their lives — and their impact is reduced by the fact that what they show is over, part of history. News photos, on the other hand, in presenting moments of an event that is probably still going on somewhere, must provoke a more vivid, emotional response.

19.

A country’s standard of living generally depends on the size of its national income. Standards of living are measured by such things as the number of cars, televisions, telephones, computers, washing machines, and so on, for every one thousand people. There is, however, no standard international index, which is why national income figures are used as a substitute. But the use of these figures to compare the standard of living between countries needs to be done carefully, because they are, at best, only a rough guide which can be misleading. The main problem here is that it is necessary to have a common unit of measurement if any sort of comparison is to be made at all. It has become the custom to use the dollar, and each country’s currency is converted at its official exchange rate into a national income figure in dollars. Now, since the exchange rate is often set at an artificial level in relation to dollars, you are likely to end up with a figure that is useless for your purposes.

20.

Many people have problems with irony, both in their everyday lives and as it is used or deployed in literature. We learn early on at school about “dramatic irony”, that is, we are told, when the audience of a play is aware of some situation or circumstance, or has information that one or more characters in the play do not. If you like, you are sharing a secret with the writer — you are in the know. Perhaps, as you go about your daily business, irony is not so clear-cut.

Here’s an example: your neighbour draws your attention to how lovely the dandelions and daisies growing in your lawn are. Now, to someone not familiar with the care and attention many English people give to their gardens, this might need a bit of explanation. Lawns are grass, and are cut and rolled regularly so that a professional golfer could practice his putting on it. Daisies and dandelions are weeds. For a moment — but just for a moment — you wonder how serious your neighbour is being. Does he really think the weeds are lovely or is he telling you — in a rather superior way — that you’re a lousy gardener?

Irony, however, usually needs an audience; and not only does it need some people to get the point, it also very much needs there to be people who don’t. There is, it has to be said, a rather undemocratic air of superiority about it.

Irony is slippery, sometimes difficult to get a firm hold on, and can easily backfire, like a joke that falls flat. Those who don’t like irony — usually those who don’t get the point — argue that, in a world that is already difficult enough to deal with, why should we want to complicate things further? Why throw everything you say into doubt? Besides, there’s an unpleasant air of intellectual snobbery about it, and that sort of thing doesn’t go down well any more.

21. Brand loyalty

Brand loyalty exists when consumers repeat-purchase your brand rather than swapping and switching between brands. It is widely agreed that it is far more expensive to have to find a new customer than to keep existing ones happy, so brand loyalty is crucial for achieving high-profit margins. For charities, it is important to set a marketing objective of improving brand loyalty. If existing donors can be persuaded to set up a direct debit to the charity, its cash flow will improve significantly. To enhance, or reposition a brand’s image Although some brands stay fresh for generations (Marmite is over 100 years old) others become jaded due to changes in consumer tastes and lifestyles. At this point, the firms need to refresh the brand image to keep the products relevant to the target market. A clear objective must be set. For instance: what brand attributes do we want to create? What do we want the brand to stand for?

This occurs when a firm aims to a change a brand’s image, so that the brand appeals to a new target market. Twelve years into its life cycle, McVitie’s decided to reposition its Hobnobs biscuit brand. Hobnobs had been positioned as a homely, quite healthy biscuit for middle-aged consumers. Research pointed McVitie’s in a new direction: younger, more male, and less dull. So new packaging was designed and then launched in conjunction with a new, brighter advertising campaign. In 2013 Hobnobs sales were worth 36 million pounds, 9 percent up on the previous year.

22. Disabled people

Disabled people were among the early adopters of personal computers. They were quick to appreciate that word processing programs and printers gave them freedom from dependence on others to read and write for them. Similarly, although smaller devices like smartphones can have accessibility issues, some disabled people became early adopters due to their power for portable text-to-speech and later speech recognition capabilities. Some of these disabled early adopters became very knowledgeable about what could be achieved and used their knowledge to become independent students at a high level. They also gained the confidence to ask that providers of education make adjustments so that disabled students could make better use of course software and the web, rather than just word processing. In many countries pressure from these disabled people and their advocates has led to the creation of laws ensuring certain aspects of accessibility.

For some disability groups, information in electronic format (whether computer-based or web-based) can be more accessible than printed information. For example, people who have limited mobility or limited manual skills can find it difficult to obtain or hold printed material; visually impaired people can find it difficult or impossible to read print, but both these groups can be enabled to use a computer and, therefore, access the information electronically.

Online communication can enable disabled students to communicate with their peers on an equal basis. For example, a deaf student or a student with Asperger’s syndrome may find it difficult to interact in a face-to-face tutorial, but may have less difficulty interacting when using a text conferencing system in which everyone types and reads text. In addition, people’s disabilities are not necessarily visible in online communication systems; so disabled people do not have to declare their disability and are not perceived as being different.

23. Natural language

When people start thinking about language, the first question which often occurs to them is this: is language natural to humans? — in the same way that grunting is natural to pigs, and barking comes naturally to dogs. Or is it just something we happen to have learned? — in the same way that dogs may learn to beg, or elephants may learn to waltz, or humans may learn to play the guitar.

Clearly, in one sense, children ‘learn’ whatever language they are exposed to, be it Chinese, Nootka or English. So no one would deny that ‘learning’ is very important. But the crucial question is whether children are born with ‘blank sheets’ in their head as far as language is concerned — or whether humans are ‘programmed’ with an outline knowledge of the structure of languages in general.

This question of whether language is partly due to nature or wholly due to learning or nurture is often referred to as the nature—nurture controversy, and has been discussed for centuries. For example, it was the topic of one of Plato’s dialogues, the Cratylus. Controversies which have been going on for literally ages tend to behave in a characteristic fashion. They lie dormant for a while, then break out fiercely. This particular issue resurfaced in linguistics in 1959 when the linguist Noam Chomsky wrote a devastating and witty review of Verbal Behavior, a book by the Harvard psychologist B.F. Skinner (Skinner 1957; Chomsky 1959). This book claimed to ‘explain’ language as a set of habits gradually built up over the years. According to Skinner, no complicated innate or mental mechanisms are needed. All that is necessary is the systematic observation of the events in the external world which prompt the speaker to utter sounds.

24. Greenland shark

An international team of scientists is set to go to Arctic to investigate the Greenland shark longevity mystery. The shark is known to be the longest living vertebrate animal on the planet Earth. One of the members is Dr. Holy Shiels, a physiologist and senior lecturer in the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester. She will be the only British scientist in the team to study Greenland shark, which is believed to be the vertebrate animals and mammals with the longest living. The shark is reported to have lived for more than 200 years, and possibly close to or more than 400 years. The shark is both hunter and a scavenger, that feed on seals and other animals including polar bears and

whales. It is also known as one of the largest sharks, reaching to five and a half meters (18 feet), very close to the size of a great white. The research team is commissioned by the Greenland government and will

25. Brain

It’s important to realize that the brain doesn’t see the world around it simply as though the scene was projected onto a cinema screen on the inside of your skull. Before a scene can be observed “in your head” it has to be broken down into a number of different components for processing, and these components then have to be recombined into the meaningful form that we call “an image”. Amongst other things, the scene is broken down into its different colors — red, green and blue — in a way that’s analogous to the manner in which a television image or magazine photograph is broken down into tiny dots of primary colors (which are too small to be noticed individually when we look at them, but which when seen collectively give the impression of a continuous full color image). However, unlike TV and magazine images, the image that we see with our eyes is broken down not only into separate color components but into other components too. It is, rather incredibly, deconstructed into component parts such as horizontal lines, vertical lines, circles and so on. Each of these component parts is sent to a separate area of the brain for processing, with the different components of the scene only merging again when they are unified into what you perceive as the image.

26. Skipping Breakfast has drawbacks

It’s no mystery why so many people routinely skip breakfast: bad timing. It comes at a time when folks can be more occupied with matters of grooming, attire and otherwise making themselves presentable for a new day. However, studies conducted both in the United States and internationally have shown that skipping breakfast can affect learning, memory and physical well-being. Students who skip breakfast are not as efficient at selecting critical information for problem-solving as their peers who have had breakfast.

For schoolchildren, skipping breakfast diminishes the ability to recall and use newly acquired information, verbal fluency, and control of attention, according to Ernesto Pollitt, a UC Davis professor of pediatrics whose research focuses on the influence of breakfast on mental and physical performance.

27. Language teachers

Over the years, language teachers have alternated between favoring teaching approaches that focus primarily on language use and those that focus on language forms or analysis. The alternation has been due to a fundamental disagreement concerning whether one learns to communicate in a second language by communicating in that language (such as in an immersion experience) or whether one learns to communicate in a second language by learning the lexicogrammar-the words and grammatical structures-of the target

language. In other words, the argument has been about two different means of achieving the same end.

As with any enduring controversy, the matter is not easily resolved. For one thing, there is evidence to support both points of view. It is not uncommon to find learners who, for whatever reason, find themselves in a new country or a new region of their own country, who need to learn a new language, and who do so without the benefit of formal instruction. If they are post pubescent, they may well retain an accent of some kind, but they can pick up enough language to satisfy their communicative needs. In fact, some are natural acquirers who become highly proficient in this manner. In contrast, there are learners whose entire exposure to the new language comes in the form of classroom instruction in lexicogrammar. Yet they too achieve a measure of communicative proficiency, and certain of these learners become highly proficient as well. What we, can infer from this is that humans are amazingly versatile learners and that some people have a natural aptitude for acquiring languages and will succeed no matter what the circumstances.

28. Cognitive abilities

People differ greatly in all aspects of what is casually known as intelligence. The differences are apparent not only in school, from kindergarten to college, but also in the most ordinary circumstances: in the words people use and comprehend, in their differing abilities to read a map or follow directions, or in their capacities for remembering telephone numbers or figuring change. The variations in these specific skills are so common that they are often taken for granted. Yet what makes people so different?

It would be reasonable to think that the environment is the source of differences in cognitive skills—that we are what we learn. It is clear, for example, that human beings are not born with a full vocabulary; they have to learn words. Hence, learning must be the mechanism by which differences in vocabulary arise among individuals. And differences in experience—say, in the extent to which parents model and encourage vocabulary skills or in the quality of language training provided by schools—must be responsible for individual differences in learning.

Earlier in this century psychology was in fact dominated by environmental explanations for variance in cognitive abilities. More recently, however, most psychologists have begun to embrace a more balanced view: one in which nature and nurture interact in cognitive development. During the past few decades, studies in genetics have pointed to a substantial role for heredity in molding the components of intellect, and researchers have even begun to track down the genes involved in cognitive function. These findings do not refute the notion that environmental factors shape the learning process. Instead they suggest that differences in people’s genes affect how easily they learn.

29. The National Oceanography Centre

The National Oceanography Centre (NOC) is engaged in research into the potential risks and benefits of exploiting deep-sea mineral resources, some of which are essential for low-carbon technology, as well as using ocean robots to estimate the environmental impact of these potential deep-sea mining activities.

The NOC has led an expedition on the RRS James Cook that found enough of the scarce element Tellurium present in the crust of a submerged volcano that, if it were all to be used in the production of solar PV panels, could provide 2/3rds of the UK’s annual electricity supply. In addition, the NOC also led an international study demonstrating deep-sea nodule mining will cause long-lasting damage to deep-sea life, lasting at least for decades.

These nodules are potato-sized rocks containing high levels of metals, including copper, manganese and nickel. They grow very slowly on the sea-bed, over millions of years. Although no commercial operations exist to extract these resources, many are planned.

Professor Edward Hill, Executive Director at the NOC commented, “By 2050 there will be nine billion people on earth and attention is increasingly turning to the ocean, particularly the deep ocean, for food, clean supplies of energy and strategic minerals. The NOC is undertaking research related to many aspects and perspectives involved in exploiting ocean resources. This research is aimed at informing with sound scientific evidence the decisions that will need to be taken in the future, as people increasingly turn to the oceans to address some of society’s greatest challenges.”

30. Meat Consumption and climate change

A day would come, Percy Shelley predicted in 1813, when “the monopolizing eater of animal flesh would no longer destroy his constitution by eating an acre at a meal”. He explained: “The quantity of nutritious vegetable matter consumed in fattening the carcass of an ox would afford 10 times the sustenance if gathered immediately from the bosom of the earth.”

Two hundred years later, mainstream agronomists and dietitians have caught up with the poet. A growing scientific consensus agrees that feeding cereals and beans to animals is an inefficient and extravagant way to produce human food, that there is a limited amount of grazing land, that the world will be hard-pressed to supply a predicted population of 9 billion people with a diet as rich in meat as the industrialized world currently enjoys, and that it’s not a very healthy diet anyway. On top of this, livestock contribute significantly towards global warming, generating 14.5% of all manmade greenhouse gas emissions, according to one much-quoted estimate from the United Nations.

Now that the problem has been identified, the challenge is to persuade people in wealthy countries to eat less meat. That might seem a tall order, but

governments have successfully persuaded people to quit smoking through a combination of public information, regulation and taxation.



Essays

1. University experience is more important than a university’s degree. Some people argue that university life is much more important than an educational degree in job market. Do you agree or not agree?

2. Hosting sporting events such as the Olympics and the World Cup can bring benefits to the host countries. How far do you agree with this statement? Use your own examples to support.

3. Business whether big or small is to maximize profit. Do you agree with that? Give your opinion.

4. Some people think that younger employees often have more skills, knowledge and motivation than the old employees. To what extent do you agree with it? Use your experience.

5. A university education is necessary to succeed in a career, to what extent to you agree or disagree?

6. It is important for children to take extra classes or play after school? Discuss both and give your opinions.

7. Some people say music promotes children learning. However, there are mixed results on impact of music generated from researches. To what extent do you agree or disagree that: music has impacts on humans’ life?

8. A healthy diet is more important for keeping fit than exercise. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Give example or personal experiences.

9. Advertising may make people buy something they don’t need or cannot afford, but also, they can convey information to increase their life quality. What is your opinion?

