PTE Prediction File June 2020

pte prediction file feb 2020

PTE Prediction File June 2020

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PTE Prediction file June 2020 covers most repeated question in recent PTE Real Exam taken buy our students.


Read Aloud:


1) Fiscal Year:


At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University’s financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.


2) Lincoln:


Lincoln’s apparently radical change of mind about his war powers to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.



3) Shakespeare:


A young man from a small provincial town -- a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education -- moves to London in the late 1580's and, in a remarkably short time, becomes the greatest playwright not of his age alone but of all time. How was this achievement of magnitude made? How does Shakespeare become Shakespeare?


4) Domestication:


Domestication is an evolutionary, rather than a political development. They were more likely to survive and prosper in an alliance with humans than on their own. Humans provided the animals with food and protection, in exchange for which the animals provided the humans their milk and eggs and – yes -- their flesh.


5) Akimbo:


Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in part because it doesn’t seem to have any relatives, What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one signalling impatience or hostility.


6) Yellow:


Yellow is considered as the most optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies will cry more. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest color for eyes to take in, so it can be overpowering if overused.


7) Elephant:


The elephant is the largest living land mammal. During evolution, its skeleton has greatly altered from the usual mammal, designed for two main reasons. One is to cope with the great weight of huge grinding cheek teeth and elongated tusk, making the skull particularly massive. The other is to support the enormous bulk of such a huge body.


8) Avi Loeb:


The situation is similar to a pregnant woman that has twin babies in her belly, says Avi Loeb of the Harvard – Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He’s proposing the idea in a paper that’s been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.


9) Yellow Tulip:


How do we imagine the unimaginable? If we’re asked to think of an object - say, a yellow tulip – a picture immediately forms in our mind’s eye. But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of negative number?


10) Grand Canyon:



Few things in the world produce such amazement as one’s first glimpse of the Grand Canyon; it took around more than 2 billion years to create this vast wonder in some places. 17 miles wide, largely through the relentless force of the Colorado River, which runs 277 miles along its length and a mile beneath its towering rims.


11) English Revolution:


There are three main interpretations of the English Revolution. The longest lasting interpretation was that the Revolution was the almost inevitable outcome of an age-old power struggle between parliament and crown. The second sees it as a class struggle, and a lead-up to the French and other revolutions. Finally, the third interpretation sees the other two as too fixed, not allowing for unpredictability, and that the outcome could have gone either way.


12) Quotes:


Many papers you write in college will require you to include quotes from one or more sources. Even if you don't have to do it, integrating a few quotes into your writing can add life and persuasiveness to your arguments. The key is to use quotes to support a point you're trying to make rather than just include them to fill space.


13) Global Warming:


Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere. This trend began in the middle of the 20th century and is one of the major environmental concerns of scientists and governmental officials worldwide. The changes in temperature result mostly from the effect of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.


14) Marine Biologist:


The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things – so he began to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.


15) Company-Oriented Reforms:


The climate for doing business improved in Egypt more than in any other country last


year, according to a global study that revealed a wave of company-oriented reforms across the Middle East. The World Bank rankings, which look at business regulations, also showed that the pace of business reforms in Eastern Europe was overtaking East Asia.


16) Furniture:


There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don’t bother themselves with aesthetics; others see it as essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room - in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art.



17) Long-Distance Fliers:


The researchers think that long-distance fliers such as the American golden-plover and the white-rumped sandpiper picked up the spores while lining their nests. Then when the birds arrive in new places they molt, leaving behind the feathers and their precious cargo-to start growing again at the other end of the world.


18) Coastal Wetlands:


The coastal wetlands have environmental and economic importance. Wetlands provide natural wealth. They have important filtering capabilities. As the runoff water passes, they retain excess nutrients and some pollutants. They maintain water flow during dry periods. Thousands of people depend on groundwater for drinking. They act as natural sponges of flood waters and contain soil erosion. They control floods and save the buildings from collapsing during heavy rains. The hardwood-riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River can store sixty days of floodwater.


19) Improvement:


Analysts were impressed by the improvement in margins reported across all regions, apart from the United Kingdom, and said that this reflected a clear effort to improve profitability across the business. Although the turnaround is still in its early stages and the valuation looks full, given the challenge of turning around such a large and complex business, this is certainly an impressive start.


20) Genuine Republic:


In a genuine republic, the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States make it dependent on the will of the society.


21) Donor Countries:


In 2005, donor countries agreed on an accord to harmonize their practices. Since then, aid officials have complained that too little has changed on the ground. Conferences of donors in developing countries still tend to be dominated by a small group of north European governments, with the US often absent.


22) Galaxy:


One of the unidentifiable objects in this study lies just outside Centaurus A (NGC 5128), an elliptical galaxy located about 12 million light-years from Earth. The other is in a globular cluster of stars found just outside NGC 4636, another elliptical galaxy located 47 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Virgo.


23) Brain Hemisphere:


The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytic side of brain. The right hemisphere controlled the left parts of the body, and the left hemisphere controlled the right side.



24) Spelling System:


The problem begins with the alphabet itself. Building a spelling system for English using letters that come from Latin – despite the two languages not sharing exactly the same set of sounds – is like building a playroom using an IKEA office set.


25) University:


A university is a lot more than just classes and exams, university is a concept that offers you a host of possibilities to develop both academically and personally. Find out about the different projects, clubs and societies that are in your university. You will definitely find something you are interested in.


26) Mitigation:


As far as politics go, the responses are just as varied. Mitigation is common and calls for a reduction of emissions and less reliance on fossil fuels. Coal burning power plants are now replaced with hydraulic power plants and electrical cars are replacing some gasoline efficient cars. Many people, however, feel that this is not enough.


27) Thompson:


"Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride," writes Judith A. Adams in The American Amusement Park Industry. "His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights."


28) T-Cells:


Usually, age is determined by physical characteristics, such as teeth or bones. Great—if you have a body. Researchers have tried unsuccessfully to use blood. But in this study, the scientists used immune cells called T-cells. T-cells recognize invaders through receptors that match molecules on bacteria, viruses, even tumors. The cellular activity that produces these receptors also produces a type of circular DNA molecule as a by-product.


29) Modern buildings:


Modern buildings have to achieve certain performance requirements, at least to satisfy those of building codes, to provide a safe, healthy, and comfortable environment. However, these conditioned environments demand resources in energy and materials, which are both limited in supply, to build and operate.


30) Transportation:


Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats travelled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes and objects made by hand.



31) Historian:


As a historian, if you really want to understand the sensibilities of those who lived in the past, you must be like a novelist and get into the skins of your characters and think and feel as they do. You are asked to imagine what it's like to be a peasant in medieval times, asking the sort of questions a peasant might ask. What the writer is saying is that a historian needs imaginative sympathy with ordinary people in the past.


32) Flags:


In the Middle Ages, the design and use of flags were considered a means of identifying social status. Flags were, therefore, the symbols not of nations, but of the nobility. The design of each flag resembled the “devices” on the noble’s Coat of Arms, and the size of the flag was an indication of how high the owner stood in the nobility.


Repeat Sentences:


  • I believe children should read aloud more.


  • I didn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration.


  • I missed yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?


  • I still don't understand the last sentence.


  • I think the university’s main campus is closed.


  • I thought the mid-term exam was only worth half of our course grade.


  • I will be in my office every day from ten to twelve.


  • The development was mainly included in chapter nine.


  • The economic class will take place in the main lecture room.


  • The English word Typhoon comes from the Chinese word ‘big wind’.


  • There are no scheduled classes during the final exam weeks.


  • There is varying plagiarism across different university departments.


  • There is a position available for a junior lecture in media studies.


  • You come with me. The others stay here.


  • To answer such a complex question with a simple yes or no is absolutely impossible.

  • As for me, it is a strategy to go to judicial review.


  • Assignments should be submitted to the department office before the deadline.


  • By clicking this button, you agree with the terms and conditions of this website.


  • Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.


  • I always have one milk in my coffee in the morning.


  • I have a sandwich and milk for my breakfast.


  • There is no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.


  • The first few sentences of an essay should capture the readers’ attention.


  • The glass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have a crystal structure.


  • The information on the internet is becoming more reliable.


  • Modern poetry often tests the conventions of language and rhythm.


  • More females than males graduated from universities last year.


  • Most of the assignments should be submitted on the same day.


  • Most students are not eligible to claim housing benefits.


  • Most university teaching take place in lectures and seminars.


  • Much of his research objectives are driven by his natural curiosity and instincts.


  • New timetables will be posted on the student notice board.


  • The application form is available in the office.


  • The author expressed an idea that modern readers invariably cannot accept.


  • The internet provides unusual opportunities for students and current events.


  • You are required to submit the assignment before Friday.


  • I don’t understand what the comment on my essay means at all.


  • Our fundamental realities, especially national needs, have seen the ability to flourish.

  • Our university has strong partnerships with industry as well as collaborative relationships with government bodies.

  • The United States has the maximum production of chocolate.


  • The current statistical evidence indicates the need for further research.


  • Anatomy is the study of internal and external body structures.


  • Those reference books are too old, while the others are OK.


  • The books in the library can be borrowed up to three hours.


  • The brief outline takes us to the beginning of the 20th century.


  • The café house is closed down and the snack machine is still running throughout the night.

  • The campus tour will help you get familiar with the teaching facilities.


  • New York City is famous for its ethnic diversity.