10. As cities expanding, some people claim governments should look forward creating better networks of public transportation available for everyone rather than building more roads for vehicle owning population. What’s your opinion? Give some examples or experience to support.

11. As national services, which one deserve to receive more financial support, education or health?

12. Because university degrees can get people jobs with higher salaries, university students should pay full cost for their education. Do you agree or not?

13. Cashless society is becoming a reality. More and more people are using credit cards for payment, and less people use cash. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon?

14. Climate change is a concerning global issue. Who should take the responsibilities, governments, big companies or individuals?

15. Communication has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of this change.

16. Formal written examination can be a valid method to assess students’ learning. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

17. In some countries around the world, voting is compulsory. Do you agree with the notion of compulsory voting?

18. In the 18th century due to industrialization, a lot of people migrated to developed countries. This affected lifestyle and increased problems in developed countries. What is your opinion about this?

19. In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of extreme or adventure sports?

20. It is argued that getting married before finishing school or getting a job is not a good choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 More essays with answer : PTE Essays With sample Answer 



Reorder Paragraphs

1. High pitches

1. A note has a fundamental tone- the pitch we hear- and a series of overtones that occur at higher frequencies. Overtones are what give a sound its timbre, and enable us to distinguish an oboe from a trumpet from its sound alone.

2. The team then took a fundamental tone pitched below 5 kHz and digitally filtered it to leave just the overtones above 6 kHz. Surprisingly, the volunteers were able to distinguish these melodies.

3. Humans are able to make sense of sounds at a much higher pitch than previously thought.

4. Previous studies have shown that humans are unable to recognize melodies whose notes have a fundamental tone above 5 kilohertz.

5. It was thought that, at frequencies this high, the rapidly cycling sound wave was too fast for the auditory nerve to cope with. To test this theory, Andrew Oxen ham and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis asked a group of six students whether two four-note melodies were identical or not. As in previous studies, the volunteers could not recognize melodies with fundamental tones above 5 kHz.

Answer: 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

2. Copernicanism

1. In so doing, they discover that these once remote worlds are themselves earth-like in character.

2. Descriptions of these planetary bodies as terrestrial in kind demonstrate the seventeenth-century intellectual shift from the Aristotelian to the Copernican framework.

3. During this period of scientific revolution, a new literary genre arose, namely that of the scientific cosmic

4. The expanding influence of Copernicanism through the seventeenth century transformed not only the natural philosophic leanings of astronomers but also the store of conceptual material accessible to writers of fiction.

Answer: 4, 3, 1, 2

3. EU Fish Problems

1. The European Union has two big fish problems.

2. The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.

3. As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.

4. The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.

5. One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.

Answer: 1, 5, 2, 4, 3

4. Feeding birds

1. Recently, researchers at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology sought to answer this question, analyzing nearly three decades’ worth of data from a winter-long survey called Project FeederWatch.

2. Still, what are the consequences of skewing the odds in favor of the small subset of species inclined to eat at feeders? What about when the bird we’re aiding is invasive, like our house finch?

3. Preliminary results suggest the species visiting our feeders the most are

faring exceptionally well in an age when one-third of the continent’s birds need urgent conservation.

4. Is what we’re doing good or bad for birds?

5. According to experts, feeding birds is probably the most common way in which people interact with wild animals today. More than 50 million Americans engage in the practice, collectively undertaking an unwitting experiment on a vast scale.

Answer: 5, 4, 1, 3, 2

5. Children depression

1. A major review of antidepressants has found they are largely ineffective and may even be harmful for children and teens’ depression in the Amazon.

2. The true effectiveness and risk of serious harms is found in the borders of

Amazon such as suicidal, thoughts remain unclear because of the small number of trials and the selective reporting of findings in published trials and clinical study reports.

3. The study authors recommend that “children and adolescents taking antidepressants should be carefully monitored closely and permanently, however, prohibits the study of children’s antidepressants.

4. This was widely opposed by multi-billion companies that have already invested antidepressants.

5. It is therefore recommended a child could self-reproach starting with a low dose and build up gradually to prevent the side effects.

Answer: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

5. Indian IT

1. Innovation in India is as much due to entrepreneurialism as it is to IT skills, says Arun Maria, chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India.

2. Indian businessmen have used IT to create new business models that enable them to provide services in a more cost-effective way.

3. This is not something that necessarily requires expensive technical research.

4. He suggests the country’s computer services industry can simply outsource research to foreign universities if the capability is not available locally.

5. “This way, I will have access to the best scientists in the world without having to produce them myself,” said Mr. Maria.

2. Selective university

1. England’s most selective universities must do more to attract teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds if they want to charge higher tuition fees, the country’s fair access watchdog has warned.

2. Professor Les Ebdon, director of Fair Access to Higher Education, has said universities can no longer make excuses about the number of poorer students they take on.

3. In a statement issued yesterday, Prof Ebdon dismissed the argument from the country’s most selective universities, which claim that young people from poorer backgrounds generally secure worse grades.

4. ” Such defences from the country’s most elite universities do not hold water”, Prof Ebdon said, as he urged the institutions to do more to widen their intakes.”

3. Benefit of language

1. Over the years many human endeavours have had the benefit of language.

2. In particular, a written language can convey a lot of information about past events, places, people and things.

3. But it is difficult to describe music in words, and even more difficult to specify a tune.

4. It was the development of a standard musical notation in the 11th century that allowed music to be documented in a physical form.

5. Now music could be communicated efficiently, and succeeding generations would know something about the music of their ancestors.

4. Tutorial

1. Many students sit in a tutorial week after week without saying anything.

2. Why is that?

3. Maybe they do not know the purpose of a tutorial.

4. They think it is like a small lecture where the tutor gives them information.

5. Even if students do know what a tutorial is for, there can be other reasons why they keep quiet.

5. Game

1. Researchers in the field of artificial intelligence have long been intrigued by games, and not just as a way of avoiding work.

2. Games provide an ideal setting to explore important elements of the design of cleverer machines, such as pattern recognition, learning and planning.

3. Ever since the stunning victory of Deep Blue, a program running on an IBM supercomputer, over Gary Kasparov, then world chess champion, in 1997, it has been clear that computers would dominate that particular game.

4. Today, though, they are pressing the attack on every front.

6. Earthquake

1. At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the people of San Francisco were awakened by an earthquake that would devastate the city.

2. The main temblor, having a 7.7-7.9 magnitude, lasted about one minute and was

3. the result of the rupturing of the northernmost 296 miles of the 800-mile San Andreas fault.

4. But when calculating destruction, the earthquake took second place to the great fire that followed.

5. The fire, lasting four days, most likely started with broken gas lines (and, in some cases, was helped along by people hoping to collect insurance for their property— they were covered for fire, but not earthquake, damage).

7. Greener technologies

1. Engineers are much needed to develop greener technologies, he says.

2. “The energy sector has a fantastic skills shortage at all levels, both now and looming over it for the next 10 years,” he says.

3. Not only are there some good career opportunities, but there’s a lot of money going into the research side, too.

4. With the pressures of climate change and the energy gap, in the last few years funding from the research councils has probably doubled”.

8. New ventures

1. New Ventures is a program that helps entrepreneurs in some of the world’s most dynamic, emerging economies– Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia and Mexico.

2. We have facilitated more than $203 million in investment, and worked with

250 innovative businesses whose goods and services produce clear, measurable environmental benefits, such as clean energy, efficient water use, and sustainable agriculture.

3. Often they also address the challenges experienced by the world’s poor.

4. For example, one of the companies we work with in China, called Ecostar, refurbishes copy machines from the United States and re-sells or leases them for
20 percent less than a branded photocopier.

9. Summer school

1. The Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering will be holding the eleventh neutron summer school at Chalk River on May 8-13, 2011.

2. The aim of the school is to cover a wide range of topics associated with thermal neutron scattering, including powder diffraction, stress analysis, texture, reflectometry, and small-angle neutron scattering together with the underlying theory associated with neutron scattering.

3. The theory will be presented in a way that should be understood by people in any of these fields.

4. For more information, see the Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering’s Neutron Summer School.

10. Copernicanism

1. The expanding influence of Copernicanism through the seventeenth century transformed not only the natural philosophic leanings of astronomers but also the store of conceptual material accessible to writers of fiction.

2. During this period of scientific revolution, a new literary genre arose, namely that of the scientific cosmic voyage

3. Scientists and writers alike constructed fantastical tales in which fictional characters’ journey to the moon, sun, and planets.

4. In so doing, they discover that these once remote worlds are themselves earth-like in character.

5. Descriptions of these planetary bodies as terrestrial in kind demonstrate the seventeenth century intellectual shift from the Aristotelian to the Copernican framework.

16. Railway

1. Ever since the completion of the Great Western Railway, in the 1840s,

intrigue has swirled around the Box Tunnel, a long, steep bypass near Bath, England.

2. The question was this: did the railway’s creator, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, really have the tunnel carved in such a way that when the sun rose on his birthday—April 9th—it would be flooded with light?

3. This past Sunday, April 9th, the railway’s current engineers decided to test the rumor once and for all. They weren’t disappointed.

4. “When you look from the east portal, the cutting provides a lovely V-shape,” communications manager Paul Gentleman told the Guardian.

5. While the west side’s view wasn’t quite so impressive, the engineers generously chalked that up to centuries of dirt and grime.

17. Animal

1. The non-specialists, however, the opportunities of the animal world, can never afford to relax.

2. So long as the ant eater had its ants and the koala bear had gum leaves, then they are satisfied and the living is easy.

3. If they have put all their effort into the perfection of one survival trick, they do not bother so much with the general complexities of the world around them.

4. It depends on how specialized they have become during the course of evolution.

5. All animals have a strong exploratory urge, but for some it is more crucial than others.

Answer: 5,4,3,2,1

18. Vegetarian

1. They also like to eat peanut butter on graham crackers or celery sticks top with raisins.

2. School’s administration is able to implement an all-vegetarian menu with the support of the Coalition for Healthy School Food.

3. Vegetarians have lower rates of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity than meat eaters do because of this approach, and studies indicate that the

earlier children in primary level are started on a healthy diet, the better off they will be later in life.

4. Nutritious vegan diets are popular among the vegetarian are typically high in fibre, low in saturated fat, full of vitamins and minerals, rich in healthy plant protein, and completely free of cholesterol.

Answer: 4,1,2,3

19. Heart Attack

1. Without the normal blood flow, it will cause muscle contraction.

2. When the clot is formed, it will stay in the blood vessels.

3. The clot in blood vessels will block blood flow.

4. Heart attack is the caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot.

Answer: 4,2,3,1

20. Study Abroad

1. Some students go overseas because they love travel.

2. Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.

3. They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.

4. They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.

5. All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies. Answer: 5,3,4,1,2
21. Greenhouse gas(GHG)

1. There is a growing consensus that, if serious action is to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, a price must be applied to those emissions.

2. There are, however, challenges associated with the political acceptability of carbon pricing.

3. If Canada implements a carbon price on its own, there are worries that Canadian factories will relocate to other countries to avoid the regulation.

4. Even if other countries act in concert with Canada to price carbon, the effects will be uneven across sectors, and lobbying efforts by relatively more-affected sectors might threaten the political viability of the policy.

Answer: 1,2,3,4

22. Journalists

1. Some perspectives ultimately are not included.

2. Journalists try to be fair and objective by presenting all sides of a particular issue.

3. Especially, disciplines and cultures in which they work.

4. Although experts like journalists are expected to be unbiased they invariably share the system biases of the Some perspectives ultimately are not included.

Answer: 4,3,2,1

23. Mr. Bloomberg

1. Mr. Bloomberg’s small-school’s initiative has drawn criticism, yet the mayor, when faced with complains, has usually forged ahead.

2. Education scholars generally agree that mayors can help failing districts, but they are starting to utter warnings.

3. However, they warned that mayoral control can reduce parents’ influence on schools.

4. And they pointed to Mr Bloomberg’s aggressive style as an example of what not to do.

5. All this must be weighed up by the New York state legislature in 2009, when mayoral control is up for renewal—or scrapping.

Answer: 1,2,3,4,5

24. Arcelor

1. The Arcelor-Mittal deal demonstrates Europe’s deepening integration into the global economy.

2. Arcelor, established in Dutch, had been the largest European steel maker by 2006.

3. It was taken over by Mittal, a Dutch-registered company run from London by its biggest single shareholder, Lakshmi Mittal, an Indian who started his first business in Indonesia.

4. The takeover battle raged for six months before Arcelor’s bosses finally listened to shareholders who wanted the board to accept Mittal’s third offer.

Answer: 2,3,4,1

25. Bankrupt

1. If the company is so large that it cannot claim that it would be bankrupted by cleanup costs (as in the case of ARCO that I shall discuss below), the company instead denies its responsibility or else seeks to minimize the costs.

2. Especially if the company is small, its owners may declare the company bankrupt, in some cases conceal its assets,and transfer their business efforts to other companies or to new companies that do not bear responsibility for cleanup at the old mine.

3. In either case, either the mine site and areas downstream of it remain toxic, thereby endangering people, or else the U.S. federal government and the Montana state government (hence ultimately all taxpayers) pay for the cleanup through the federal Superfund and a corresponding Montana state fund.

4. In Montana as elsewhere, companies that have acquired older mines respond to demands to pay for cleanup in either of two ways.

Answer: 4,2,1,3

26. CRM

1. The goal of a CRM system is simple: Improve business relationships.

2. When people talk about CRM, they are usually referring to a CRM system, a tool that is used for contact management, sales management, productivity, and more.

3. A CRM system helps companies stay connected to customers, streamline processes, and improve profitability.

4. Customer Relationship Management is a strategy for managing an organisation’s relationships and interactions with customers and potential customers.

Answer: 4,3,2,1

27. Music and Language

1. Language can convey message

2. Especially written language

3. Music was conveyed orally only, until the 11th century when physical instruments were invented to perform music.

4. It was hard to teach music.

5. But now it’s easy.

Answer: 1,2,3,4,5

28. Fibers for clothing

1. The fibers are as strong and soft as wool and silk, but up to 30 times cheaper.

2. Fibers suitable for clothing have been made for the first time from the wheat protein gluten.

3. He says that because they are biodegradable, they might be used in biomedical applications such as surgical sutures.

4. Narendra Reddy and Yiqi Yang, who produced the fibers at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln.

Answer: 2,1,4,3

29. Science and technology

1. It is a truism to say that in 21st century society science and technology are important.

2. Human existence in the developed world is entirely dependent on some fairly recent developments in science and technology.

3. Whether this is good or bad is, of course, up for argument.

4. But the fact that science underlies our lives, our health, our work, our communications, our entertainment and our transport is undeniable.

30. $300-house

1. When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-house for they were merely expressing a suggestion.”

2. Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth and Mr Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a “far-out” idea.

3. Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it been done before?

4. Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief executives, governments, NGOs, foundations: Are there any takers?”

31. Data

1. Another common mistake is to ignore or rule out data which do not support the hypothesis. Ideally, the experimenter is open to the possibility that the hypothesis is correct or incorrect.

2. Sometimes, however, a scientist may have a strong belief that the hypothesis is true (or false) or feels internal or external pressure to get a specific result.

3. In that case, there may be a psychological tendency to find “something wrong,” such as systematic effects, with data which do not support the

scientist’s expectations, while data which do agree with those expectations may not be checked as carefully.

4. The lesson is that all data must be handled in the same way.

32. Students Go Overseas

1. All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies.

2. They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.

3. They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.

4. Some students go overseas because they love travel.

5. Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.

33. The European Union

1. The European Union has two big fish problems.

2. One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.

3. The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.

4. The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.

5. As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.

 

Reading Fill in Blanks

 

 

  1. New book on kiwi launched

 

A Massey ecologist has teamed up with a leading wildlife photographer to produce the definitive book on New Zealand’s national bird, the kiwi. Kiwi: A Natural History was written by Dr Isabel Castro and _______ photographs by Rod Morris. Dr Castro has been working with kiwi _______ 1999, with a focus on their behavior. “I’ve specifically been looking at the sense of smell that kiwi uses when foraging, _______ in their interactions with their environment and other kiwi,” she says. The book covers all aspects of kiwi, from their evolution, prehistory and closest relatives to their feeding and breeding behavior and current conservation issues, making this the perfect ______ for anyone with an interest in these fascinating birds. The book is the second title in a new ____on New Zealand’s wildlife, targeted at a family readership.

 

 

Option: Conclusion, features, introduction, but also, provided in, series, but, industry, since

 

Answer: features, since, but also, introduction, series 2. Fingerprints

 

Fingerprints can _____ that a suspect was actually at the scene of a crime. As long as a human entered a crime scene, there will be traces of DNA. DNA can help the police to _____ an individual to crack a case. An institute in London can help ______ DNA and be used to match with the ____ taken from the crime scenes.

 

Option: reserve, evidence, determine, samples, identify, demonstrate, retain, recognize, prove, pieces

 

Answer: prove, identify, reserve, samples 3. Linguistic ideologies

 

An important corollary of this focus on language as the window to legal epistemology is the central role of two law and other sociocultural processes. In particular, the _______ that people hold about how language works ( ____

 

ideologies) combine with linguistic structuring to create powerful, often unconscious effects. In recent years, linguistic anthropologists have made much progress in developing more precise analytic _____ for tracking those effects.

 

Option: ideas, disclosure, implements, facts, discourse, tools, linguistic, gigantic

 

Answer: discourse, ideas, linguistic, tools 4. Education and well-being

 

Education and well-being have often been associated. The idea that education can promote individual well -being indirectly, by improving earnings and promoting social mobility, is an old one; so are notions of education helping to promote the good society by contributing to economic growth and equality of opportunity.

 

  1. Australia’s dwelling

 

The stock of Australia’s dwellings is evolving, with current homes having more bedrooms on average than homes ten years ago. At the same time, households are getting smaller on average with decreasing proportions of couple families with children and increasing couple only and lone person households. This article examines the changes in household size and number of bedrooms from 1994–95 to 2003–04.

  1. Liquidity

 

 

When people worry about a glut of liquidity, they are thinking of the first of these concepts. If money is too abundant or too cheap, inflationary pressures may build up or bubbles may appear in financial markets – until central banks tighten policy or market opinion suddenly changes. A slackening of economic activity or a drop in asset prices can leave households, businesses and financial institutions in trouble if their balance sheets are not liquid enough (the second concept) or if they cannot find a buyer for assets.

 

  1. Language

 

Language comes so naturally to us that it is easy to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is. All over the world members of our species fashion their breath into hisses and hums and squeaks and pops and listen to others do the same. We do this, of course, not only because we like the sounds but because details of the sounds contain information about the intentions of the person making them. We, humans, are fitted with a means of sharing our ideas, in all their unfathomable vastness. When we listen to speech, we can be led to think thoughts that have never been thought before and that never would have occurred to us on our own. Behold, the bush burned with

 

fire, and the bush was not consumed. Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence.

 

  1. Jury service

 

Serving on a jury is normally compulsory for individuals who are qualified for jury service. A jury is intended to be an impartial panel capable of reaching a verdict. There are often Procedures and requirements, including a fluent understanding of the language and the opportunity to test jurors’ neutrality or otherwise exclude jurors who are perceived as likely to be less than neutral or partial to one side.

 

9.

 

Impressionism was a nineteenth century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists who started publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visible brush strokes, light colors, open composition, EMPHASIS on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles. The name of the movement is DERIVED from Claude Monet’s Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant). Critic Louis Leroy inadvertently coined the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.

 

 

Radicals in their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by giving colors, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing INSPIRATION from the work of painters such as Eugene Delacroix. They also took the ACT of painting out of the studio and into the world. Previously, not only still¬lifes and portraits, but also landscapes had been painted indoors, but the Impressionists found that they could CAPTURE the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air (in plain air).

 

Research has suggested that major stresses in our lives are life CHANGES, for example, moving house, marriage or relationship breakdown. Work-related factors, INCLUDING unemployment and boredom, are also common CAUSES of stress. Differences in personality may also PLAY a part

 

10.

 

David Lynch is professor and head of education at Charles Darwin University. PRIOR to this he was sub dean in the Faculty of Education and Creative Arts at Central Queensland University and foundation head of the University’s Noosa CAMPUS. David’s career in education began as a primary school teacher in Queensland in the early 1980’s and PROGRESSED to four principal positions

 

David’s research interests predominate in teacher education with particular interest in building teacher capability to meet a changed world.

 

11.

 

Psychology as a subject of study has largely developed in the West, since the late nineteenth century. During this period there has been an emphasis on scientific thinking. Because of this emphasis, there have been many scientific studies in psychology which EXPLORE different aspects of human nature. These include studies into how biology (physical factors) influence human experience, how people use their SENSES (touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing) to get to know the world, how people develop, why people behave in certain ways, how memory works, how people develop language, how people UNDERSTAND and think about the world, what motivates people, why people have emotions and how personality develops. These scientific INVESTIGATIONS all contribute to an understanding of human nature.

 

 

 

12.

 

 

I am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets “donors on wheels”. But John Adams in the department of geography has made me do something rather awful. He has made me re-examine my deeply held CONVICTIONS. Adams has completely UNDERMINED my confidence in these apparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is IN SPITE of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. There is remarkable data on the years 1970 to 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is COMPULSORY had on average about 5 per cent more road accident deaths following introduction of the law.

 

 

13.

 

The few people who live in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to shipwrecks. They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran AGROUND near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic ARCHIPELAGO in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship’s infestation SCURRIED ashore and made itself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands

 

14.

 

`Just-in-time’ is a management philosophy and not a technique. It originally referred to the production of goods to meet customer DEMAND exactly, in time, quality and quantity, WHETHER the ‘customer’ is the final purchaser of the product or another process FURTHER along the production line. It has now come to mean producing with MINIMUM waste. ‘Waste’ is taken in its most general sense and includes time and resources as well as materials.

 

15.

 

Learning to write well in college means learning (or re-learning) how to write clearly and plainly. Now that doesn’t mean that plainness is the only good style, or that you should become a SLAVE to spare, unadorned writing.

 

Formality and orateness have their place, and in COMPETENT hands complexity can take us on a dizzying, breathtaking journey. But most students, most of the time, should STRIVE to be sensibly simple, to develop a baseline style of short words, active verbs and relatively simple sentence CONVEYING clear actions or identities. It’s faster, it makes arguments easier to follow, it increases the chances a busy reader will bother to pay attention, and it lets you PAY more attention on your moments of rhetorical flourish, which I do not advise abandoning altogether.

 

 

 

16.

 

 

To one extent or another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only implicitly. I certainly find myself THINKING this way in day-to-day life; it’s easy to be SEDUCED by the face nature reveals directly to our senses. Yet, in the decades since first ENCOUNTERING Camus’ text, I’ve learned that modern science TELLS a very different story.

 

17.

 

By the Bronze Age drinking VESSELS were being made of sheet metal, primarily bronze or gold. However, the peak of feasting – and in particular, of the ‘political’ type of feast – came in the late Hallstatt period (about 600-450 BC), soon after the foundation of the Greek COLONY of Massalia (Marseille) at the mouth of the Rhine. From that date on, the blood of the grape began to make its way north and east along major river systems together with imported metal and ceramic drinking vessels from the Greek world.

 

 

WINE was thus added to the list of mood-altering beverages – such as mead and ale available to establish social networks in Iron Age Europe. Attic pottery fragments found at hillforts such as Heuneburg in Germany and luxury goods such as the monumental 5th century Greek bronze krater (or wine mixing vessel) found at Vix in Burgundy supply archaeological evidence of this interaction. Organic CONTAINERS such as leather or wooden wine barrels may also have travelled north into Europe but have not survived. It is unknown what goods were TRADED in return, but they may have included salted meat, hides, timber, amber and slaves.

 

(REPEATED TWO TIMES)

 

18.

 

Distance learning can be highly beneficial to a large variety of people from young students wanting to expand their horizons to adults looking for more job security. With programs that allow learners of all ages to take courses for fun, personal advancement and degrees, distance learning can meet the NEEDS of a diverse population.

 

Perhaps one of the most notable and often talked about ADVANTAGES of distance learning is the flexibility. The majority of programs allow students to learn when and where it’s convenient for them. For THOSE who are struggling to balance their distance learning goals with working a full-time job and taking care of a family, this kind of flexibility can allow many people to pursue education who would not otherwise be able to do so. SINCE there are no on-campus courses to attend, students can learn from their own homes, at work on their lunch breaks and from virtually anywhere with internet access. For some, it can even be a big source of savings on the fuel costs and time required to commute to classes.

 

19.

 

 

 

Legal deposit for printed books and papers has existed in English law since 1662. It helps to ensure that the nation’s published output (and thereby its INTELLECTUAL record and future published heritage) is collected systematically, and as comprehensively as possible, both in order to preserve the material for the use of future generations and to make it available for READERS within the designated legal deposit libraries.

 

The legal deposit system also has BENEFITS for authors and publishers:

 

Publications deposited with the British Library are made available to users in its various Reading Rooms, are PRESERVED for the benefit of future generations, and become part of the national heritage.

 

 

Publications are recorded in the online catalogue, and will remain an essential RESEARCH tool for generations to come.

 

20.

 

Opportunity cost incorporates the notion of scarcity: No matter what we do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade off one thing for another because resources are limited and can be used in different ways. BY ACQUIRING SOMETHING, we use up resources that could have been used to acquire something else. The NOTION of opportunity cost allows us to measure this trade¬off. The opportunity cost of something is what you sacrifice to get it. Most decisions INVOLVE several alternatives. For example, if you spend an hour studying for an economics exam, you have one less hour to pursue other activities. To determine the opportunity cost of an activity, we look at what you consider the best of these “other” activities. For example, suppose the ALTERNATIVES to studying economics are studying for a history exam or working in a job that pays $10 per hour. If you consider studying for history a better use of your time than working, then the opportunity cost of studying economics is the 4 extra points you could have received on a history exam if you studied history instead of economics. Alternatively, if working is the best alternative, the opportunity cost of studying economics is the $10 you could have earned instead.

 

21.

 

Those were his halcyon days, when his music was heard constantly in Venice and his influence BLANKETED Europe. He spent much of his time on the road, PERFORMING and overseeing productions of his music. In Germany, Bach studied Vivaldi’s scores, copied them for performance and ARRANGED some for other instrument

 

The world’s atmosphere is forever on the move. Wind is air in motion. Sometimes air moves slowly, giving a gentle breeze. At other times it moves rapidly, creating gales and hurricanes. GENTLE or fierce, wind always starts in the same way. As the sun moves through the sky, it heats up some parts of the sea and land more than others. The air above these HOT spots is warmed,

 

 

 

becomes lighter than the surrounding air, and begins to rise. Elsewhere, cool air sinks, because it is HEAVIER. Winds blow because air squeezed out by sinking, cold air is sucked in under rising, warm air. Winds will blow wherever there is a DIFFERENCE in air temperature and pressure, always flowing from high to low pressure. Some winds blow in one place, and have a local name – North America’s chinook and France’s mistral. Others are part of a huge circulation pattern that sends winds over the ENTIRE globe.

 

22.

 

One thing is certain. Most people do not get enough exercise in their ORDINARY routines. All of the advances of modern technology — from ELECTRIC can openers to power steering — have made life easier, more

 

 

comfortable and much less physically DEMANDING. Yet our bodies need activity, especially if they are carrying around too MUCH fat. Satisfying this need requires a definite plan, and a commitment.

 

23.