  • Next time, we will discuss the influence of the media on public policy.


  • No more than four people can be in the lab at once.


  • Novelists have a major role to play in inflecting their time to their readers.


  • On behalf of our department, I would like to thank you for your participation.


  • On this project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.


  • Our class is divided into two groups. You come with me, and the others just stay here.

  • She used to be everywhere, but today she is missing.


  • Sports are the cause of traumatic brain injury in the United States.


  • Student services provide help with housing and transport.


  • Students are held accountable for adhering to establish community standards.


  • Students are so scared of writing essays because they have never learned how.


  • Our professor is hosting the business development conference next week.


  • Overcrowding and poor sanitary affected the daily life of the majority of the population.

  • Parent should provide guidance and examples to children’s values.


  • Physics is a detailed subject of matter and energy.


  • I will check again but I am pretty sure we are supposed to read Chapter Two.


  • I will now demonstrate how the reaction can be arrested by adding a dilute acid.


  • I’ll start with a brief history of the district, and then focus on life in the first half of the 20th century.

  • I’ve got a tutorial in an hour and I haven’t had any time to prepare for it.


  • If you forget your student number, you need to contact Jenny Brice.


  • If you want to quit the student union, tell the registrar.


  • In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.


  • In the last few weeks, we’ve been looking at various aspects of the social history of London.


Answer Short Questions:


  • At what ceremony do students receive their degree or diploma at the end of their period of study?- Graduation

  • How would you call the natural colouring or form of an animal which enables it to blend in with its surroundings? – Camouflage

  • Apples and cherries come under which category? - Fruits


  • Computer, telephone and typewriter, which one is first invented? – Typewriter


  • Despite all the advances in equality between the sexes, would more men or women play professional football? - More men

  • Profit means gain or loss? – Gain


  • Some calendars begin the week on Sunday, what is the other day which commonly starts a week? – Monday

  • What are the instructions that tells you how to cook food? – Recipe


  • What is the job title for someone who makes meals in a restaurant? – Chef


  • What do you call the number of people living in a specific area? - Population


  • What do you call the strap that circulates a person in a car or an aeroplane? - Seatbelt.

  • Who is the person who works in a hospital and can do operations? - Surgeon.


  • What do you use to test the body temperature? - Thermometer.


  • What does a king or queen wear on their head at official ceremonies? – Crown


  • What does a Sundial measure according to the shadow in the sunlight? – Time


  • What does ASAP mean? - As soon as possible


  • What does it mean by “fortnight”? - 14 days.


  • What is the name of a system of government in which the people elect their leaders? – Democracy

  • What is the name of ground military forces? – Army


  • What is the name of the field of study that studies the human mind and behaviors?


– Psychology


  • What is the name of the instrument used to measure variations in temperature? - Thermometer

  • What is the ocean on/ the west of America? - Pacific Ocean.


  • What is the opposite of positive? - Negative.


  • What is the opposite of southeast? - Northwest


  • What is the opposite to “predecessor”? - Successor.


  • What is the payment of a student's education by an organization called? – Scholarship

  • What type of food is an apple categorized under? – Fruit


  • What type of resources does an electric device use? - Electricity.


  • What do you call a period of ten years? - A decade


  • What do we call it when the moon completely blocks out the light from the sun? - A total solar eclipse

  • What word describes moving a file from the Internet to your computer? - Downloading / Download

  • What word is used for someone who watches a sport event? – Spectator


  • How do you call the seasonal flying of birds from cold areas to warmer areas?


Mitigation or migration? – Migration


  • What instrument do you use when long-distance learning? – Computer


  • What type of energy does the Sun produce, solar energy or oil energy? - Solar energy.

  • What is the job title for someone who can help you with toothache? - Dentist


  • In which room of their home would someone usually wash their clothes? – Laundry.


  • Despite all the advances and qualities of sexes, would more men or women play professional football? - Men.

  • Which month falls between September and November? - October.


  • How do you call a doctor who can sell prescribed medicines? - Chemist/Pharmacist.


  • How many days are there in February during a leap year? - 29 days.


  • How many days are there in a leap year? - 366 (three hundred and sixty-six).


  • How many days is included in a “fortnight”? - 14 days.


  • How many years are there in a millennium? - 1000 years.


  • What’s the force that pushes everything to the earth? - Gravity.


  • What kind of book would you use to look up a word that you don't understand? – Dictionary

  • What’s the 26th alphabet in English? - Z.


  • What’s the material that we use to stick two things together when we make a handcraft? - Glue.

  • Which one is a good phenomenon, high employment or low employment? - High employment

  • Which is the longest: a decade, a millennium or a century? - A millennium


  • Which is usually considered against the law? The use of illicit drugs or the use of prescribed medication? - Use of illicit drugs

  • Who is the predecessor of Matt Gregory? - Adam Turner.


  • What natural resource is used by a carpenter? - Wood.


  • What does altitude measure: height or length? - Height.


  • What symbol is used to complete a sentence? - Period/Full stop.


  • If you are happy with an agreement, what would you like to put at the bottom of the contract with the date? - Signature.

  • What is the verb form of the noun “abstention”? - Abstain.


  • What do we call a festival which is held every four years gathering people together as a sporting event? - Olympics (Games).

  • To which of our sense do all of the following words relate: rough, smooth, and granular? - Touch.

  • How many hemisphere does the equator split the earth into? - Two.


  • Which of the following sports is more dangerous, parachuting or long-distance running? - Parachuting.

  • To which of our sense do all of the following words relate: opaque, vivid, bright and shiny? - Vision

  • Which kind of punishment for a crime is the less severe, an imprisonment or community service? - Community service

  • Which branch of science deals with the classification of living things? - Biology


  • Which of these would probably be found in an office, a printer, a blanket or a nailbrush? - A printer


  • Which of these would probably be found in most homes around the world, a computer, a bed or a television? - A bed

  • Which one is quicker? Running, walking, or jogging? - Running


  • Which one is using manpowerplane, car, or cycling? – Cycling


  • What’s the place of areas where a college or a university is located? – Campus


  • When the writer of the book is unknown, what word do we use to describe the writer? – Anonymous

  • When would it be safe to take medication that causes drowsiness, before sleeping, driving or operating machinery? - Before sleeping

  • When you create a table chart, the data in horizontal dimension is organized in rows and the data in vertical dimension is organized in what? – Columns

  • What is the piece of paper that you receive after you have bought an item? – Receipt

  • What is the quickest way to get to the 21st floor? - By elevator / lift


  • What is the red fluid that flows from the heart to the rest of the body? – Blood


  • What is the source of solar energy? - The Sun.


  • What is the main difference between a wristwatch and a clock? - The size


  • What does this symbol © stand for? – Copyright


  • What emergency service is called at sea? – Coastguard


  • What features do pianos and computers have in common? – Keyboard


  • What kind of movement of the Sun can be seen during dawn? – Sunrise


  • What instrument do you use for long-distance learning? – Computer


  • What instrument would you use to examine very small life forms? – Microscope


  • The large island just off the coast of mainland Europe is the home to which country? - The United Kingdom

  • What’s the name of the building where you can borrow books? - Library.


  • The opposite direction of southwest in a compass is? – Northeast


  • people who protect the public from criminals are called. – Police


  • There are two main ways to pay for goods bought in a shop, one is by cash, and the other is by? - Credit card

  • From where can you have a full view of a building, the outside, inside or top? - The outside

  • Historians use evidence to draw conclusions about the past, would a contemporary artist's painting of an ancient battle be an original source or secondary source? - Secondary source

  • How do butterflies fly? – Flutter


  • How do you call the person who faces you? – Judge


  • How do you call the pointing device that is connected to the computer? - Mouse.


  • What do you call the seasonal flying of birds from cold to warmer areas? Mitigation or migration? – Migration

  • How do you describe the desert? Humid or dry? -Dry



Summarise Written Text:


1) The Rosetta stone:


When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printer's ink was applied to the Stone and white paper laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text—but in reverse. Since then, many copies or "facsimiles" have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem. An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material, the stone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printer's ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.



2) American English:


American English is, without doubt, the most influential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There are many reasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation on earth and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, the distinction between a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference to power. As has been said, a language is a dialect with an army. Second, America’s political influence is extended through American popular culture, in particular through the international reach of American films (movies, of course) and music. As Kahuna has pointed out, the internationally dominant position of a culture results in a forceful expansion of its language… the expansion of language contributes… to the prestige of the culture behind it. Third, the international prominence of American English is closely associated with the extraordinarily quick development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates. This means a computer’s default setting for language is American English, although of course this can be changed to suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence of American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion of American culture and media, technological advance, and the rapid development of communications technology


3) Climate change impact on birds:


As warmer winter temperatures become more common, one way for some animals to adjust is to shift their ranges northward. But a new study of 59 North American bird species indicates that doing so is not easy or quick -- it took about 35 years for many birds to move far enough north for winter temperatures to match where they historically lived. The researchers used 35 years of data from the North American


Christmas Bird Count to match winter temperatures to where birds were seen. They tested 59 bird species individually and found that they responded differently to climate change. When summarized across bird species, there was evidence for a strong delay lasting about 35 years. For example, black vultures have spread northward in the last 35 years and now winter as far north as Massachusetts, where the minimum winter temperature is similar to what it was in Maryland in 1975. On the other hand, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker did not alter its range at all despite the warming trend, possibly because it’s very specific habitat requirements precluded a range shift. Both of these scenarios could represent problems for birds, La Sorte said. Species that do not track changes in climate may wind up at the limits of their physiological tolerance, or they may lose important habitat qualities, such as favored food types, as those species pass them by. But they also can't move their ranges too fast if the habitat conditions they depend on also tend to lag behind climate. If warming trends weaken, as they did over the past few years, birds may be able to catch up. But accelerated warming, which is likely as global carbon emissions continue to increase, may put additional strain on birds. The study highlights these challenges and the high potential climate change has for disrupting natural systems. It also underscores the challenges ecologists face in predicting the long-term consequences of climate change for many species simultaneously.