 

For too long we have held preconceived notions of ‘the’ market and ‘the’ state that were seemingly independent of local societies and cultures. The debate about civil society ultimately is about how culture, market and state RELATE TO each other. Concern about civil society, however, is not only relevant to

 

central and eastern Europe and the developing world. It is very much of INTEREST TO the European Union as well. The Civil Dialogue initiated by the Commission in the 1990s was a first attempt by the EU to give the institutions of society-and not only governments and businesses-a voice at the policy-making tables in Brussels. The EU, like other international institutions, has a long way to go in trying to ACCOMMODATE the frequently divergent interests of non-governmental organisations and citizen groups. There is increasing RECOGNITION that international and national governments have to open up to civil society institutions.

 

24.

 

What is the significance of instinct in business? Does a reliable gut feeling separate winners from losers? And is it the most valuable emotional tool any entrepreneur can possess? My observations of successful company owners lead me to believe that a highly analytical attitude can be a drawback. At critical junctures in commercial life, risk-taking is more an ACT of faith than a carefully balanced choice. Frequently, such moments require DECISIVENESS and absolute conviction above all else. There is simply no time to wait for all the facts, or room for doubt. A computer program cannot tell you how to invent and launch a new PRODUCT. That journey involves too many unknowns, too much luck — and too much sheer intuition, rather than the infallible LOGIC that machines deliver so well. As Chekhov said: “An artist’s flair is sometimes worth a scientist’s brains” —entrepreneurs need right-brain thinking. When I have been

 

 

 

considering whether to buy a company and what price to offer, I have been BLINDED too often by reams of due diligence from the accountants and lawyers. Usually it pays to stand back from such mountains of grey data and weigh up the really important issues —and decide how you feel about the opportunity.

 

25.

 

Away from the rumble of Shanghai’s highways and the cacophony of the shopping districts, stroll down side streets filled with rows of tall BRICK houses. In the early evening or on a weekend morning, you’ll hear the sound of classical music drifting from a piano, played by a 10-year old or a grandmother in her seventies. Wander down another alley toward DRAB high-rises and you’ll hear Beethoven or Mozart flowing from a violin, or perhaps a cello, accordion or flute.

 

 

In China, classical music is BOOMING as mightily as the 1812 Overture. It’s fortissimo in Shanghai, home to China’s oldest orchestra, forte in Beijing and other lively cities, and on a crescendo in farther-flung areas. Commanding Y100-200 ($12.50-$25) per hour, private music TEACHERS in Shanghai can readily earn more than five times the average per capita monthly income.

 

 

  1. State schools

 

A big rise in state schools rated among the best institutions in the country is revealed in the latest edition of the Good Schools Guide. Middle-class parents facing financial pressures in the _______ are increasingly looking beyond the private _____ to educate their children.

 

The 23-year-old Good Schools Guide – a ______ reference book for fee-paying families set on the best private school – has increased the number of state schools in this year’s edition to 251, pushing the figure to more than a quarter of its 1,000 entries for the first time.

 

______why the guide has more than doubled the number of schools it features outside the private sector in only five years, Sue Fieldman, regional editor, told the Financial Times: “The parents we speak to want more information on the state sector and the best it has to offer.

 

Option: pan, downturn, sector, popular, downtown, mainstream, Understanding, Explaining

 

Answer: downturn, sector, popular, Explaining 27. Lake Turkana

 

Lake Turkana is a large lake in Kenya, East Africa. This ______ of Africa was home to some of the first humans. Here, archaeologists have found piles of

 

_____ (both human and animal) and collections of stones that humans used as____. By carefully uncovering and ______ these remains, scientists have

 

 

 

started to put together the story of our earliest ancestors. In 2001, a 4- million-year-old skeleton was uncovered in the area. Although a link between it and modern-day humans has not been established, the skeleton shows the species was walking upright.

 

Option: Part, region, bones, remains, heritage, indicating, tools, examining

 

Answer: part, bones, tools, examining 28. Under-nutrition

 

Under-nutrition and related diseases kill between 15 and 18 million people a year, the _______are children. At least 500 million are chronically hungry. The tragic paradox of massive suffering _______ global plenty traces in part to widespread poverty, which denies access to food _______ where it piles high in village market.

 

 

Option: minimal, none, majority, extent, even, amid

 

Answer: majority, amid, even

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Business

 

One distinguishing feature of business is its economic character. In the world of business, we interact with each other not as family members, friends, or neighbors, but as ______ and sellers, employers and employees, and the like. Trading, for example, is often _______ by hard ________, in which both sides conceal their full hand and perhaps _______ in some bluffing. And a ______

 

salesperson is well-versed in the art of arousing a customer’s attention (sometimes by a bit of puffery) to ______ the sale. Still, there is an “ethics of trading” that prohibits the use of false or deceptive claims and tricks such as “bait-and-switch” advertising.

 

Option: Buyers, Clinch, charging, outstanding, skilled, merchant, bargaining, accompanied, Raised, Known, Commit, Engage

 

Answer: buyers, accompanied, bargaining, engage, skilled, clinch 30. Antarctic

 

At the height of summer, the Antarctic, tourist ships move gently around the coast. Even 30 years ago such sights would have been unthinkable, but today people are willing to pay large sums of money to see the last real wilderness in the world. In the Arctic, careless human exploitation in the _____ has damaged the fragile ecosystem. Today concerned governments are trying to find ways to develop the region ______ caring for the very special natural environment

 

______ the Antarctic is less accessible AC than the Arctic, it; is still largely undamaged by humans, although holes in the ozone AC layer above the

 

 

 

Antarctic have already been discovered. Many people believe that one way to preserve the area is to make the whole region into a world park, with every form of exploitation internationally______.

 

Option: Because, past, present, Forbidden, Whereas, For, While, banned

 

Answer: past, while, because, banned 31. Good sense

 

Good sense appears to have _______ at last. With a fresh set of draft rules to replace last year’s poorly conceived ones, the Centre has sought to withdraw the ban on sale of cattle for slaughter in animal markets. The draft rules are now open for comments and suggestions. When the Union Ministry for Environment, Forests and Climate Change notified the rules under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act on May 23, 2017, there was _____ that in the name of preventing cruelty to animals and regulating livestock markets the government was surreptitiously throttling the cattle trade and furthering the BJP’s cow protection agenda. The rules were criticized for restricting legitimate animal trade and interfering with ________ habits.

 

 

Option: prevailing, concern, eating, trend, prevailed, dominated, dietary, Daily

 

Answer: prevailed, concern, dietary

 

  1. Challenging or rewarding employment

 

Finding challenging or _________ employment may mean retraining and moving from a stale or boring job in order to find your __________ and pursue it. The idea is to think long range and anticipate an active lifestyle into later years— perhaps into one’s 80s or 90s. Being personally productive may now mean anticipating retiring in stages. This might indicate going to an alternate

 

______should a current career end by choice or economic chance. Option: Interest, Rewarding, Issue, Plan, Friendly, passion

 

Answer: rewarding, passion, plan

 

  1. The Australian Maritime College:

 

The Australian Maritime College at the university of Tasmania, in _____with CSIRO and University of Queensland, have been awarded $2.48 million funding

____from Australian Renewable Energy Agency. Option: Collaboration, partnership, Payment, support

 

Answer: partnership; support

 

  1. The Roman people

 

The Roman people had at first been inclined to regard the French Revolution with either indifference or______. But as the months went by and the émigrés who

 

 

 

remained in the city were less and less _____of an early return home, the mood of the Romans became increasingly_____ towards the `assassins of Paris’.

 

Option: Antagonistic, negativity, hopeful, decision, antagonist, derision

 

Answer: derision, hopeful, antagonistic 35. Build your network

 

Researchers suggest the following tips as you begin to network, seek common ground, ______ with your network regularity (rather than only when you have crisis), and consistently ______ yourself to making your network work or it will wither. It is a skill that you need to ______, not a talent.

 

 

Option: Involve, prepare, engage, apply, put, have, practice, add

 

Answer: engage, apply, practice

 

  1. Trees

 

Trees, as ever, are or should be at the heart of all _____or climate change. The changes in carbon dioxide, in temperature, and in patterns of rainfall will each affect them in ways- and each parameter _____with all the others, so between them these three main ______present a bewildering range of possibilities.

 

Option: Relates, factors, topics, variables, interacts, discussion

 

Answer: discussion, interacts, variables 37. The International Journal of Design

 

The International Journal of Design is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted to publishing research papers in all fields of design, including industrial design, visual communication design, interface design, animation and game design, architectural design, urban design, and other design related fields. It aims to provide an international forum for the _______ of ideas and findings from researchers across different cultures and encourages research on the impact of cultural factors______ design theory and practice. It also seeks to promote the_______ of knowledge between professionals in academia and industry by emphasizing research in ______ results are of interest or applicable to design practices.

 

Option: Shift, which, on, where, exchange, for, swap, transfer

 

Answer: exchange, on, transfer, which 38. Deforestation

 

Deforestation can disrupt the lives of local communities, sometimes with devastating ________. Forests provide a vast array of ______to all of us, including doors, wood, medicine, fresh water, and the air we breathe. Without the trees, species can disappear, the natural water balance can become disrupted and the ecosystem that supports the human population can_______.

 

 

 

Option: Result, resources, origins, fall apart, consequences, fall down

 

 

Answer: consequences, resources, fall apart 39. Coral reefs

 

Coral reefs support more marine life than any other ocean ecosystem and are, not_____, a favourite pursuit for many divers. But as well as being physically and biologically spectacular, coral reefs also _____the livelihoods of over half a billion people. What is more, this number is expected to _____in coming decades while the area of high-quality reef is expected to halve.

 

Option: Stimulates, support, drop, double, surprisingly, ironically, change, engage

 

 

Answer: surprisingly; support; double 40. Flowers and nectar

 

Most people assume, correctly, that flowers look the way they do to attract insects that pollinate them. But that’s not the whole story. Scientists have now discovered that plants have another “trick up their leaves” to make themselves

 

_______to even the choosiest insect solar power. Cambridge University’s Beverly Glover and her _______recently set up some fake flowers filled with a sugar solution, which they kept at different temperatures. Unleashing a team of bumblebees on their floral ______, they watched as the insects visited the flowers to drink the surrogate nectar. Very quickly, it became obvious that the bees were concentrating on the flowers with the warmest nectar. Just in case it was something to do with the colour of the fake flowers, the scientists also tried a different colour combination and got the same_______.

 

Option: Inevitable, irresistible, relatives, offerings, thing, colleagues, result, group.

 

Answer: irresistible, colleagues, offerings, result.

 

  1. North Richmond Community Health Centre

 

When that happens, staff will help the person _______out and now a little

 

stressed — fish their drugs out of the rubbish. On their way out, they might have

 

a blood test, their first ______ check-up in years, or just a hot cup of Milo. “We

 

enable people to inject in the centre because that’s what they do,” the medical

 

director, Nico Clark, tells Guardian Australia during a recent visit to the North

 

Richmond Community Health Centre. “The majority are dependent on

 

their_______. The purpose is not to be a place that ______injection per se, the

 

______ of to keep people alive.”

 

Option: Dental, strung, point, conduct, substances, purpose, content, facilities, facilitates, intention

 

Answer: strung; dental; substances; facilitates; purpose

 

 

 

  1. Research

 

 

Research is a process of investigation leading to new insights effectively shared and is central to the purpose of any university. Students have the right to be taught by acknowledged _______in their field, which requires that staff members operate at the most advanced level appropriate to their_______ and level. Research is, therefore, crucial to a ________ student experience from further education to doctoral development.

 

Option: Principles, experts, staff, discipline, indifferent, positive

 

Answers: experts, discipline, positive 43. The phenomenon of globalization

 

The differences in ______ are so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the policy makers talking about the same______? Are they looking at the same data? Are the visions of those in power so clouded by special and particular______? What is this phenomenon of globalization that has been subject, at the same time, to such vilification and such praise? Fundamentally, it is the closer integration of the countries and the peoples of the world which has been ______ about by the enormous reduction in the costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of the artificial barriers to the flow of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and, (to a lesser extent), people across borders.

 

Option: Interests, phenomena, view, lead, phenomenon, taken, fields, brought

 

Answer: view, phenomena, interests, brought 44. Mass-communications

 

Traditionally, mass-communications research has conceptualized the process of communication in terms of a circulation circuit or loop. This _____ has been criticized for its linearity – sender/message/receiver -for its concentration on the level of message exchange and for the absence of a structured conception of the different moments as a complex structure of relations. But it is also possible and______ to think of this process in terms of a structure produced and sustained through the articulation of linked but distinctive moments – production, circulation, distribution/consumption, reproduction. This would be to think of the______ as a ‘complex structure in dominance’, sustained through the articulation of connected practices, each of which, however, retains its distinctiveness and has its own modality, its own_____ forms and conditions of existence.

 

Option: Possess, specific, exact, model, structure, process, impractical, useful

 

Answer: model, useful, process, specific 45. The Natural Capital Project

 

 

 

Capital has often been thought of narrowly as physical capital- the machines, tools, and equipment used in the production of other goods, but our wealth and wellbeing also ______on natural capital. If we forget this, we risk degrading the services that natural ecosystems provide, which _______our economies and sustain our lives. These services include purifying our water, _______ our climate, reducing flood risk, and pollinating our crops.

 

The Natural Capital Project—a partnership among WWF, The Nature Conservancy, University of Minnesota and Stanford University—works to provide decision makers with _____ways to assess the true value of the services that ecosystems provide.

 

 

Option: Support, eligible, managing, reliable, work, relies, regulating, stimulate

 

Answer: relies, support, regulating, reliable 46. Event management

 

Event management is particularly challenging from an operational viewpoint. In many cases, events are staged on sites where everything has been set up over a 24-hour period, with all elements carefully____________. In contrast, many events are years in the planning: large convention bids are often won five years before the event is held. For the very _______bidding process, budgets need to be developed and prices quoted, requiring a good understanding of market, economic and political trends, as well as consumer choices. This long-term view is the basis of strategic management, which is covered in Part 1, and focuses on the event concept, feasibility of the event, legal compliance and financial management. Marketing is a critical ________factor and other important topic of this first section, many events (sporting, cultural and arts) involving long-term sponsorship ______with key industry players. Relationship building is particularly since there are so many stakeholders involved in events, including government agencies at many levels. Part 1 will look at all these aspects, including strategic risk, before moving on to the second part where operational planning and/ C implementation will be covered in detail.

 

Option: Competitive, different, settled, candidates, challenging, synchronized, intense, arrangements, unique, success

 

Answer: synchronized, competitive, success, arrangements, challenging 47. Helping other people

 

There are many different ways of helping other people. Perhaps the most common of these involves giving others ______help. In our society there are many individuals who spontaneously help others in this way. Additionally, there are people who belong to organizations which have been set up to provide help to specific groups such as the elderly, individuals with a disability and those with physical or ______health problems. Most importantly, there are many____ such as nursing, involve professionals who are trained to provide or organize practical

 

 

 

help for others. ______helping other people in a practical way, many volunteer and professional helpers also make use of some counselling skills.

 

These skills can be very useful in enabling people to feel better as described in this book and our book, counselling skills in everyday life. However, it needs to be______ that just being able to make use of some counselling skills does not qualify a person as counsellor.

 

Option: Practical, infinite, By, mental, occupations, recognized, serious, real, jobs, While

 

Answer: practical, mental, occupations, while, recognized 48.

 

Although for centuries preparations derived from living MATTER were applied to wounds to destroy INFECTION, the fact that a microorganism is CAPABLE of destroying one of another species was not ESTABLISHED until the latter half of the 19th cent. When Pasteur noted the antagonistic effect of other bacteria on the anthrax organism and pointed out that this action might be put to THERAPEUTIC use

 

 

 

 

 

49.

 

To qualify, communities applying had to define the conservancy’s boundary, elect a REPRESENTATIVE conservancy committee, negotiate a legal constitution, prove the committee’s ability to MANAGE funds, and produce an acceptable plan for EQUITABLE distribution of wildlife-related benefits (Long 2004:33). Once approved, registered conservancies acquire the RIGHTS to a sustainable wildlife QUOTA set by the ministry. The animals can either be sold to trophy hunting companies or hunted and consumed by the community. As legal entities, conservancies can also enter into contracts with private-sector tourism operators.

 

50.

 

Never has the carbon footprint of multi-national corporations been under such intense scrutiny. Inter-city train journeys and long-haul flights to CONDUCT face-to-face business meetings contribute significantly to greenhouse gases and the resulting STRAIN on the environment.

 

The Anglo-US company Teliris has introduced a new video-conferencing technology and partnered with the Carbon Neutral Company, enabling corporate outfits to become more environmentally responsible. The innovation allows simulated face -to-face meetings to be held across continents without the time PRESSURE or environmental burden of international travel.

 

 

 

Previous designs have enabled video-conferencing on a point-to-point, dual – location basis. The firm’s VirtuaLive technology, however, can bring people together from up to five separate locations anywhere in the world – with UNRIVALLED transmission quality.

 

51.

 

Since the last papal reform, several proposals have been OFFERED to make the Western calendar more useful or REGULAR. Very few reforms have gained official ACCEPTANCE. The rather different decimal French Republican Calendar was one such official reform, but was abolished twelve years later by Napoleon. After World War II the newly-formed United Nations continued efforts of its predecessor, the League of Nations, to establish the proposed World Calendar but POSTPONED the issue after a veto from the US government, which was mainly based upon concerns of religious groups about the proposed days that would be outside the seven-day week cycle (“blank days”) and thus disrupt having a sabbath every seven days. Independently the World Council of Churches still tries to find a common rule for the date of Easter, [1] which might be eased by a new common calendar.

 

 

52.

 

The narrative of law and order is located fundamentally at the level of individual guilt and responsibility. Criminal acts are seen as individual issues of personal responsibility and CULPABILITY, to which the state responds by way of policing, PROSECUTION, adjudication and punishment.

 

This is but one level at which crime and criminal justice can be analysed. The problem is that so often analysis ends there, at the level of individual action, CHARACTERISED in terms of responsibility, guilt, evil.

 

In few other areas of social life does individualism have this hold. To take but one INSTANCE, it would be absurd to restrict analysis of obesity, to individual greed. It should similarly be widely seen as absurd to restrict analysis of criminal justice issues to the culpability of individuals.

 

53.

 

Drive down any highway, and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants— most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee’s, and Wendy’s, the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though, Burger King has fallen short of CLAIMING the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald’s No. 1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King Remains No. 2.

 

Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three CONTENDERS have increased.1 The decline has been ATTRIBUTED to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an

 

 

 

understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be RECTIFIED before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place.

 

54.

 

Chaucer’s Tales quickly SPREAD throughout England in the early fifteenth century. Scholars feel The Canterbury Tales REACHED their instant and continued success because of their accurate and oftentimes VIVID portrayal of human nature, unchanged through 600 years since Chaucer’s time.

 

55.

 

 

In search of lessons to APPLY in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because MOVES that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, APPROACH is to look at how such leaders think.

 

56.

 

Ikebana is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. It is more than simply putting flowers in a CONTAINER. It is a disciplined art form in which the

 

ARRANGEMENT is a living thing where nature and humanity are brought together. It is STEEPED in the philosophy of developing a closeness with nature. As is true of all other arts, ikebana is creative expression within certain rules of construction. Its materials are living branches, leaves, grasses, and BLOSSOMS. Its heart is the beauty resulting from color combinations, natural shapes, graceful lines, and the meaning latent in the total form of the arrangement. Ikebana is, therefore, much more than mere FLORAL DECORATION.

 

57.

 

There isn’t a financial director around who wouldn’t like to accelerate cash flow by reducing debtors days — in other words, get customers to pay up faster. In Europe’s top 1000 quoted companies, nearly one quarter of all invoices are unpaid at any point in time, according to recent research carried out by the ASF organization. This means they are sitting on a total of 274 bn overdue debt. Most of this is caused by poor collection practices. According to Jan Porter, ASF’s Managing Director, “You can set up all the systems you want, you can insist on watertight contracts and payment terms, the government can even introduce late payment legislation, but there are always come debtors who fail to pay on time”.

 

Once a payment is overdue, your first step is to talk to your debtor. You should let them know the payment is late and try to find out if there is a dispute about the work, or if your debtor has financial problems. This is OK, but Tim Vainio, a chartered accountant, believes that too many companies are afraid of losing a relationship, and that, before undertaking any action, the focus should be on recovering as much money as possible, rather than on preserving a relationship.

 

 

58.

 

 

Genius, in the popular conception, is inextricably tied up with precocity doing something truly creative, we’re inclined to think, requires the freshness and exuberance and energy of youth. Orson Welles made his masterpiece, “Citizen Kane,” at twenty-five. Herman Melville wrote a book a year through his late twenties, culminating at age thirty-two, with “Moby-Dick.” Mozart wrote his breakthrough Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-Flat-Major at the age of twenty-one. In some creative forms, like lyric poetry, the importance of precocity has hardened into an iron law. How old was T. S. Eliot when he wrote “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” (“I grow old … I grow old”)? Twenty-three. “Poets peak young,” the creativity researcher James Kaufman maintains. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, the author of “Flow,” agrees: “The most creative lyric verse is believed to be that written by the young.” According to the Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner, a leading authority on creativity, “Lyric poetry is a domain where talent is discovered early, burns brightly, and then peters out at an early age.”

 

 

59.

 

Dr Matthews said demographic characteristics had a substantial impact on the choices people made about KiwiSaver funds and retirement savings more generally.

 

When it came to fund selection, she found there were significant differences based on gender. Men are more likely to INVEST in aggressive and growth funds, while women are more likely to choose CONSERVATIVE funds.

 

“Males are risk takers, WHETHER it’s in their choice of car or their investment fund,” she says. “But when it comes to long-term savings, risk taking can ACTUALLY be an advantage.”

 

60.

 

Colourful poison frogs in the Amazon owe their great DIVERSITY to ancestors that leapt into the region from the Andes Mountains several times during the last 10 million years, a new study from The University of Texas at Austin suggests. This is the first study to show that the Andes have been a major source of diversity for the Amazon basin, one of the largest RESERVOIRS of biological diversity on Earth. The finding runs COUNTER to the idea that Amazonian diversity is the result of evolution only within the TROPICAL forest itself. “Basically, the Amazon basin is a ‘melting pot’ for South American frogs,” says graduate student Juan Santos, lead author of the study. “Poison frogs there have come from multiple places of origin, notably the Andes Mountains, over many millions of years. We have shown that you cannot understand Amazonian biodiversity by looking only in the BASIN. Adjacent regions have played a major role.”

 

 

 

61.

 

 

Once an organization has its product to sell, it must then DETERMINE the appropriate price to sell it at. The price is set by balancing many factors including supply-and-demand, cost, desired profit, competition, perceived value, and market behaviour. Ultimately, the final price is determined by what the market is willing to EXCHANGE for the product. Pricing theory can be quite complex because so many FACTORS influence what the purchaser DECIDES is a fair value

 

62.

 

The foreign policy of a state, it is often argued, begins and ends with the border. No doubt an exaggeration, this aphorism nevertheless has an ELEMENT of truth. A state’s relation with its neighbours, at least in the FORMATIVE years, are greatly INFLUENCED by its frontier policy, especially when there are no SETTLED borders. Empire builders in the past sought to extend imperial frontiers for a variety of reasons; subjugation of kings and princes to gain their allegiance (as well as handsome tributes for the coffers of the state), and, security of the ‘core’ of the empire from external attacks by establishing a string of buffer states in areas ADJOINING the frontiers. The history of British empire in India was no different. It is important to note in this connection that the concept of international boundaries (between two sovereign states), demarcated and delineated, was yet to emerge in India under Mughal rule.

 

 

63.

 

What can computer science tell us about what biological systems do and how they do it? Can these chemical information-processing functions be REPLICATED in digital computing systems? What are the IMPLICATIONS of developments in computer science in understanding the nature of causality? Aaron Sloman, author of Computer Revolution in Philosophy DELVES into the world of connections between ideas developed in computer science, biology and philosophy, providing new INSIGHTS into some fundamental questions about the nature of consciousness and free will.

 

64.

 

Language comes so naturally to us that it is easy to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is. All over the world members of our SPECIES fashion their breath into hisses and hums and squeaks and pops and listen to others do the same. We do this, of course, not only because we like the sounds but because details of the sounds contain information about the INTENTIONS of the person making them. We humans are fitted with a means of sharing our ideas, in all their unfathomable vastness. When we listen to speech, we can be led to think thoughts that have never been thought before and that never would have occurred to us on our own. Behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy

 

 

 

disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence. Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as King without the help and support of the woman I love.

 

65.

 

In the process of studying these techniques, I learned something REMARKABLE: that there’s far more potential in our MINDS than we often give them credit for. I’m not just talking about the fact that it’s possible to memorize lots of INFORMATION using memory techniques. I’m talking about a lesson that is more GENERAL, and in a way much bigger: that it’s possible, with training and hard work, to teach oneself to do something that might seem really

 

DIFFICULT.

 

66.

 

The horned desert viper’s ability to hunt at night has always puzzled biologists. Though it lies with its HEAD buried in the sand, it can strike with great precision as soon as prey appears. Now, Young and physicists Leo van Hemmen and Paul Friedel at the Technical University of Munich in Germany have developed a computer model of the snake’s auditory SYSTEM to explain how the snake “hears” its prey without really having the ears for it. Although the vipers have INTERNAL ears that can hear FREQUENCIES between 200 and 1000 hertz, it is not the sound of the mouse scurrying about that they are detecting. “The snakes don’t have external EARDRUMS,” says Van Hemmen. “So unless the mouse wears boots and starts stamping, the snake won’t hear it.”

 

66.

 

`SUSTAINABLE JOB GROWTH’ is a motto for many governments, especially in the aftermath of a recession. The problem of ‘job quality’ is less often addressed and may be seen as HINDERING job growth. The sentiment ‘any job is better than no job’ may resonate with governments as well as people, especially in the context of high unemployment. However, if the balance between improving the quality of EXISTING jobs and creating new jobs becomes greatly imbalanced towards the latter, this could increase work Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh has become the first in Europe to offer an MBA in Arabic among CURRENT and future workers, which in turn has health, economic and social costs. A recent British Academy Policy Centre Report on Stress at Work highlights these CONCERNS, and describes the context, determinants and consequences of work-related stress in Britain.

 

67.

 

Agrarian parties are political parties chiefly representing the interests of peasants or, more broadly, the rural sector of society. The extent to which they are important, or WHETHER they even exist, depends mainly on two factors.

 

 

 

One, obviously, is the size of an identifiable peasantry, or the size of the rural relative TO the urban population. The other is a matter of social integration: FOR agrarian parties to be important, the representation of countryside or peasantry must not be integrated WITH the other major sections of society. THUS a country might possess a sizeable rural population, but have an economic system in which the interests of the voters were predominantly related to their incomes, not to their occupations or location; and in such a country the political system would be unlikely to include an important agrarian party.

 

68.

 

Spending too much time in the concrete jungle is bad for city DWELLERS’ health and could have potentially catastrophic CONSEQUENCES for the environment, conservation biologist Richard Fuller will argue during a seminar at the University of Canberra TODAY. Dr Fuller, lecturer in biodiversity and conservation at the University of Queensland and CSIRO, will explore the fact that although there’s evidence that the well-being of humans increases with EXPOSURE to our surrounding biodiversity, the OPPORTUNITIES for people to experience nature are declining rapidly in the modern world.

 

 

69.

 

So how do we prevent a mass exodus from work to retirement?

 

For a start, we need to change our CONCEPT of ‘retirement’, and we need to change mindsets arising from earlier government policy which, in the face of high unemployment levels, encouraged mature workers to take early retirement. Today, government encourages them to DELAY their retirement.

 

We now need to think of retirement as a phased process, where mature age workers GRADUALLY reduce their hours, and where they have considerable flexibility in how they combine their work and non-work time.