4) Nurse Shark:


Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or in crevices within the reef, the Nurse sharks seem to prefer specific resting sites and will return to them each day after the nights hunting. By night, the sharks are largely solitary. Nurse sharks spend most of their time foraging through the bottom sediments in search of food. Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, mollusks, tunicates and other fish such as spiny lobsters, crabs, shrimps, sea urchins, octopuses, squid, marine snails and bivalves and in particularly, stingrays. Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch, although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way, Nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral. Generally slow and sluggish, Nurse sharks spend much of their time resting on the bottom of the ocean. Nurse sharks have been observed resting on the bottom with their bodies supported on their fins, possibly providing a false shelter for crustaceans which they then ambush and eat. If it must move, the Nurse shark may even use its large front (or pectoral) fins to ‘walk’ along the ocean floor.


5) Orbital Debris:


For decades, space experts have worried that a speeding bit of orbital debris might one day smash a large spacecraft into hundreds of pieces and start a chain reaction, a slow cascade of collisions that would expand for centuries, spreading chaos through the heavens. In the last decade or so, as scientists came to agree that the number of objects in orbit had surpassed a critical mass — or, in their terms, the critical spatial density, the point at which a chain reaction becomes inevitable — they grew more anxious. Early this year, after a half-century of growth, the federal list of detectable


objects (four inches wide or larger) reached 10,000, including dead satellites, spent rocket stages, a camera, a hand tool and junkyards of whirling debris left over from chance explosions and destructive tests. So our billion dollar of satellites are at risk.


6) The Year Without Summer:


In 1815 on the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia, a handsome and long-quiescent mountain named Tambora exploded spectacularly, killing a hundred thousand people with its blast and associated tsunamis. It was the biggest volcanic explosion in ten thousand years—150 times the size of Mount St. Helens, equivalent to sixty thousand Hiroshima-sized atom bombs. News didn’t travel terribly fast in those days. In London, The Times ran a small story— actually a letter from a merchant—seven months after the event. But by this time Tambora’s effects were already being felt. Thirty-six cubic miles of smoky ash, dust, and grit had diffused through the atmosphere, obscuring the Sun’s rays and causing the Earth to cool. Sunsets were unusually but blearily colorful, an effect memorably captured by the artist.J. M. W. Turner, who could not have been happier, but mostly the world existed under an oppressive, dusky pall. It was this deathly dimness that inspired the Byron lines above. Spring never came and summer never warmed: 1816 became known as the year without summer. Crops everywhere failed to grow. In Ireland a famine and associated​​ 

typhoid epidemic killed sixty-five thousand people. In New England, the year became popularly known as Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death. Morning frosts continued until June and almost no planted seed would grow. Short of fodder, livestock died or had to be prematurely slaughtered. In every way, it was a dreadful year—almost certainly the worst for farmers in modern times. Yet globally the temperature fell by only about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit. Earth’s natural thermostat, as scientists would learn, is an exceedingly delicate instrument.



7) Online teaching & online Learning:


What makes teaching online unique is that it uses the internet, especially the World Wide Web, as the primary means of communication. Thus, when you teach online, you don’t have to be someplace to teach. You don’t have to lug your briefcase full of paper or your laptop to a classroom, stand at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard (or even use your high-tech, interactive classroom “smart” whiteboard), or grade papers in a stuffy room while your students take a test. You don’t even have to sit in your office waiting for students to show up for conferences. You can hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner. You can do all this while living in a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok, even if you are working for a college whose administrative office is located in Florida or Dubai. You can attend an important conference in Hawaii on the same day you teach your class in New Jersey, logging on from your laptop via the local café’s wireless hotspot or your hotel room’s high- speed network. Or you may simply pull out your smartphone to quickly check on the latest postings, email, or text messages from students. Online learning offers more freedom for students as well. They can search for courses using the Web, scouring their institution or even the world for programs, classes, and instructors that fit their needs. Having found an appropriate course, they can enroll and register, shop for their books, read articles, listen to lectures, submit their homework assignments, confer with their instructors, and receive their final grades-all online. They can assemble virtual classrooms, joining other students from diverse geographical locales, foraging bonds and friendships not possible


in conventional classrooms, which are usually limited to students from a specific geographical area.


8) Vividness of TV and Newspaper:


To understand the final reason why the news marketplace of ideas dominated by television is so different from the one that emerged in the world dominated by the printing press, it is important to distinguish the quality of vividness experienced by television viewers from the “vividness” experienced by readers. I believe that the vividness experienced in the reading of words is automatically modulated by the constant activation of the reasoning centers of the brain that are used in the process of concreating the representation of reality the author has intended. By contrast, the visceral vividness portrayed on television has the capacity to trigger instinctual responses similar to those triggered by reality itself—and without being modulated by logic, reason, and reflective thought. The simulation of reality accomplished in the television medium is so astonishingly vivid and compelling compared with the representations of reality conveyed by printed words that it signifies much more than an incremental change in the way people consume information. Books also convey compelling and vivid representations of reality, of course. But the reader actively​​ 

participates in the conjuring of the reality the book’s author Is attempting to depict. Moreover, the parts of the human brain that are central to the reasoning process are continually activated by the very act of reading printed words: Words are composed of abstract symbols—letters— that have no intrinsic meaning themselves until they are strung together into recognizable sequences. Television, by contrast, presents to its viewers a much more fully formed representation of reality—without requiring the creative collaboration that words have always demanded.



9) Frog amber:


A miner in the state of Chiapas found a tiny tree frog that has been preserved in amber for 25 million years, a researcher said.If authenticated, the preserved frog would be the first of its kind found in Mexico, according to David Grimaldi, a biologist and curator at the American Museum of Natural History, who was not involved in the find. The chunk of amber containing the frog, less than half an inch long, was uncovered by a miner in Mexico’s southern Chiapas state in 2005 and was bought by a private collector, who loaned it to scientists for study.A few other preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber — a stone formed by ancient tree sap — mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas appears to be of the genus Craugastor, whose descendants still inhabit the region, said biologist Gerardo Carbot of the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute. Carbot announced the discovery this week. The scientist said the frog lived about 25 million years ago, based on the geological strata where the amber was found. Carbot would like to extract a sample from the frog’s remains in hopes of finding DNA that could identify the particular species but doubts the owner would let him drill into the stone.


10) Take-all Disease:


The soil dwelling fungus ‘take-all’ inflicts devastating stress to the roots of cereals crops worldwide and is a major disease problem in UK wheat crops. However, recent field trial data from Rothamsted Research, an institute of the BBSRC, has demonstrated


that farmers could control this devastating disease by selecting wheat cultivars that reduce take-all build up in the soil when grown as a first wheat. Wheat is an important staple crop worth 1.6 Billion a year to the UK economy alone. This work funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the HGCA will help farmers to increase yields, combating global food security and contributing to UK economic growth. Take-all disease, caused by the fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, reduces grain yield and quality and results in an increased amount of residual applied nitrogen fertilizer left in the soil post-harvest. Despite the use of chemical, biological and cultural control methods the take-all fungus is still one of the most difficult pathogens of wheat to control. The risk of take-all infection in second and third wheat crops is directly linked to the amount of fungus remaining in the soil after the first wheat is harvested. The Rothamsted Research study, published in Plant Pathology, has demonstrated that wheat cultivars differ in their ability to build-up the take-all fungus. Growing a low building cultivar, such as Cadenza, as a first wheat crop can be used to manipulate take-all inoculum levels in the soil resulting in better yields from the second and third wheat crops. Yield increases of up to 2 tons per hectare in 2nd wheats have been observed.



11) Benefits of physical activities:


Promoting active lifestyles can help us address some of the important challenges facing the UK today. Increasing physical activity has the potential to improve the physical and mental health of the nation, reduce all-cause mortality and improve life expectancy. It can also save money by significantly easing the burden of chronic disease on the health and social care services. Increasing cycling and walking will reduce transport costs, save money and help the environment. Fewer car journeys can reduce traffic, congestion and pollution, improving the health of communities. Other potential benefits linked to physical activity in children and young people include the acquisition of social skills through active play (leadership, teamwork and co-operation), better concentration in school and displacement of anti-social and criminal behavior. The importance of physical activity for health was identified over 50 years ago. During the 1950s, comparisons of bus drivers with more physically active bus conductors and office-based telephonists with more physically active postmen demonstrated lower rates of coronary heart disease and smaller uniform sizes in the more physically active occupations. This research led the way for further investigation, and evidence now clearly shows the importance of physical activity in preventing ill health. It is important for us to be active throughout our lives. Physical activity is central to a baby’s normal growth and development. This continues through school, and into adulthood and older years. Being physically active can bring substantial benefits and there is consistent evidence of a dose–response relationship, i.e. the greater the volume of physical activity undertaken, the greater the health benefits that are obtained.