 

We also need to recognise the broader change that is occurring in how people work, learn, and live. Increasingly we are moving away from a linear relationship between education, training, work, and retirement, as people move in and out of jobs, careers, caregiving, study, and leisure. Employers of choice remove the BARRIERS between the different segments of people’s lives, by creating flexible conditions of work and a range of leave entitlements. They take an individualised approach to workforce planning and development so that the needs of employers and employees can be met SIMULTANEOUSLY.

 

70.

 

The Dag Hammarskjold Library at United Nations Headquarters in New York is a library designated to facilitate the work of the United Nations and focuses mainly on the needs of the UN Secretariat and diplomatic missions. Anyone with a valid United Nations Headquarters grounds PASS, including specialized agencies, accredited media and NGO staff, is able to visit the library. Due to

 

 

 

SECURITY constraints in place at the United Nations Headquarters complex, the library is not open to the general PUBLIC.

 

71.

 

UWS graduates Racha Abboud and Anna Ford, whose story first appeared in GradLife in December 2009, have SUCCESSFULLY risen through the ranks to be APPOINTED Associates at leading western Sydney law firm, Coleman Greig Lawyers. The promotion marks the CULMINATION of many years of hard work for these legal EAGLES who are the first to rise to this LEVEL from the firm’s Cadet Lawyer program with UWS.




72.

 

 

People who visit health professionals tend to be older than the

 

GENERAL population, because illness increases with age. However, the PROPORTION of the population who visited complementary health therapists was highest between the ages 25 and 64 years. The lower rates for people aged 65 years and over CONTRASTED with the rate of visits to other health professionals which increased steadily with increasing age. The reasons for this difference

 

might include lower levels of ACCEPTANCE of complementary therapies by older people. Alternatively, older people may have different treatment priorities than do younger people because their health on average is worse while their incomes are generally lower.

 

  1. Hard work

 

It is important to _______________the need for hard work as an essential part of studying law, because far too many students are tempted to think that they can succeed by relying on what they imagine to be their natural ability, without bothering to add the expenditure of effort. To take an analogy some people prefer the more or less instant ____________which comes from watching television adaptation of a classic novel to the rather more _______________process of reading the novel itself. Those who

 

___________watching television to reading the book are less likely to study law successfully, unless they rapidly acquire a _____________for text- based

 

  1. notice/ emphasize/ remember/ note

 

  1. gratification/ enjoyment/ satisfaction/ excitement

 

  1. effortless/ laborious/ complex/ simple

 

  1. prefer/ interest/ like/ enjoy

 

  1. taste/ knowledge/ idea/ motivation

 

Answer: emphasize, gratification, laborious, prefer, taste

 

 

 

  1. Dark energy

 

 

Arguably the greatest mystery facing humanity today is the prospect that 75% of the universe is made up of a ____________known as “dark energy”, about which we have almost no knowledge at all. Since a further 21% of the universe is made from invisible “dark matter” that can only be __________through its gravitational effects, the ordinary matter and energy making up the Earth, planets and stars is apparently only a tiny part of what exists. These

 

____________require a shift in perception as great as that made after Copernicus’s.

 

  1. material/ matter/ substance/ fabric

 

  1. detected/ identified/ found/ observed

 

  1. discoveries/ findings/ inventions/ detection

 

  1. revelation/ publication/ exhibition/ announcement

 

Answer: substance, detected, discoveries, revelation 75. The emperor penguin

 

The emperor is the giant of the penguin world and the most iconic of the birds of Antarctica. Gold patches on their ears and on the top of their chest brighten up their black heads. Emperors and their closest relative, the king penguin, have unique breeding cycles, with very long chick-rearing periods. The emperor penguins breed the furthest south of any penguin species, forming large colonies on the sea-ice surrounding the Antarctic continent. They are true Antarctic birds, rarely ____________in the sub Antarctic waters.

 

So that the chicks can fledge in the late summer season, emperors breed during the cold, dark winter, with temperatures as low at -50°C and winds

___________to 200km per hour. They trek 50-120 km (30-75 mls) over the ice to breeding colonies which may include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg in May then passes it over to her mate to incubate ___________she goes to sea to feed. For nine weeks the male fasts, losing 45% of his body weight.

 

The male balances the egg on his feet, which are ___________in a thick roll of skin and feathers. The egg can be 70°C warmer than the outside temperature.

 

  1. have seen/ seen/ seeing/ see

 

  1. off/ on/ out/ up

 

  1. after/ during/ before/ whilst

 

  1. protecting/ covered/ covering/ protected

 

Answer: seen, up, whilst, covered

 

  1. Economic inequality

 

 

 

For the past thirty years, the United States has been conducting what one observer (Samuelson 2001) has called “a massive social experiment” regarding the political and social consequences of increasing economic inequality. The share of national income going to families in the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution ___________by about one-fifth, from 17.4% in 1973 to

 

13.9% in 2001, while the share going to families in the top 5 percent increased by more than one-third, from 15.5% to 21.0%. _______________, the share of income going to the top one-tenth of one percent quadrupled between 1970 and 1998, leaving the 13,000 richest families in America with almost as much income as the 20 million poorest families. The economic causes of these trends— technological change? demography? global competition? — are a matter of some

 

___________controversy. But the important political point is that, whereas richest democracies have significantly mitigated increasing economic inequality through government action, the United States has mostly been content to let economic trends take their course, doing “less than almost any other rich democracy to ___________economic inequality” through employment and wage policies, taxes, and transfers.

 

  1. declined/ declining/ defined/ declined

 

  1. Because/ Meanwhile/ Thus/ besides

 

  1. scholar/ scholarliness/ scholarship/ scholarly

 

  1. cut/ improve/ limit/ increase

 

Answer: declined, Meanwhile, scholarly, limit 77. Cardona Salt Mountain

 

Formed two million years ago when low-density salt was pushed up through the much harder materials surrounding it, the Cardona Salt Mountain is one of the largest domes of its kind in the world, and unique in Europe. While small amounts of other minerals pervade the savory hill, the salt pile would have a near translucent quality if not for the thin layer of reddish clay coating the exterior. The ___________of the mountain was recognized as early as the middle ages when Romans began exploiting the mountain for its salt, which began to bolster the young Cardonian ___________. With the invention of industrial mining techniques, a mine was built into the side of the mountain and a thriving facility formed at its base as excavators dragged enormous amounts of potash (water-soluble) salt from the innards of the hill. In addition to the mineral export, the locals of Cardona began making salt sculptures to sell and invented a number of hard, salty pastries unique to the area.

 

  1. vibration/ significance/ significant/ magnificent

 

  1. trend/ correspondence/ economy/ accordance

 

Answer: significance, economy

 

  1. Education for Global Leadership

 

 

 

To _______the twenty-first century challenges to our economy and national security, our education system must be strengthened to increase the foreign language skills and cultural awareness of our students. America’s continued global leadership will depend on our students’ abilities to _________with the world community both inside and outside our borders.

 

  1. solve/ reduce/ confront/ eliminate

 

  1. interact/ relate/ talk/ speak

 

Answer: confront; interact 79. The Romans

 

Over many centuries and across many territories the Romans were able to win an astonishing number of military victories and their success was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool of fighting men to draw upon, a disciplined and innovative army, a centralized command and line of supply, expert engineers, effective diplomacy

 

__________a network of allies, and an inclusive approach to conquered peoples which allowed for the strengthening and broadening of the Roman power and logistical bases. ______________, her allies not only supplied, equipped and paid for additional men but they also supplied vital materials such as grain and ships. On top of all this Rome was more or less in a continuous state of war or readiness for it and believed absolutely in the necessity of defending and imposing on others what she firmly believed was her cultural superiority.

 

  1. through/ on/ over/ across

 

  1. because/ so/ further/ recently

 

Answer: through, Further

 

 

SST

  1. Detraditionalization Transcript:

 

So, I think you all know what I mean by globalization, don’t you? This is the idea that we all live in a global village. With instant communications, we can share ideas, and consume cultural artifacts from countries all over the world, just by going into the Internet and all dream up, basically. The world is shrinking. In terms of speeds, it is accelerating, but in terms of distance, it’s shrinking. What do I mean by detraditionalization? I mean the disappearance or the erosion, for the better word to use, the erosion of traditional cultures, of conventional ways of doing things, of conventional moralities. More and of traditional cultures, of conventional ways of doing things, of conventional moralities. More and more young people around the world are rejecting the culture they grow up in, and it’s probably a little bit cruel. But people have already started imitating a Hollywood model of society, rather than the one which they inherit from their local tradition background.

 

 

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is that globalisation has revolutionized the way how people share information and it comprises that the world is shrinking. Additionally, globalisation weakens or even erodes local traditions and cultures. Considering the most substantial insights which are sped feed here, there is an increasing number of people reject the culture they grow up in and imitate the mainstream culture of the globe instead.

 

  1. Cultural absolutism

 

  • Absolutism refers to the claim that there exists a universally valid moral system, which applies to everyone whether they realize it or not, and it contains rules, guidelines and principles which are universal.

 

  • It is like a road map to guide individual and social behavior.

 

  • Some principles of absolutism cannot be violated or betrayed and they have wide acceptance without assumptions and interpretations.

 

  1. Cultural diversity in Australia Transcript:

 

One in four of Australia’s 22 million people were born overseas; 46 per cent have at least one parent who was born overseas; and nearly 20 per cent of Australians speak a language other than English at home. In 2013, overseas migration represented 60 per cent of Australia’s population growth in the year. People born in the United Kingdom continue to be the largest group of overseas-born residents (5.3 per cent), followed by New Zealand (2.6 per cent), China (1.8 per cent), India (1.6 per cent) and Vietnam (0.9 per cent).

 

 

 

In 2013-14, 163017 people from more than 190 countries were approved to become Australian citizens. Migrants make an enormous contribution to Australia’s economy and provide an estimated fiscal benefit of over 10 billion dollars in their first ten years of settlement. In 2010-11, international education activity contributed $16.3 billion to the Australian economy.

 

Answer: Being a multicultural country, Australia has migrations from all over the world, which makes it the home to the world’s oldest continuous cultures. According to the statistics, nearly a half of the Australian population were born overseas or have a foreign-born parent. In addition, migrants’ contributions to Australia’s economy are enormous as estimation shows over 10 billion dollars of fiscal benefit was provided in their first 10 years of settlement.

 

 

  1. Roman architecture Transcript:

 

But you can see from the relatively crooked and narrow streets of the city of Rome, as they look from above today, you can see that again the city grew in a fairly ad hoc way, as I mentioned. It wasn’t planned all at once, it just grew up over time, beginning in the eighth century B.C. Now this is interesting because what we know about the Romans is when they were left to their own devices, and they could build a city from scratch, they didn’t let it grow in an ad hoc way. They structured it in a very methodical way. It was basically based on military strategy, military planning. The Romans, they couldn’t have conquered the world without obviously having a masterful military enterprise, and everywhere they went on their various campaigns, their various military campaigns, they would build camps, and those camps were always laid out in a very geometric plan, along a grid, usually square or rectangular.

 

So when we begin to see the Romans building their ideal Roman city, they turn to that so-called cestrum, or military camp design, and they build their cities that way.

 

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is the way in which the Romans planned and built their cities. Additionally, Rome was built in a methodical manner based on military planning although Rome itself grew in a very ad hoc way. Roman camps they built were always laid out in a geometric plan which was either square or rectangular, as the way how they were designed for military purpose.

 

5.

 

Ever try to get a baby to smile? It can seem close to impossible—and then suddenly there it is: that elusive, seemingly joyous grin. Well, it turns out those smiles aren’t spontaneous—they’re strategic. Researchers have found that when babies smile, it’s for a reason. They want whoever they’re interacting with— typically a parent—to smile back. And they time it just so, a smile here and a smile there. The researchers call it sophisticated timing. The study is in the

 

 

 

journal PLoS ONE. The researchers enlisted real mothers and infants and quantified their interactions, which fell into four categories. One: babies wanted to maximize the amount of time smiling at their mothers. Two: they wanted to maximize the time the mothers smiled at them. Three: they wanted to experience simultaneous smiling, and four: no smiling at all. By studying when smiles happened and what the subsequent effect was, the investigators were able to figure out that for mothers the goal 70 percent of the time was to be smiling simultaneously—while for babies 80 percent of the time they just wanted their mother smiling at them. So, mothers want the interaction, while babies just want to be smiled at. So your baby may not be able to feed itself, talk or even turn over yet. But when it comes to smiles, babies seem to know exactly what they’re up to.

 

 

6.

 

To understand the Fight or Flight response it helps to think about the role of emotions in our lives. Many of us would prefer to focus on our logical, thinking nature and ignore our sometimes troublesome emotions, but emotions have a purpose. Our most basic emotions like fear, anger or disgust are vital messengers: they evolved as signals to help us meet our basic needs for self-preservation and safety. It would be dangerous to be indecisive about a threat to our survival so the brain runs information from our senses through the most primitive, reactive parts of our brain first. These areas of the brain control instinctive responses and they don’t do too much thinking. This more primitive part of our brain communicates with the rest of our brain and our body to create signals we can’t ignore easily: powerful emotions and symptoms.

 

7.

 

Through the 1950s and into the 1960s, the idea of the Industrial Revolution was that it was the work of some genius inventors who created machines used primarily in the textile industry but also in mining that eliminated blocks to assembly line production. Then everybody was crowded into factories and the new brave world opened up. In fact, one of the most interesting books and great classics that is still in print was written by an economic historian at Harvard who’s still alive called David Landes. It’s a good book called The Unbound Prometheus, which was basically that. Some of the inventions that I briefly describe in your reading, the spinning Jenny, etc, refer to that. Well, and that kind of analysis led one to concentrate on England where the Industrial Revolution began, and to view industrialization as beginning a situation of winners and losers by not going as fast. Now, that analysis has been really rejected greatly over the past years, because Industrial Revolution is measured by more than simply large factories with industrial workers and the number of machines. This is the point of the beginning of this. The more that we look at the Industrial Revolution, the more that we see that the Industrial Revolution was first and foremost an intensification of forms of production, of kinds of production that were already there. And thus, we spend more time looking at,

 

 

 

you know, the intensification of artisanal production, craft production, of domestic industry, which we’ve already mentioned, that is people mostly women but also men and children, too, working in the countryside. The rapid rise of industrial production was very much tied to traditional forms of production.

 

8.

 

Internet, an innovation by graduate students and researchers who were good at programming, can achieve many things but has both advantages and disadvantages.

 

Initially, internet didn’t take security into consideration because there was no suspicion between internet users at that time, such as the email system. Using email needs trust between the senders and the receivers as the authentication process was not originally built in this system.

 

 

9.

 

But you can see from the relatively crooked and narrow streets of the city of Rome as they look from above today. You can see that again, the city grew in a

 

fairly ad hoc(临时安排的) way, as I mentioned. It wasn’t planned all at once. It

 

just grew up over time, beginning in the eighth century B.C. Now this is interesting because what we know about the Romans is when they were left to own devices and they could build the city from scratch, they didn’t let it grow in an ad hoc way. They structure it in a, in a very care, very methodical way. That was basically based on military strategy, military planning. The Romans they couldn’t have conquered the world without obviously having a masterful military enterprise and everywhere they went on their various campaigns, their various military campaigns. They would build, build camps and those camps were always laid out in a very geometric plan along a grid, usually square or rectangular. So, when we begin to see the Romans building their ideal Roman city, then turn to

 

that so call castrum(古罗马兵营) or military camp design.

 

10.

 

The body also manufactures vitamin D from cholesterol, through a process triggered by the action of sunlight on skin, hence its nickname, “the sunshine vitamin.” Yet some people do not make enough vitamin D from the sun, among them, people who have a darker skin tone, who are overweight, who are older, and who cover up when they are in the sun. Correctly applied sunscreen reduces our ability to absorb vitamin D by more than 90 percent. And not all sunlight is created equal: The sun’s ultraviolet B (UVB) rays—the so-called “tanning” rays, and the rays that trigger the skin to produce vitamin D—are stronger near the equator and weaker at higher latitudes. So in the fall and winter, people who live at higher latitudes (in the northern U.S. and Europe, for example) can’t make much if any vitamin D from the sun.

 

11.

 

 

 

And then in the 1950s, philosophers had this novel idea that perhaps the mind is just identical with the brain. 0K? And this hadn’t occurred to philosophers before, and so happen, it happened around the same time the first department of neuroscience started forming like MIT in Sandford so forth. But basically, there is a couple of philosophers both educated here in Oxford Place (1956) and Smart (1959), and they made the claim that the mind just is the brain. So that is the identity theory and with identity, identity in logic is the strongest relation. When you have identity between A and B, you don’t have two things, you have one thing. Alright? So now when you talk about mental events, you are talking about brain events. Maybe when you talk about brain events, you are talking about mental events. So that’s the identity theory. The identity theory is very popular and the basic idea is that mental properties are just properties of the brain.

 

 

12.

 

One of the things that was going on during the Great Depression was the beginning of this sort of modern food technology that rules, you know, the way Americans eat today. That is there are a lot of canned foods were being – coming onto the market at the time. And also, refrigerators were really becoming very, very popular during the Great Depression, both in cities and in rural parts of the country. Thanks to electrification, the Rural Electrification Administration, people could buy appliances. You know, farmers could buy appliances. And that meant frozen foods were becoming big. And, you know, at that time, few people could afford to buy them during the early years of the Great Depression. But, you know, gradually, these things picked up. And so this was, like, the sort of beginning of the era when people were starting to think about supermarkets with rows and rows of freezer cases and rows and rows of canned foods.

 

13.

 

The comics I show you with lots of people chatting around in a room is a form of description. We use different kinds of methods to describe a situation. Sometimes we have to use visual description, particularly when we do not witness the scenario. I was born during the Second World War and my hometown is X, for example when I asked my mother about the war, I always ask her you have mentioned this or that when you talked to me when asked her about the shelter, I asked her what the shelter looks like and when did you go to the shelter. From her response I could get more visual evidence as I can to write my book.

 

14.

 

The National Oceanography Center (NOC) is engaged in research into the potential risks and benefits of exploiting deep-sea mineral resources, some of which are essential for low-carbon technology, as well as using ocean robots to estimate the environmental impact of these potential deep-sea mining activities. Late last year the NOC led an expedition on the RRS James Cook that found enough of the scarce element Tellurium present in the crust of a submerged

 

 

 

volcano that, if it were all to be used in the production of solar PV panels, could provide two-thirds of the UK’s annual electricity supply. Recently, the NOC also led an international study demonstrating deep-sea nodule mining will cause long-lasting damage to deep-sea life, lasting at least for decades. These nodules are potato-sized rocks containing high levels of metals, including copper, manganese and nickel. They grow very slowly on the sea-bed, over millions of years. Although no commercial operations exist to extract these resources, many are planned. Professor Edward Hill, Executive Director at the NOC commented, “By 2050 there will be nine billion people on earth and attention is increasingly turning to the ocean, particularly the deep ocean, for food, clean supplies of energy and strategic minerals. The NOC is undertaking research related to many aspects and perspectives involved in exploiting ocean resources. This research is aimed at informing with sound scientific evidence the decisions that will need to be taken in the future, as people increasingly turn to the oceans to address some of society’s greatest challenges.”

 

 

15.

 

The lecturer used to live in West London and every time he walked through the streets there, he saw many ugly buildings on the both sides. Those ugly buildings last hundreds of years and had long-term negative impacts on beholders by causing frustration (and anger, unlike a bad book, which last just several years. Architects should learn from some buildings in Rome, which are beautiful and have last since ancient times. But architects say beauty is an arrogant word and do not think their works are ugly, because beauty is in the eye of the beholders.

 

 

16.

 

I suppose it’s the truism to point out that citizens need to be well informed. Maybe it’s something we take for granted in our liberal western democracies. But there will be plenty of societies, well, that is run counter to explicit government policy. Many areas of the world still suffer from the reverie of the deliberate missing information. Governments, especially the unelected ones, but also some elected ones, have denied the events that have ever taken place. They pretend that other events did take place. They would help spin what they cannot deny. Ensure they’ve used every trick of the book, to pull the eyes of the world, and in an attempt to cover up their mistakes.

 

17.

 

The pace, the pace of which that the human minds have evolved over the last half million years and more recently the last 200,000 years has been so frighteningly rapid that the evolution of cognitive function and perception in different ways, can only happen to the actions of a small number of genes. If one needed to adapt dozens of genes changes and concert, in order to acquire the penetrating minds that we now have, which our ancestors 500,000 years ago

 

 

 

didn’t have, the evolution could not have taken, could not have occurred so quickly. And for that reason alone, one begins to suspect that the genetic differences between people who lived 500,000 years ago sever that cognitive functions than ours are not so large. Therefore, a rather small number of genes, maybe responsible for comforting us that powerful minds which we now, which the most of us now possessed.

 

18.

 

The aperture of a telescope is several times larger than the aperture of human eye so that the objects that cannot be normally seen by unaided eye can be seen. Light-gathering power of a telescope is proportional to the area of its aperture and hence depends on the square of the radius of the mirror. Therefore, a 20 cm diameter telescope collects four times more photons than a 10 cm diameter telescope. A telescope can be equipped to record light over a long period of time, by using photographic film or electronic detectors such as photometers or CCD detectors while the eye has no capability to store light. Along-exposure photograph taken through a telescope reveals objects too faint to be seen with the eye, even by looking through the same telescope. A third major advantage of large telescopes is that they have superior resolution, the ability to discern fine detail. Small resolution is good. The resolution is directly proportional to the wavelength being observed and inversely proportional to the diameter of the telescope.

 

 

19.

 

The book Travels of Sir John Mandeville was popular in the 1300s and 1400s. The book is in the library as a guidance,describing his supposed travels to the Mid-East, Africa and Asia. This book is valuable although its descriptions about foreign lands were not true. It only shows how European people thought about foreign lands outside Europe as well as their imagination of the unknown.

 

20.

 

Why should we read the Republic? I image lots of students asked this question to me when they’re given it as a set book at the beginning of their university course, but in fact there are many good reasons to read the Republic. And first one I would pick on is just that it is immensely readable. It’s not Plato did not write philosophy like a dry text book. He wrote it like a living conversation. The whole of the Republic which is fairly fat book is a living conversation written in short almost soundbite type answers, but nevertheless, developing some very important ideas so my first answer then we should read the Republic just because it is readable. It is readable it was written by a genius and it’s worth reading. It’s easy to read. It’s not difficult. But then there’s also obviously the thoughts, the content of the book and he’s asking this absolutely fundamental question why should we bother to be good, what’s in it for us effectively. It seems when we look at the world, it looks as though injustice pays. It looks as though crime pays or as the good people get trodden down. So, Plato addresses

 

 

 

this absolutely fundamental question why should we be good. I’m not going to tell you his answer. Read the book.

 

21.

 

Architecture design is important to buildings. In the Victoria era, architects designed buildings based on bricks and other materials. The design of floors was based on lighting as it will not only affect appearance but also health conditions. In the 20th century, many buildings with design flaws were demolished or modified through a natural selection process, though it’s argued to be unfair for the buildings.

 

22.

 

 

Well an historical linguist compares languages at several levels. You start out looking for basic vocabulary. All languages of the world, natural languages at least, have words for eye and head and nose and ear and for sky and earth and for water, sand and for sibling, mother and father. They may not have words for uncle and aunt. It becomes much vaguer because in one culture an aunt is different when it comes from your father’s side than from your mother’s side. You don’t include snow. Most people know what snow is but in the tropics you don’t have it. So you look for notions that are totally comparable and that occur everywhere in the world. You can the hundred or two hundred most universal notions in a human life, those which you call the basic vocabulary. So you take basic vocabularies and languages that you think are related. You look for words that sound the same and basically you’re not fooled by a hundred per cent identical words but you are really looking for words, while they are different in one language from the other, the sounds correspond but every sound has to correspond to maybe a totally different sound in the other language that you compare it with but in the end it’s the regularity of the correspondences between sounds that are really important and not so much whether a word sounds the same as in another language.

 

Listening FIB

 

1.

 

Those of you who’ve never heard the term neo-Latin, may be forgiven for thinking it’s a new South American dance craze. If you’re puzzled when I tell you it has something to do with the language of Romans, take heart, over the years many classes who have confessed they are not really sure what it is either. Some have assumed that they are so-called ‘Late-Latin’, written at the end of the Roman Empire. Others have supposed it must have something to do with the middle ages. Or perhaps it’s that pseudo -Latin which my five and seven-year-old boys seem to have gleaned from the Harry Potter books, useful for spells and curses that they zip one another with makeshift paper ash ones. No, in fact, neo-Latin is more or less the same as the Latin that was written in the ancient world, classical Latin. So, what’s so new about it?

 

 

2.

 

For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.

 

3.

 

The ocean has been getting bluer, according to a study published in the journal Nature. But that’s not really good news for the planet. It means that the plants that give the ocean its green tint aren’t doing well. Scientists say that’s because the ocean has been getting warmer.

 

4.

 

Now that story’s been scotched, as only part of contingency planning. But it was a symptom of the dramatic turn of events in South Australia, and it flushed out other remarks from water academics and people like Tim Flannery, indicating that things were really much worse than had been foreshadowed, even earlier this year. So is Adelaide, let alone some whole regions of South Australia, in serious bother?

 

Considering that the vast amount of its drinking water comes from the beleaguered Murray, something many of us outside the State may not have quite realized. Is their predicament something we have to face up to as a nation?

 

5.

 

Laurence Stephen Lowry RBS RA was an English artist. Many of his drawings and paintings depict Pend Lebury, Lancashire, where he lived and worked for more than 40 years, and also Salford and its surrounding areas. Lowry is famous for

 

 

 

painting scenes of life in the industrial districts of North West England in the mid-20th century. He developed a distinctive style of painting and is best known for his urban landscapes peopled with human figures often referred to as matchstick man. He painted mysterious unpopulated landscapes, brooding portraits and the unpublished “narionette” works, which were only found after his death.

 

6.

 

In animals, a movement is coordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cord called the central contract patterns generator (CPG). This produces signals that drive muscles to contract rhythmically in a way that produces running or walking, depending on the pattern of pulses. A simple signal from the brain instructs the CPG to switch between modes such as going from a standstill to walking.

 

 

7.

 

Along the way, we have built unashamedly beautiful buildings, two of which have won and been runner-up in the prestigious United Nations World Habitat Award: the first time an Australian building has received that international honor. We rely on older concepts of Australian architecture that are heavily influenced by the bush. All residents have private verandas which allow them to socialize outdoors and also creates some “defensible space” between their bedrooms and public areas. We use a lot of natural or soft materials and build beautiful landscaped gardens.

 

8.

 

That brings us to the CEO’s second duty: building everyone or more accurately, building the senior team. All the executives report to the CEO, so it’s the CEO’s job to hire fire, and manage the executive team. From coaching CEOs, I actually think this is the most important skill of all. Because when a CEO hires an excellent senior team, that team can keep the company running. when a CEO hire a poor senior team, the CEO is up spending all of their time trying to do with the team, and not nearly enough time trying to do with other elements of their job. The senior team can and often does develop the strategy for the company, but ultimately it’s always the CEO who has the final ‘go-no-go’ decision on strategy.

 

9.

 

Last year, astronomers observed two neutron stars collide. A crash transmitted in gravitational waves to detectors here on Earth. Represented in sound, you can hear a small upwards sweep in frequency, in the data, if you listen closely.