12) Australia-US Alliance:


Some "moments" seem more important in hindsight than they were at the time. David Day, for example, looks at John Curtin's famous "Australia looks to America" statement of December 1941, a moment remembered as embodying a fundamental shift in Australia's strategic alliance away from Britain towards the US. As Day points out, the

shift to the US as our primary ally was a long, drawn-out process which occurred over half a century. Curtin's statement is iconic - it represents and symbolizes the shift - but in and of itself it made almost no difference. Russell McGregor makes similar arguments with regard to the 1967 referendum, falsely hailed in our memories as a huge advance in Aboriginal rights. There are many other important events which our contributors examine - the campaign to save the Franklin River; the landings at Gallipoli, the discovery of gold in 1851, the disastrous Premiers' Plan designed to cope with the Great Depression, to name just a few. Taken together, our contributors show that narrative approaches to Australian history are not as simple as might be imagined. There is of course the issue of what should be included and what should not be - what, after all, makes a moment or an event sufficiently important to be included in an official narrative? Just as importantly, the moments and events that are included in narrative histories are open to multiple interpretations. We hope this collection will provide an important reminder to those wanting to impose a universal history curriculum for our schoolchildren, and indeed a lesson to all Australians wishing to understand their nation's past; History is never simple or straightforward, and it always resists attempts to make it so.



13) Fertile farmland:


A farming technique practiced for centuries by villagers in West Africa, which converts nutrient-poor rainforest soil into fertile farmland, could be the answer to mitigating climate change and revolutionizing farming across Africa. A global study by researchers has for the first-time identified and analyzed rich fertile soils found in Liberia and Ghana. They discovered that the ancient West African method of adding charcoal and kitchen waste to highly weathered, nutrient poor tropical soils can transform the land into enduringly fertile, carbon-rich black soils which the researchers dub ‘African Dark Earths’. Similar soils created by Amazonian people in pre-Columbian eras have recently been discovered in South America — but the techniques people used to create these soils are unknown. Moreover, the activities which led to the creation of these anthropogenic soils were largely disrupted after the European conquest. Encouragingly researchers in the West Africa study were able to live within communities as they created their fertile soils. This enabled them to learn the techniques used by the women from the indigenous communities who disposed of ash, bones and other organic waste to create the African Dark Earths.


14) Songbird:


Males do the singing and females do the listening. This has been the established, even cherished view of courtship in birds, but now some ornithologists are changing tune. Laszlo Garamszegi of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, and colleagues studied the literature on 233 European songbird species. Of the 109 for which information on females was available, they found evidence for singing in 101 species. In only eight species could the team conclude that females did not sing. Females that sing have been overlooked, the team say, because their songs are quiet, they are mistaken for males from their similar plumage or they live in less well studied areas such as the tropics. Garamszegi blames Charles Darwin for the oversight. “He emphasized the importance of male sexual display, and this is what everyone has been looking at.” The findings go beyond modern species. After carefully tracing back an evolutionary family


tree for their songbirds, Garamszegi’s team discovered that, in at least two bird families, singing evolved in females first. They suggest these ancient females may have been using their songs to deter other females from their territories, to coordinate breeding activities with males, or possibly to attract mates. “It leaves us with a perplexing question.”


15) Tree Rings:


Here’s how tree ring dating, known to scientists as dendrochronology, works. If you cut a tree down today, it’s straightforward to count the rings inwards, starting from the tree’s outside. Hence the sequence of the rings in a tree cross-section is like a message in Morse code formerly used for sending telegraph messages; dot-dot-dash-dot-dash in the Morse code, wide -widenarrow-wide-narrow in the tree ring sequence. Actually, the tree ring sequence is even more diagnostic and richer in information than the Morse code, because trees actually contain rings spanning much different width, rather than the Morse code choice between dot and dash. Tree ring specialists (known as dendrochronologists) proceed by noting the sequence of wider and narrower rings in a tree cut down in a known recent year, and also noting the sequences in beams from trees cut down at various times in the past. In that way, dendrochronologists have constructed tree ring records extending back for thousands of years in some parts of the world. A bonus of dendrochronology is that the width and substructure of each ring reflect the amount of rain and the season at which the rain fell during that particular year. Thus, tree ring studies also allow one to reconstruct the past climate.



16) Computer Programming for America and India:


Consider the current situation: like their counterparts in the United States, engineers and technicians in India have the capacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies. Indian programmers and high-tech engineers earn one-quarter of what their counterparts earn in the United States; Consequently, India is able to do both jobs at a lower dollar cost than the United States: India has absolute advantage in both. In other words, it can produce a unit of programming for fewer dollars than the Unites States, and it can also produce a unit of technology innovation for fewer dollars. Does that mean that the United States will lose not only programming jobs but innovative technology job, too? Does that mean that our standard of living will fall if the United States and India engage in the international trade? David Ricardo would have answered no to both questions - as we do today. While India may have an absolute advantage in both activities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what India or the United States will produce. India has a comparative advantage in doing programming in part because of such activity requires little physical capital. The flip side is that the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovation partly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country to undertake such long-run projects. The result is that Indian programmers will do more and more of what U.S. programmers have been doing in the past. In contrast, American firms will shift to more and more innovation.


17) Nobel Peace Prize:


This year’s Nobel Peace Prize justly rewards the thousands of scientists of the United Nations Climate Change Panel (the IPCC). These scientists are engaged in excellent,


painstaking work that establishes exactly what the world should expect from climate change. The other award winner, former US Vice President Al Gore, has spent much more time telling us what to fear. While the IPCC’s estimates and conclusions are grounded in careful study, Gore doesn’t seem to be similarly restrained. Gore told the world in his Academy Award winning movie (recently labelled “one sided” and containing “scientific errors” by a British judge) to expect 20-foot sea level rises over this century. He ignores the findings of his Nobel co- winners, the IPCC, who conclude that sea levels will rise between only a half foot and two feet over this century, with their best expectation being about one foot. That’s similar to what the world experienced over the past 150 years. Likewise, Gore agonizes over the accelerated melting of ice in Greenland and what it means for the planet, but overlooks the IPCC’s conclusion that, if sustained, the current rate of melting would add just three inches to the sea level rise by the end of the century. Gore also takes no notice of research showing that Greenland’s temperatures were higher in 1941 than they are today. The politician turned movie maker loses sleep over a predicted rise in heat related deaths. There’s another side of the story that’s inconvenient to mention: rising temperatures will reduce the number of cold spells, which are a much bigger killer than heat. The best study shows that by 2050, heat will claim 400,000 more lives, but 1.8 million fewer will die because of cold. Indeed, according to the first complete survey of the economic effects of climate change for the world, global warming will actually save lives.



18) Sleeping and Napping:


Could midday nap save your life? If the experience of Greek men is any guide, the answer just may be yes. In a study released yesterday, researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and in Athens reported that Greeks who took regular 30-minute napping were 37% less likely to die of heart disease over a six-year period than those who never napped. The scientists tracked more than 23,000 adults, finding that the benefits of napping were most pronounced for working men. Researchers have long recognized that Mediterranean adults die of heart disease at a rate lower than Americans and Northern Europeans. Diets rich in olive oil and other heart-healthy foods have received some of the credit, but scientists have been intrigued by the potential role of napping. The study concluded that napping was more likely than diet or physical activity to lower the incidence of heart attacks and other like-ending heart ailments. Specialists not involved with the study said there are sound biochemical reasons to believe that a nap may help protect against heart disease. Essentially, they said, sleep at any time of day acts like a value to release the stress of everyday life.


19) Skip Breakfast:


Skipping Breakfast Has Drawbacks - It’s no mystery why so many people routinely skip breakfast: bad timing. It comes at a time when folks can be more occupied with matters of grooming, attire and otherwise making themselves presentable for a new day. However, studies conducted both in the United States and internationally have shown that skipping breakfast can affect learning, memory and physical well-being. Students who skip breakfast are not as efficient at selecting critical information for problem-solving as their peers who have had breakfast. For schoolchildren, skipping breakfast diminishes the ability to recall and use newly acquired information, verbal


fluency, and control of attention, according to Ernesto Pollitt, a UC Davis professor of pediatrics whose research focuses on the influence of breakfast on mental and physical performance. Skipping breakfast can impair thinking in adults, also. For both children and adults, a simple bowl of cereal with milk goes a long way toward providing a sufficiently nutritious start to the day. Green-Burgeson recommends choosing a cereal that’s low in sugar — less than five grams per serving — and using nonfat or one percent milk. Frederick Hirshburg, a pediatrician at UC Davis Medical Group, Carmichael, says that babies and other preschoolers rarely skip breakfast because “they’re usually the hungriest at the beginning of the day. Breakfast then becomes more of a “learned experience” than a response to a biological need, Hirshburg says.


20) Plants research:



Plants serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food and materials used by humans, and they shape our environment. According to Ehrhardt and Frommer, the three major challenges facing humanity in our time are food, energy, and environmental degradation. All three are plant related. All of our food is produced by plants, either directly or indirectly via animals that eat them. Plants are a source of energy production. And they are intimately involved in climate change and a major

​​ factor in a variety of environmental concerns, including agricultural expansion and its impact on habitat destruction and waterway pollution. What’s more, none of these issues are independent of each other. Climate change places additional stresses on the food supply and on various habitats. So, plant research is instrumental in addressing all of these problems and moving into the future. For plant research to move significantly forward, Ehrhardt and Former say technological development is critical, both to test existing hypotheses and to gain new information and generate fresh hypotheses. If we are to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life, they say.


21) Compulsory Reburial of Human Remains:


In April 2008 the British government announced that, henceforth, all human remains archaeologically excavated in England and Wales should be reburied after a two-year period of scientific analysis. Not only would internationally important prehistoric remains have to be returned to the ground, removing them from public view, but also there would no longer be any possibility of long-term scientific investigation as new techniques and methods emerged and developed in the future. Thus, while faunal remains, potsherds, artefacts and environmental samples could be analyzed and re-analyzed in future years, human remains were to be effectively removed from the curation process. Archaeologists and other scientists were also concerned that this might be the first step towards a policy of reburying all human remains held in museum collections in England and Wales including prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, Viking and Medieval as well as more recent remains.


22) Office environment:


The notion that office space has a role in promoting or inhibiting performance is backed up by solid research. A recent study conducted by Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital showed that improvements to the physical


surroundings of workers impacted on productivity not just because the working environment was more attractive, but because the changes made employees feel cared for. A Swedish research paper revealed a strong link between the type of office an employee worked in and their overall job satisfaction and health. Various findings have emerged as a result of studies such as this. Pot plants and greenery can apparently have a real impact on psychological well-being. Those who work in a private room tend to be in better health than workers based in open-plan offices. Sufficient light can reduce sickness among workers and increase productivity, and an attractive office can make workers feel more cared for and therefore more loyal to their company. Most of these points make good rational sense. But some companies aren’t content simply to increase the health, productivity and contentment of their employees. Pioneers such as Google, Walt Disney and Dyson have tried to create offices that will do everything from promoting collaboration between workers to stimulating their creative juices. “Environment, both physical and cultural, can make or break creativity.” says Kursty Groves, author of I Wish I Worked There! A look inside the most creative spaces in business. Stimulating spaces expose the mind to a variety of stimuli - planned or random - In order to encourage people to think differently. Reflective spaces promote the filtering of information into the brain slowing it to make connections. An environment which encourages a team to build trust and to play freely is an essential ingredient for innovation.



23) Nutrition science:


Most of the time when I embark on such an investigation, it quickly becomes clear that matters are much more complicated and ambiguous — several shades grayer — than I thought going in. Not this time. The deeper I delved into the confused and confusing thicket of nutritional science, sorting through the long-running fats versus carb wars, the fiber skirmishes and the raging dietary supplement debates, the simpler the picture gradually became. I learned that in fact science knows a lot less about nutrition than you would expect – that in fact nutrition science is, to put it charitably, a very young science. It’s still trying to figure out exactly what happens in your body when you sip a soda, or what is going on deep in the soul of a carrot to make it so good for you, or why in the world you have so many neurons – brain cells! – in your stomach, of all places. It’s a fascinating subject, and someday the field may produce definitive answers to the nutritional questions that concern us, but — as nutritionists themselves will tell you — they’re not there yet. Not even close. Nutrition science, which after all only got started less than two hundred years ago, is today approximately where surgery was in the year 1650 – very promising, and very interesting to watch, but are you ready to let them operate on you? I think I’ll wait awhile.


24) Babies:


Contrary to popular belief, babies under a few months don't grin at you because they're copying your own smile, according to new research. Many studies have indicated that from birth, infants imitate the behaviors and facial expressions of the adults around them. However, a team of Australian, South African and British researchers have released a study this week that refutes this widespread belief. "Numerous studies from the 1980s and 90s indicated no imitation by newborns, while others claimed it was there," says Virginia Slaughter, a biologist at the University of Queensland and co-


author of the study. "We wanted to clear up the confusion because the 'fact' that newborns imitate is widely cited, not just in the fields of psychology, neuroscience and pediatrics, but also in popular sources for parents." The international research team, led by Janine Ostenbroek, a psychologist at the University of York in the UK, exposed more than 100 infants to a broad range of gestures and recorded their responses at one, two, six and nine weeks of age. The gestures included social cues like adults poking their tongues out, frowning or grinning, as well as non-social cues such as pointing or opening a box. The findings showed no link between behaviors exhibited by babies in their first few months and the gestures they were exposed to. The babies were just as likely to exhibit gestures they had never seen before as repeat ones they had. For instance, babies stuck their tongues out just as frequently if they were being exposed to pointing or opening a box, rather than anything to do with mouths or tongues.



25) Academic Networking:


Getting to know fellow academics, especially more senior ones, can be very daunting. Lecturers and researchers are used to spending a lot of time in isolation working independently. The thought of going public and ‘selling yourself' does not seem enticing. However, it is easier than you think to begin to develop your own career-enhancing networks. Your PhD supervisor and examiners or if you are already in post, your mentor, are a great place to start. They will have been chosen to guide you because they are more experienced and in most cases they will work close to your field of interest. Ask their advice for ways of building up your own network of contacts. Also it is easier to approach someone unknown to you if you can mention the name of a mutual acquaintance. If you are a postgraduate who is serious about a career in academia, or a more senior scholar wanting to develop one, you will surely be attending conferences on a fairly regular basis. There is no right or wrong number of these, some scholars stick to one or two a year, others seem to attend one a month! Conferences are the main way that academics network with each other, so do not miss out on these opportunities. If you are presenting a paper it gives others a chance to see what you are working on, and the informal sections of the programmed (such as food and drink breaks) encourage mingling and further discussion.


26) Micro-plastics:


Fish are being killed, and prevented from reaching maturity, by the litter of plastic particles finding their way into the world’s oceans, new research has proved. Some young fish have been found to prefer tiny particles of plastic to their natural food sources, effectively starving them before they can reproduce. The growing problem of microplastics – tiny particles of polymer-type materials from modern industry – has been thought for several years to be a peril for fish, but the study published on Thursday is the first to prove the damage in trials. Microplastics are near-indestructible in natural environments. They enter the oceans through litter, when waste such as plastic bags, packaging and other convenience materials are discarded. Vast amounts of these end up in the sea, through inadequate waste disposal systems and sewage outfall. Another growing source is microbeads, tiny particles of hard plastics that are used in cosmetics, for instance as an abrasive in modern skin cleaners. These easily enter waterways as they are washed off as they are used, flushed down drains and


forgotten, but can last for decades in our oceans. The impact of these materials has been hard to measure, despite being a growing source of concern. Small particles of plastics have been found in seabirds, fish and whales, which swallow the materials but cannot digest them, leading to a build up in their digestive tracts. For the first time, scientists have demonstrated that fish exposed to such materials during their development show stunted growth and increased mortality rates, as well as changed behavior that could endanger their survival.

27) Online Safety for Children:


When Tim Berners-Lee invented the world wide web, he surely didn’t anticipate that children would end up becoming some of its main users. Most start using the internet at the average age of three – and as recent research shows, children now spend more time playing and socializing online than watching television programs. Given this change in habits, it is not surprising that a recent House of Lords report has raised online safety and behavior as an important issue. The report said that for children, learning to survive in a world dominated by the internet should be as important as reading and writing. The House of Lords Communications Committee also warned that children should not be leaving school without “a well-rounded understanding of the digital world”. It also suggested that the government should think about implementing new legal requirements and a code of conduct companies would have to adhere to, which would help to bring the internet up to “childfriendly standards”. Of course, trying to rectify this lack of child-centered design is not an easy task, but one that requires the cooperation and goodwill of many sectors. It will need to involve consultation with technology, education, legal and policy experts. And it would also be a good idea to make children and young people part of the process.



28) Asda:


Asda has become the first food retailer in the country to measure how much customers can save by cutting back on food waste, thanks to a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) with the University of Leeds. The idea behind the KTP was for the University, using Asda’s customer insight data, to apply its research to identify, investigate and implement ways of helping customers to reduce their food waste. This was one of the first times that a major retailer had tried to deliver large-scale sustainability changes, with the two-year project seen as a way for Asda to position themselves as true innovators in this area. The campaign focused on providing customers with advice on everything from food storage and labelling, to creative recipes for leftovers. Meanwhile, in-store events encouraged customers to make changes in their own homes. In fact, two million customers have said they will make changes to how they deal with food waste in their own homes, leading to an average saving of 57 pounds per customer, as well as a reduction in waste. A key aspect of a KTP is that an associate is employed by the University to work in the firm and help deliver the desired outcomes of the KTP. As a part of the collaboration with Asda, Laura Babbs was given the task of driving forward the sustainability changes in the retailer. As a result of the success of her work, Laura eventually became a permanent member of the team at Asda.


29) Fallow Fields: Resting the Lands:


With a good system of crop rotation, and especially with the addition of any sort of


fertilizer you may be able to come up with, it’s possible to grow crops on a plot of land for upwards of 2 – 3 years at a time with good results. Ultimately, though, you must let the land rest if you hope to continue farming there in the long-run. Allowing a plot of land to rest for a period of time is known as letting the field go fallow, and there are several reasons for this. Allowing a field or plot to lie fallow means that you don’t grow anything new on it, don’t harvest anything and don’t graze any animals on the land for at least a year. Sometimes a field will lay fallow for two, three or even four years, but the traditional standard on many farms was to let a field lie fallow once every 2 – 3 years. This fallow period allows the land to replenish many of its nutrients. The root networks of various grasses or groundcovers (like clover) have a chance to expand and grow, which further strengthens the soil and protects it from erosion. During the fallow period, there are many beneficial flora and micro-fauna, including cyanobacteria, which live in the soil. These microorganisms continue to be active at the root level, steadily improving the quality of the soil so that when you come back in a year or two, you can begin planting food or cash crops anew.



30) Disabled people & computers:


Disabled people were among the early adopters of personal computers. They were quick to appreciate that word processing programs and printers gave them freedom from dependence on others to read and write for them. Some of these disabled early adopters became very knowledgeable about what could be achieved and used their knowledge to become independent students at a high level. They also gained the confidence to ask that providers of education make adjustments so that disabled students could make better use of course software and the web, rather than just word processing. For some disability groups, information in electronic format (whether computer-based or web based) can be more accessible than printed information. For example, people who have limited mobility or limited manual skills can find it difficult to obtain or hold printed material; visually impaired people can find it difficult or impossible to read print, but both these groups can be enabled to use a computer and, therefore, access the information electronically. Online communication can enable disabled students to communicate with their peers on an equal basis. For example, a deaf student or a student with Asperger’s syndrome may find it difficult to interact in a face-to-face tutorial, but may have less difficulty interacting when using a text conferencing system in which everyone types and reads text. In addition, people’s disabilities are not necessarily visible in online communication systems; so disabled people do not have to declare their disability and are not perceived as being different.


31) The Greenland Sharks:


An international team of scientists, including a physiologist from The University of Manchester, will head to the largest island in the world later this month to investigate the Greenland shark – believed to be the longest-lived vertebrate animal. Dr Holly Shiels, who is also a trustee of the Physiological Society, will be the only UK-based scientist on the expedition aboard the research vessel Sanna commissioned by the Greenland government. The purpose of the mission is to understand more about the Greenland shark, a top predator in the Arctic, which lives for more than 272 years - possibly more than 400. This extreme age was only revealed by scientists from Copenhagen last year and published in the journal Science. Little else is known about


how the shark survives in the deep seas around the Arctic Circle. It is both a hunter and a scavenger and has been seen to feed on seals and been found with the remains of polar bears and whales in its stomach. It is also one of the largest species of shark – growing to about five-and-a-half metres, just a bit smaller than the great white. However, more information is required to ensure the species is adequately protected, as Dr Shiels explained: "Greenland sharks are classified as data deficient," she said. "This means that we don't know enough to put measures in place to protect them from over-fishing, pollution or climate change. This expedition has a broad range of expertise which means that we'll be able to take full advantage of any sharks that we discover."


32) Ecology and Climatology:



Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms among themselves and with their environment. It seeks to understand patterns in nature (e.g., the spatial and temporal distribution of organisms) and the processes governing those patterns. Climatology is the study of the physical state of the atmosphere – its instantaneous state or weather, its seasonal-to-interannual variability, its longterm average condition or climate, and how climate changes over time. These two fields of scientific study are distinctly

​​ different. Ecology is a discipline within the biological sciences and has as its core the principle of natural selection. Climatology is a discipline within the geophysical sciences based on applied physics and fluid dynamics. Both, however, share a common history. The origin of these sciences is attributed to Aristotle and Theophrastus and their books Meteorological and Enquiry into Plants, respectively, but their modern beginnings trace back to natural history and plant geography. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century naturalists and geographers saw changes in vegetation as they explored new regions and laid the foundation for the development of ecology and climatology as they sought explanations for these geographic patterns. Alexander von Humboldt, in the early 1800s, observed that widely separated regions have structurally and functionally similar vegetation if their climates are similar. Alphonse de Candolle hypothesized that latitudinal zones of tropical, temperate, and arctic vegetation are caused by temperature and in 1874 proposed formal vegetation zones with associated temperature limits.​​ 




  • Should individuals limit the use of cars and use alternatives instead to protect the environment?


  • With enough amount of motivation and practice, people can learn anything that the experts teach in the classroom. Do you believe or not?


  • “The only thing that interferes with my learning is education.” – Albert Einstein. What did he mean by that? Do you think he is correct?


  • In some countries around the world, voting is compulsory. Do you believe with the notion of compulsory voting?


  • Learning a new language at an early age is helpful for children. It is more positive


for their future prospects, though it can also have some adverse effects. Do you believe or disbelieve?


  • There are both problems and benefits for high school students study plays and works of theatres written centuries ago. Discuss and use your own experience.


  • Communication has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of this change.


  • Space travel is fantastic these days, but there are many issues – such as environmental problems – that we should be focusing on. What are your views on the allocation of public funding?


  • Nowadays, people believe that environment influence their accomplishment. Some people think their success and accomplishment were influenced by the places where they grew up. Do you think the environment does or does not affect people’s accomplishment and how it affects?


  • As national services, which one deserve to receive more financial support, education or health?


  • Some people think schools should group students according to their academic abilities while others think students can achieve better performance in mixed groups. Discuss both opinions and give your own opinion.


  • How does the design of building affect, either positively or negatively, where people work and live?


  • The world’s governments and organizations are facing a lot of issues. Which do you think is the most pressing problem for the inhabitants on our planet and give the solution?


  • Should parents be held legally responsible for the actions of their children? Do you believe with this opinion? Support your position with your own study, experience or observations.


  • Advertising may make people buy something they don’t need or cannot afford, but also, they can convey information to increase their life quality. What is your opinion?


  • The medical technology is responsible for increasing the average life expectancy. Do you think it is a curse or a blessing?


  • Students can obtain information of academic subject from online, the printed books and articles, and discussion with their teachers and their peers. Which one is the most reliable source?


  • A healthy diet is more important for keeping fit than exercise. To what extent do you believe with this statement? Give example or personal experiences.


  • Many people choose to immigrate to other countries. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in a foreign country? Discuss with your own experience


  • There are both problems and benefits for high school students study plays and works of theatres written centuries ago. Discuss and use your own experience.


  • Some universities deduct students’ work if assignment is given late. What is your opinion and suggest some alternative actions?


  • Some people argue that science is more important than arts. What is your opinion?


  • Lifestyle influence people’s health. Talk about what political services could help.


  • Do you think experiential learning is beneficial in high schools or colleges?


  • We have entered a throw-away society and fill the environment with rubbish. What are the causes and what are your solutions?


  • In order to study effectively, it requires comfort, peace and time. So it is impossible for a student to combine learning and employment at the same time, because one distracts the other. Is it realistic to combine them at the same time in our life today? Support your opinion with examples.


  • Some people claim that digital age has made us lazier, others claim it has made us more knowledgeable. Discuss both opinions, use your own experience to support.


  • Online materials like music, movies are accessible at no cost. Do you think online material should be accessed at no cost? Support.


  • Teenagers should receive lessons on principles of personal finance, such as investing and debt. To what extent do you believe with this statement?


  • For children, use films to study is as important as study literature. To what extent do you believe?


  • Some people claim that instead of having to prepare for huge numbers of exams in school, children should learn more. To what extent do you believe with this statement? Use your own experience to support your ideas.


  • There are more and more situations using credit cards instead of cash. It seems that cashless society is becoming a reality. How realistic do you think it is? And do you think it brings benefits or problems?


  • Some people said creativity is something a person was born with. Others thought creativity can be taught and developed. What’s your opinion? Explain.


  • Is a competitive environment in school or university good or bad? Discuss and give your own experiences as examples.


  • Over half of population lives in cities. Is it a positive or negative development?


  • You are given climate change as the field of study. Which area would you prefer? Explain why you picked this up the particular area of your study, and give an example in the area you pick.


  • Should marketing for consumer goods companies like clothing and food focus on reputation or on short term strategies like discount and special offers? Why?


  • In the past 100 years, there have been many inventions, such as antibiotics, airplanes and computers. What do you think is the most important of them? Why?


  • Nowadays television has become an essential part of life. It is a medium for disseminating news and information, and for some it acts as a companion. What is your opinion about this?


  • It is often argued that studying overseas is overrated. There are many scholars who study locally. Is travel really necessary for a better education?


  • Climate change is a concerning global issue. Who should take the responsibilities, governments, big companies or individuals?


  • Some people think human behaviors can be limited by laws, others think laws have little effect. What is your opinion?


  • Mass media, including TV and newspaper, have a great influence on humans, particularly on the younger generation. It has a pivotal role in shaping people's opinions. Discuss the extent you believe or disbelieve. Use your own experience or examples.


  • Tourism is good for some less developed countries, but also has some disadvantages. Discuss


  • The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, influences our society and shapes our opinions and characters. What is your opinion?


  • In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of extreme or adventure sports?


  • “The information revolution by modern mass media has both positive and negative consequences for individuals and for society.” To what extent do you believe?


  • Some employers involve employees in the decision-making process of products and services. What are the advantages and disadvantages?


  • It is argued that getting married before finishing school or getting a job is foolish. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


  • In globalization, it is impossible to succeed if you cannot speak at least one foreign language. Do you think everyone must learn at least one foreign language?


  • Some people argue that experience is the best teacher. Life experiences can teach more effectively than books or formal school education. How far do you believe with this idea? Support your opinion with reasons and/or your personal experience.


  • As cities expanding, some people claim governments should look forward creating better networks of public transportation available for everyone rather than building more roads for vehicle owning population. What’s your opinion? Give some examples or experience to support.


  • The time people devote in job leaves very little time for personal life. How widespread is the problem? What problem will this shortage of time cause?


  • When you look for work, some people think salary is more important while others think work condition is more important. Which one is more important when you are looking for a job?


  • Students should choose a subject that is better to future employee rather than a subject they are interested in. What’s your opinion?


Reorder Paragraph:




  • At the same time, turboprop propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather conditions.

  • By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it was much more economical than other aircraft at that time.


  • After World War II, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available.

  • Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.



Answer:​​ CDBA





  • However, the floor of the Atlantic is becoming fairly well known as a result of special surveys since 1920.

  • A broad, well-defined ridge-the Mid-Atlantic ridge-runs north and south between Africa and the two Americas. Numerous other major irregularities diversify the Atlantic floor.


  • Closely spaced soundings show that many parts of the oceanic floors are rugged as mountainous regions of the continents.

  • The topography of the ocean floors is none too well known, since in great areas the available soundings are hundreds or even thousands of miles apart.

  • Use of the recently perfected method of echo sounding is rapidly enlarging our knowledge of submarine topography.

  • During World War II great strides were made in mapping submarine surfaces, particularly in many parts of the vast pacific basin.


Answer:​​ DABCEF





  • These new super-Earths have radii of 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 times that of Earth.


  • Four of these planets are so-called super-Earths, larger than our own planet, but smaller than even the smallest ice giant planet in our Solar System.

  • A team of scientists has discovered two Earth-like planets in the habitable orbit of a Sunlike star.

  • In addition, one of the five was a roughly Mars-sized planet, half the size of Earth.


  • Using observations gathered by NASA's Kepler Mission, the team found five planets orbiting a Sun-like star called Kepler-62.


Answer:​​ CEBAE




  • In the 1960s and 1970s, corporations were in a state of denial regarding their impact on the environment.

  • The environmental revolution has been almost three decades in the making, and it has changed forever how companies do business.

  • Then a series of highly visible ecological problems created a groundswell of support for strict government regulation.

  • In the United States, Lake Erie was dead. In Europe, the Rhine was on fire. In Japan, people were dying of mercury poisoning.

  • Today many companies have accepted their responsibility to do no harm to the environment. 23.German invasion.



Answer:​​ BACDE




  • Meanwhile, the world had woken up to the potential of atomic energy and countries were conducting testes to exploit the same.

  • But Polish forces could not defend a long border.


  • They lacked compact defence lines and additionally their supply lines were also poorly protected.

  • In the beginning, Britain and France were hopeful that Poland should be able to defend her borders.

  • German invasion of Poland officially triggered the Second World War.


Answer:​​ EDBCA






  • This should make the town receptive to Democrats, but Mr Trump easily won the county of which it forms part.

  • Liberal is conservative in a moderate Midwestern kind of way which is changing fast due to big National Beef Packing plant which relies on Hispanic migrants and thus four-fifths of the children in Liberal’s public-school system are Hispanic.


  • The town of Liberal is said to have been named for an early settler famous among travellers for being free with drinking water.

  • Liberal’s mayor, Joe Denoyer, who was raised in a Democratic family near Chicago and moved to Liberal in search of work.

  • Mr Denoyer voted for Mr Trump by being impressed by his promise, though he thinks it unlikely that the president will keep his promises.


Answer:​​ CBADE






  • These rails were too fragile to carry heavy loads, but because the initial construction cost was less, this method was sometimes used to quickly build an inexpensive rail line.


  • Early rails were used on horse drawn wagon ways originally with wooden rails, but from the 1760s using strap-iron rails, which consisted of thin strips of cast iron fixed onto wooden rails.

  • These were superseded by cast iron rails that were flanged (i.e. 'L' shaped) and with the wagon wheels flat.

  • However, the long-term expense involved in frequent maintenance outweighed any savings.

  • The first steel rails were made in 1857 by Robert Forester Mushet, who laid them at Derby station in England. Steel is a much stronger material, which steadily replaced iron for use on railway rail and allowed much longer lengths of rails to be rolled.

  • An early proponent of this design was Benjamin Outram. His partner William Jessop preferred the use of "edge rails" in 1789 where the wheels were flanged and, over time, it was realised that this combination worked better.



Answer:​​ BADCFE






  • This is especially true when employees are working with a large number of partners.


  • Employees may meet troubles such as contacting and organizing a date and time, arranging accommodation, etc.

  • People always think it’s easy to organize a meeting. However, there are many potentials can hinder the starting time.

  • In addition, sometimes you have to find children facility or other health care for the meeting participants.


Answer:​​ CABD






  • Restaurants and school cafeteria adjust and amend their menus to adapt to this special diet.

  • This diet is not only unattractive, but also may cause nutritional imbalance if not managed well.

  • Menus in all of these places have become more balance in nutrients, and also attract those who are not vegetarians.

  • Vegetarians do not eat meat or fish in their diet.


  • These developments/improvements won’t succeed without the effort of vegetarians.


Answer:​​ DBACE






  • When the clot is formed, it will stay in the blood vessels.


  • The clot in blood vessels will block blood flow.


  • Heart attack is the caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood




  • Without the normal blood flow, it will cause muscle contraction.​​ Answer:​​ CABD




  • They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.

  • All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies.


  • Some students go overseas because they love travel.


  • Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.

  • They don't all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.



Answer:​​ BEACD






  • But no one would deny that mobile phones can help us to make a phone call when we are under a crisis.

  • Mobile phones, for example, can cause incidents if drivers insist on talking on the phone instead of looking at roads.

  • I think we should be wary of the reporting of science - it is often over-dramatized in order to secure an audience - but not of science itself.

  • In other words I firmly believe that the development of science and the extension of understanding is a public good.

  • Of course, there may be the extremely rare example of scientific dishonesty, which will be seized upon by the news organisations, but the role of science within modern society remains valuable.


Answer:​​ CEBAD






  • There are, however, challenges associated with the political acceptability of carbon pricing.

  • There is a growing consensus that, if serious action is to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, a price must be applied to those emissions.


  • Even if other countries act in concert with Canada to price carbon, the effects will be uneven across sectors, and lobbying efforts by relatively more-affected sectors might threaten the political viability of the policy.


  • If Canada implements a carbon price on its own, there are worries that Canadian factories will relocate to other countries to avoid the regulation.


Answer:​​ BADC






  • Some perspectives ultimately are not included.


  • Although experts like journalists are expected to be unbiased, they inevitably share the system biases of the disciplines and cultures in which they work.

  • Practically speaking, however, it is about as easy to present all sides of an issue as it is to invite all candidates from all political parties to a presidential debate.

  • Journalists try to be fair and objective by presenting all sides of a particular issues.



Answer:​​ BDCA






  • It depends on how specialized they have become during the course of evolution.


  • The non-specialists, however, the opportunists of the animal world, can never afford to relax.

  • All animals have a strong exploratory urge, but for some it is more crucial than others.

  • If they have put all their effort into the perfection of one survival trick, they do not bother so much with the general complexities of the world around them.

  • So long as the ant eater has its ants and the koala bear is gum leaves, then they are satisfied and the living is easy.


Answer:​​ CABDE






  • By contrast, not everyone becomes proficient at complex mathematical reasoning, few people learn to paint well, and many people cannot carry a tune.

  • For one thing, the use of language is universal—all normally developing children learn to speak at least one language, and many learn more than one.

  • It is wrong, however, to exaggerate the similarity between language and other cognitive skills, because language stands apart in several ways.

  • But just the opposite is true—language is one of the most complex of all human cognitive abilities.

  • Because everyone is capable of learning to speak and understand language, it may seem to be simple.


Answer:​​ CBAED




  • Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it.


  • Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history.

  • Electronic transactions are happening in closed group networks and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of Internet to emerge.

  • The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money have to be.

  • To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.



Answer: BADCE





  • Every day he was asked where the kitchen was in his house, and every day he didn’t have the foggiest idea.

  • Studies of this man led scientists to a breakthrough: the part of our brains where habits are stored has nothing to do with memory or reason.

  • In 1992 a retired engineer in San Diego contracted a rare brain disease that wiped out his memory.

  • Yet whenever he was hungry he got up and propelled himself straight to the kitchen to get something to eat.


Answer:​​ CADB





  • Julia Bocking’s Literacy and Dads (LADS) project aims to increase the number of fathers participating as literacy helpers in K-2 school reading programs at Queanbeyan Primary Schools.


  • She said, “A male that values reading sets a powerful role model, particularly for young boys, who are statistically more likely to end up in remedial literacy programs.”

  • A University of Canberra student has launched the nation’s first father-led literacy project, to encourage fathers to become more involved in their children’s literacy.

  • Having worked as a literacy tutor with teenagers, Ms. Bocking saw the need for good attitudes towards reading to be formed early on – with the help of male role models.


Answer:​​ CADB






  • But stored food is essential for feeding non-food-producing specialists, and certainly for supporting whole towns of them.

  • So, while some nomadic hunter-gatherers may occasionally bag more food than they can consume in a few days, such a bonanza is of little use to them because they


cannot protect it.


  • Hence nomadic hunter- gatherer societies have few or no such full-time specialists, who instead first appear in sedentary societies.

  • A consequence of a settled existence is that it permits one to store food surpluses, since storage would be pointless if one didn't remain nearby to guard the stored food.


Answer:​​ DBAC






  • The first Scottish bank to do this was the Bank of Scotland.


  • To face growth of trade it was deemed necessary to remedy this lack of an adequate currency.

  • In most countries it is only the government, through their central banks, who are permitted to issue currency.

  • But in Scotland three banks are still allowed to issue banknotes.


  • When this bank was founded in 1695, Scots coinage was in short supply and of uncertain value, compared with English, Dutch, Flemish or French coin.



Answer:​​ CDAEB






  • Mill was able to see an expanded role for the State in such legislation to protect us against powerful interests.

  • He was able to argue that the State was the only organ that was genuinely capable of responding to social needs and social interests, unlike markets.

  • Markets may be good at encouraging innovation and following trends, but they were no good at ensuring social equality.

  • These markets had become rapidly dominated by powerful enterprises who were able to act in their own interests, against the interests of both workers and consumers.

  • There had already been some legislation to prevent such abuses - such as various Factory Acts to prevent the exploitation of child workers.


Answer:​​ CDEAB






  • Even the internal structure could be modified in new ways; different materials could be incorporated as the process goes along.

  • Structures built with this system could be produced faster and less expensively than traditional construction methods allow.

  • Researchers have developed a system that can 3-D print the basic structure of an entire building.

  • Ultimately, the researchers say, this approach could enable the design and construction of new kinds of buildings that would not be feasible with traditional building methods.


Answer:​​ CBAD






  • This is a classic example of source confusion, in which the content and the source become dissociated.

  • During the process, individuals may forget the source of the information.


  • False memories are constructed by combining actual memories with the content of suggestions received from others.

  • Of course, because we can implant false childhood memories in some individuals in no way implies that all memories that arise after suggestion are necessarily false.



Answer:​​ CBAD






  • Of course, most people are well enough to attend to their work, but nearly all are suffering from some ill, mental or physical, acute or chronic.

  • These conditions prevent him from doing his best mentally and physically.


  • It is natural to be healthy, but we have wandered so far astray that disease is the rule and good health the exception.

  • The average individual is of less value to himself, to his family and to society than he could be.

  • His bad habits, of which he is often not aware, have brought weakness and disease upon him.


Answer:​​ CADEB






  • A requirement of Humanities 104 is to write a persuasive paper on a topic of your choice.

  • The topic you choose should be supported by a range of sources.


  • The source should be cited under APA guidelines, and the final draft should be written in APA styles.

  • The final draft is due one week before the final exam.


Answer:​​ ABCD






  • The reason is that achieving agreement requires people to accept the reality of views different from their own and to accept change or compromise.

  • In general, there is a tendency to underestimate how long it takes to discuss and resolve an issue on which two people initially have different views.

  • They have to be persuaded and helped to feel comfortable about the outcome that is eventually agreed.


  • It is not just a matter of putting forward a set of facts and expecting the other person immediately to accept the logic of the exposition.

  • People need time to make this adjustment in attitude and react badly to any attempt to rush them into an agreement.


Answer:​​ BADCE






  • The takeover battle raged for six months before Arcelor's bosses finally listened to shareholders who wanted the board to accept Mittal's third offer.


  • It was taken over by Mittal, a Dutch-registered company run from London by its biggest single shareholder, Lakshmi Mittal, an Indian who started his first business in Indonesia.


  • Arcelor, established in Dutch, had been the largest European steel maker by 2006.


  • The Arcelor-Mittal deal demonstrates Europe's deepening integration into the global economy.



Answer:​​ CBAD






  • But a growing number of companies are setting up schemes to recruit young workers.

  • They are skeptical about young people’s skills and their readiness for work.


  • Employers are often reluctant to hire young people, even though there are more than 850,000 unemployed 16-to24-year-olds and UK businesses are struggling to fill one in five vacancies because of skills shortages.


  • They can be surprised by the results.


Answer:​​ CBAD






  • When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-house for they were merely expressing a suggestion. “.


  • Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth and Mr. Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a “far-out” idea.

  • Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it been done before?

  • Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief executives, governments, NGOs, foundations


Answer:​​ CBDA




  • Embryonic stem cells are valued by scientists because the cells’ descendant can turn into any other sort of body cells.

  • Some example cited for a possible treatment using these cells are diabetes, motor neuron disease and Parkinson’s disease.

  • They might thus be used as treatments for diseases that require the replacement of a particular, lost cell type.

  • These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver.



Answer:​​ ADCB






  • As a result, they lack the coping strategies that many adults have.


  • In particular, many young children lack the verbal skills to express their emotions and to effectively communicate their need for emotional support.

  • Most young children are inexperienced in dealing with emotional upheaval.


  • The frustration of not being able to effectively communicate may manifest itself in alternative behaviours.

  • Strategies that children may employ at this age are commonly referred to as defense mechanisms.


Answer:​​ CABDE






  • Another example of an endothermic reaction is the cold packs used by athletes to treat injuries.

  • When it is mixed with water in your mouth, an endothermic reaction occurs, taking heat energy from your mouth and making it feel cooler.

  • Sherbet powder is a mix of baking soda and citric acid.


  • This process is endothermic-taking heat energy from the surroundings and cooling the injured part of your body. In this way, the cold pack acts as an ice pack.


Answer:​​ CBAD






  • The recent high-profile conferences on development issues, which have continued a series that began in the 1970s, have broken new ground in many areas: by involving Presidents, Prime Ministers and other heads of state - as pioneered at the 1990 World Summit for Children.

  • In fact, the world body was born when delegates from 50 nations met in San


Francisco in April 1945 for the United Nations Conference on International Organization.

  • These problems otherwise would not have the political urgency to grab front-page headlines and command the attention of world leaders.

  • Conferences have played a key role in guiding the work of the United Nations since its very inception.

  • These events have put long-term, difficult problems like poverty and environmental degradation at the top of the global agenda.


Answer:​​ DBAEC





  • Games provide an ideal setting to explore important elements of the design of cleverer machines, such as pattern recognition, learning and planning.

  • RESEARCHERS in the field of artificial intelligence have long been intrigued by games, and not just as a way of avoiding work.

  • Today, though, they are pressing the attack on every front.


  • Ever since the stunning victory of Deep Blue, a program running on an IBM supercomputer, over Gary Kasparov, then world chess champion, in 1997, it has been clear that computers would dominate that particular game.


Answer:​​ BADC






  • Maybe they do not know the purpose of a tutorial.


  • Many students sit in a tutorial week after week without saying anything.


  • Even if students do know what a tutorial is for, there can be other reasons why they keep quiet.

  • Why is that?


  • They think it is like a small lecture where the tutor gives them information.


Answer:​​ BDAEC








  • The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees.


  • That is, however, easier said than done.


  • Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, encompassing various disciplines.

  • In order to accomplish this, the manager should be able to motivate employees.


Answer:​​ ADBC




  • There she completed a diploma that enabled her to enter Monash University as a secondyear student.

  • Mechanical engineering student Ne Tan is spending the first semester of this year studying at the University of California, Berkeley as part of the Monash Abroad program.


  • Now in her third year of study, the Monash Abroad program will see her complete four units of study in the US before returning to Australia in May 2009.

  • Ne, an international student from Shanghai, China, began her Monash journey at Monash College in October 2006.


Answer:​​ BDAC







  • Whatever happened to the idea of progress and a better future? I still believe both


  • The Brundtland Report, our Common Future (1987) defines sustainable development as” development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

  • Development in the past was driven by growth and innovation. It led to new technologies and huge improvements in living standards.

  • Implicit in this definition is the idea that the old pattern of development could not be sustained. Is this true?

  • To assume that we know what the circumstances or needs of future generations will be is mistaken and inevitably leads to the debilitating sense that we are living on borrowed time.


Answer:​​ ABDCE






  • If the company is so large that it cannot claim that it would be bankrupted by cleanup costs, the company instead denies its responsibility or else seeks to minimize the costs.

  • In Montana as elsewhere, companies that have acquired older mines respond to demands to pay for cleanup in either of two ways.

  • Especially if the company is small, its owners may declare the company bankrupt, in some cases conceal its assets, and transfer their business efforts to other companies or to new companies that do not bear responsibility for cleanup at the old mine.


  • In either case, either the mine site and areas downstream of it remain toxic,


thereby endangering people, or else the U.S. federal government and the Montana state government pay for the cleanup through the federal Superfund and a corresponding Montana state fund.


Answer:​​ BCAD




  • The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.

  • However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.

  • For example, tree rings, Dendrochronology (literally, te of a site, they cooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.

  • Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help – if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records – written in nature’s hand.


Answer:​​ DABC







  • In 'Easier Said than Done', we set out some of the reasons why we might find it hard to live in a healthy way, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep, and checking for early warning symptoms.


  • These include Commitment devices, where we make it very unattractive to not follow through on an intention.

  • Perhaps most importantly, we look to the field of behavioural science for strategies that people can use to overcome those hurdles and to initiate lifestyle changes.

  • Changing existing behaviour can be a difficult task, but with the help of these strategies new behaviours can become habitual, facilitating a long-term sustained healthy lifestyle.


Answer:​​ ACBD






  • Whether this is good or bad is, of course, up for argument.


  • Human existence in the developed world is entirely dependent on some fairly recent developments in science and technology.

  • It is a truism to say that in 21st century society science and technology are important.

  • But the fact that science underlies our lives, our health, our work, our communications, our entertainment and our transport is undeniable.


Answer:​​ CBAD






  • They collected the results from 116 scientific studies, 22 of which looked at structural changes in the brain and 100 of which looked at changes in brain functionality and/or behavior.

  • Palaus and his colleagues wanted to see if any trends had emerged from the research to date concerning how video games affect the structure and activity of our




  • For example, p