 

Several seconds later, the first waves of electromagnetic radiation arrived here on Earth – the first time a collision has been detected by both light and gravitational waves. And it’s in studying the electromagnetic echoes of the collision that astrophysicists have gotten a far better glimpse of what really



happened after those binary neutron stars merged, 130 million light years away. “Oh yeah, absolutely, so it gives us an understanding of basically all the nitty-gritty of what’s going on after the merger takes place.” Kunal Mooley, an astrophysicist at Caltech. First, he says, the stars collided, creating a massive, black hole like object, which started sucking up the cloud of neutron-rich cosmic debris left over from the crash. But its appetite was limited. “It cannot eat all of it, so some bit of it basically escapes.” Those escaping leftovers spewed outward into space, as a powerful jet. But along the way, Mooley says, the jet appears to have interacted with that cloud of neutron-rich material, blowing up a sort of cocoon within the debris floating around the collision. Until finally, the jet burst out and slammed into interstellar space releasing yet more radiation we could detect here on Earth.

 

 

10.

 

To figure out these counterintuitive findings, the researchers conducted an experiment in a hotel room. They rounded up some lizards, gave them a perch, and used a leaf blower to mimic the effects of high winds. They set up a net to catch any lizards that lost their grip. As the artificial wind blew, the lizards moved so the perch took most of the air flow. But their hind legs would stick out, and if those rear limbs stuck out too far, they acted as sails. “Eventually those back legs were blown off the perch, and the lizards were just holding on with their front two legs. And they could only hold on like that for so long as the wind speed increased further and further, until eventually they were blown off the perch and into the nets, so shorter back legs gave a survival advantage. A trait that might be passed on to the next lizard generation.

 

11.

 

Crows, she says, are what’s known as “partial migrants.” Every year, some members of the population migrate between breeding grounds and their overwintering grounds–like parking lots. But others just stay put. So Townsend and her colleagues wanted to know if that urge to migrate was something individual crows can turn on and off. To find out, they captured 18 crows from overwintering spots in California and New York. They fitted the birds with little backpack satellite tags, and tracked them for several years. Overall, three quarters of the birds migrated, an average of 300 miles. And more importantly, if they migrated once, they did it every year–suggesting traveling is not a habit they switch on and off. The researchers also found that migrating crows returned faithfully to the same breeding grounds every year–but were more flexible on where to overwinter. Which could be a good thing.

 

12.

 

Abandoned Pueblos are scattered throughout the south-western U.S. And at many, archaeologists have uncovered a curious artefact: the skeletons of scarlet macaws. The birds’ bright red feathers are known to have been an important status symbol, a signifier of prestige for people throughout the

 

 

 

American tropics and the southwest, both in the ancient world and today. But macaws are a tropical bird, whose range never extended north of today’s U.S.-Mexico border. So how did the Pueblo people obtain the birds? To examine the birds’ origin, scientists sequenced mitochondrial DNA found within macaw bones from two sites in New Mexico: Chaco Canyon and the Mimbres region. Turns out, nearly three quarters of the birds had identical mitochondrial genome sequences–meaning the ancient birds came from the same maternal line. That suggests they were all the products of a breeding operation, perhaps in modern-day northern Mexico, rather than a random collection of wild-caught birds.

 

13.

 

 

Bruch and her colleague Mark Newman studied who swapped messages with whom on a popular online dating platform in the month of January 2014. They categorized users by desirability using PageRank, one of the algorithms behind search technology. Essentially if you receive a dozen messages from desirable users, you must be more desirable than someone who receives the same number of messages from average users. Then they asked: How far “out of their league” do online daters tend to go when pursuing a partner? “I think people are optimistic realists in other words, they found that both men and women tended to pursue mates just 25 percent more desirable than themselves. “So they’re being optimistic, but they’re also taking into account their own relative position within this overall desirability hierarchy.” And the study did have a few more lessons for people on the market: “I think one of the take-home messages from this study is that women could probably afford to be more aspirational in their mate pursuit.”

 

 

 

Write from Dictation

 

  1. When launching a product, research and marketing are very vital.

 

  1. Water taps on the campus will discourage the frequent use of plastic bottles.

 

  1. Tours operate all year around, but the busier season runs from May.

 

  1. Click the logo above to enter the site.

 

  1. The new theory takes all the latest research results into account.

 

  1. The scientists use the web to explore the problems.

 

  1. The period was a golden age of English literature.

 

  1. Weather patterns have changed significantly over the past two hundred years.

 

  1. Cell is the most basic building block for all animals and plants.

 

  1. Our professor is hosting the business development conference next week.

 

  1. Education and training provide important skills for the labour force.

 

  1. This camera can identify eyes and focus on them.

 

  1. Our medical school students must attend the talk about optional courses.

 

  1. The courses cover the several aspects of the subject.

 

  1. The bar chart provides useful means of data comparison.

 

  1. The course will help students to improve their pronunciation skills.

 

  1. Building trust is not something that can be achieved overnight.

 

  1. Every student has the right and ability to succeed.

 

  1. One of the election promises is to decrease the income tax.

 

  1. The architectural numbers vary in that experiment.

 

  1. This course provides the opportunity to get valuable industry experience.

 

  1. Timetables about new term will be available next week.

 

  1. Art is an expression of creative skill and imagination.

 

  1. Find out how to get your resources before your research.

 

  1. Those who are considering a career of marketing should attend the talk.

 

  1. There is a pharmacy on campus near the bookstore.

 

  1. The marketing budget is doubled since the beginning of the year.

 

  1. Experts are now able to forecast weather for long periods.

 

  1. Making mistakes is fine, as long as you learn it.

 

 

 

  1. A good academic paper should be clear.

 

  1. The plight of wildlife has been ignored by developers.

 

  1. Tomorrow’s lecture will discuss educational policy in the United States.

 

  1. Students are encouraged to monitor studies by themselves.

 

  1. Students are encouraged to monitor their own attendance.

 

  1. Students (who) attempted to go to the conference must register now.

 

  1. Collaboration between departments is a feature of successful companies.

 

  1. All lectures and learning materials can be found on the internet.

 

  1. The poster of this play is hung in the large hall.

 

  1. Read safety instructions before using the equipment during the workshop.

 

  1. An introduction is an essential element of presentation.

 

  1. The site is designed to be interactive.

 

  1. The essay contains most important information.

 

  1. Some people are motivated by competition, while others prefer collaboration.

 

  1. The visitor used to the lecturer of this department.

 

  1. Good research delivers practical knowledge to real people.

 

  1. The timetable for the next / new term will be available next week.

 

  1. The camera can identify eyes and focus on them.

 

  1. The fellow students cannot be addressed enough.

 

  1. You should submit your team papers to the general office.

 

  1. Experts are (now) able to forecast weather over much longer periods.

 

  1. He is regarded as the most foremost economist this year.

 

 

  1. 5 One of the election promises is to decrease the income tax.

 

  1. A good assistance is not afraid to ask questions.

 

  1. There are different types of governments in the world.

 

  1. All the educational reforms have been inadequately implemented.

 

  1. A good architectural structure should be usable, durable and beautiful.

 

  1. The Equality has not yet been achieved in this society.

 

  1. Economic streams of early Roman Republic will be examined.

 

 

 

  1. Economic status of early Roman Republic will be examined.

 

  1. You should include these two pictures from the lecture in your assignment.

 

  1. The most important details in this argument are missing.

 

  1. There is clearly a need for further research in this field.

 

  1. We were able to contact a number of research subjects

 

  1. There are some doubts about whether these events actually occurred.

 

  1. The lowest grade has been omitted from the calculation.

 

  1. We are on track for one billion tobacco related deaths this century.

 

  1. Weather patterns have been changed significantly over the past two hundred years.

 

  1. We start science and appreciate the world around us.

 

  1. When bad drove out good, the local workers were more difficult than their competitors.

 

  1. We support to do research in the field of archaeology such as forecasting and estimation.

 

  1. When everyone commits to looking after their health, soft drinks will not be on the menu.

 

  1. When launching a product, research and marketing are very vital.

 

  1. Water taps on the campus will discourage the frequent use of plastic bottles.

 

  1. Tours operate all year around, but the busier season runs from May.

 

  1. Click the logo above to enter the site.

 

  1. The new theory takes all the latest research results into account.

 

  1. The scientists use the web to explore the problems.

 

  1. The period was a golden age of English literature.

 

  1. Weather patterns have changed significantly over the past two hundred years.

 

  1. Cell is the most basic building block for all animals and plants.

 

  1. Our professor is hosting the business development conference next week.

 

  1. Education and training provide important skills for the labor force.

 

  1. This camera can identify eyes and focus on them.

 

  1. Our medical school students must attend the talk about optional courses.

 

  1. The courses cover the several aspects of the subject.

 

  1. The bar chart provides useful means of data comparison.

 

  1. The course will help students to improve their pronunciation skills.

 

  1. Building trust is not something that can be achieved overnight.

 

  1. Every student has the right and ability to succeed.

 

  1. One of the election promises is to decrease the income tax.

 

  1. The architectural numbers vary in that experiment.

 

  1. This course provides the opportunity to get valuable industry experience.

 

  1. Timetables about new term will be available next week.

 

  1. Art is an expression of creative skill and imagination.

 

  1. Find out how to get your resources before your research.

 

  1. Those who are considering a career of marketing should attend the talk.

 

  1. There is a pharmacy on campus near the bookstore.

 

  1. The marketing budget is doubled since the beginning of the year.

 

  1. Experts are now able to forecast weather for long periods.

 

  1. Making mistakes is fine, as long as you learn it.

 

  1. A good academic paper should be clear.

 

  1. The plight of wildlife has been ignored by developers.

 

  1. Tomorrow’s lecture will discuss educational policy in the United States.

 

  1. Students are encouraged to monitor studies by themselves.

 

  1. Students are encouraged to monitor their own attendance.

 

  1. Students (who) attempted to go to the conference must register now.

 

  1. Collaboration between departments is a feature of successful companies.

 

  1. All lectures and learning materials can be found on the internet.

 

  1. The poster of this play is hung in the large hall.

 

  1. Read safety instructions before using the equipment during the workshop.

 

  1. An introduction is an essential element of presentation.

 

  1. The site is designed to be interactive.

 

  1. The essay contains most important information.

 

 

 

  1. Some people are motivated by competition, while others prefer collaboration.

 

  1. The visitor used to the lecturer of this department.

 

  1. Good research delivers practical knowledge to real people.

 

  1. The timetable for the next / new term will be available next week.

 

  1. The camera can identify eyes and focus on them.

 

  1. The fellow students cannot be addressed enough.

 

  1. You should submit your team papers to the general office.

 

  1. Experts are (now) able to forecast weather over much longer periods.

 

  1. He is regarded as the most foremost economist this year.

 

  1. One of the election promises is to decrease the income tax.

 

  1. A good assistance is not afraid to ask questions.

 

  1. There are different types of governments in the world.

 

  1. Convincing evidence to support this theory is hard to obtain.

 

  1. A recent article shows a number of interesting experiments.

 

  1. Animals raised in captivity behave differently from their wild counter parts.

 

  1. Architectural numbers vary in that interesting experiment(s).

 

  1. Assignments should be submitted to the department before deadline.

 

  1. Before submitting your assignment, your advisor must approve your application.

 

  1. Behind the garage is secret storage room. /Behind the garage, there is a flat cart driven by mules.

 

  1. Climate change is becoming acceptable among a group of scientists.




 

  1. Clinical placement for nursing will prepare students for professional practice.

 

  1. Control systems in manufacturing require a high level of accuracy.

 

  1. Evaluation forms are reviewed by the university personnel.

 

  1. Everyone must evacuate the premises during the fire drill.

 

  1. Free campus tours run daily in summer for prospective students.

 

  1. If finance is a cause of concern, scholarships may be available.

 

  1. It is hard to anticipate all the characters that were in the act.

 

 

 

  1. Many of the graduates of the journalism get jobs in the communication

 

field.

 

  1. Mutually exclusive events are described (as) neither complementary nor opposing.

 

  1. Native speaker’s language is exempt from the language test/their own native language.

 

  1. Participants are initially selected from arrange of foundation subjects.

 

  1. Radio is a popular form of the entertainment throughout the world.

 

  1. Review all resources before drawing your conclusion.

 

  1. Some of the features are part of previous research/system.

 

  1. Student concession cards need to be obtained by completing an application

 

form.

 

  1. Students were instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.

 

  1. The aerial photograph was promptly registered for thoroughly evaluations.

 

  1. The city’s founder created a set of rules that became to law.

 

  1. The commissioner will portion funds for the authorities.

 

  1. The following lecture on economic policy has been cancelled.

 

  1. The library holds a substantial collection of materials on economic history.

 

  1. The massive accumulation of data is commuted in to a convertible argument. / The massive accumulation of data is converted into a communicable argument.

 

  1. The placement test for mathematics and statistics is offered every semester.

 

  1. The qualification will be assessed with the criteria reference.

 

  1. The railways were made to make distant travel possible.

 

  1. The teacher asks the group to commence the task.

 

  1. The theme of the instrumental work exhibits more of a demure, compositional style.

 

  1. The toughest part for public transportation/postgraduate students is funding.

 

  1. The ways in which people communicate are constantly changing.

 

  1. They were struggling last year to make their service pay.

 

 

 

  1. University departments should carefully monitor articles and publications (by faculty).

 

  1. When workers ask for raises in wages, the companies (often) raise their prices.

 

  1. You are required to complete the research paper by next Monday.

 

  1. You will need to purchase an academic gown before the commencement.

 

  1. You have to learn how to use the library to save your time.

 

  1. Years of training are required to become a medical specialist.

 

  1. While concealing ideas is desirable, basic underlying issues must first be addressed.

 

  1. While reconciliation is desirable, the basic underlying issues must first be addresse

 

  1. When meeting high potential risks, companies will raise their price.




 

  1. You cannot renew any overdue books in the science library.

 

  1. Writing an essay is easy once the research is finished.

 

  1. When workers ask for an increase in wages, the company raises its prices.

 

  1. He is regarded as the most foremost economist this year.

 

  1. He was regarded as an economist in his time.

 

  1. She has made a significant contribution to the field of chemistry.

 

  1. Fashion trends help to make people’s life interesting.

 

One thought on “PTE Prediction July 2019”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *