PTE Prediction File December 2019

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PTE Prediction PDF December 2019  

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  1. Fence


Fence, humanly erected barrier between two divisions of land, used to mark a legal or other boundary, to keep animals or people in or out, and sometimes as an ornament. In newly settled lands fences are usually made of materials at hand, e.g., stone, earth, or wood.


  1. Parkinson


  1. Northcote Parkinson, a British writer, formulated Parkinson’s rule: “Work expands to fill the time allotted to it; or, conversely, the amount of work completed is in inverse proportion to the number of people employed.” Simply said: If you have an hour to do a 5-minute job, it will take an hour to do it. A large number of people accomplish less work than a smaller number of people.



  1. Copyright


The quest for a user-friendly copyright regime began a decade ago when the Hong Kong government launched a public consultation on “Copyright Protection in the Digital Environment” in December 2006. Although this consultation initially sought to address Internet-related challenges, such as those caused by peer-to- peer file- sharing technology, the reform effort quickly evolved into a more comprehensive digital upgrade of the Hong Kong copyright regime.


  1. Composition of body


Your body’s composed of trillions of cells; lots of different types of cells that make up different organs and other parts of your body. Your body is also where 10 times that number of bacteria call ‘home sweet home.’ But don’t be afraid these bacteria do more good than harm to you. And besides, just in case you wanted to strike up a conversation with your tenants, you and your bacteria do have a few things in common.


  1. Bats


Historically what has been used to estimate bats has been photographic estimates, visual estimates, mark- recapture estimates, and those have been highly prone to bias. “Newer technology, like thermal imaging cameras is accurate, but expensive. So at a time of epic bat mortality – due to, for example, the fungal white-nose syndrome that’s wiping out bats in Canada and the U.S”




  1. Plant’s response



What we found is that the plant is actually damaged by herbivores like most plants are in nature. And in response to that it secretes sugar from the wound edges where the herbivores have damaged the plant.” Tobias Lortzing is a graduate student at Freie University Berlin and one of the study authors.


  1. Kinderman


Kinderman says he thinks the compound could be a win-win for the planet


  • and the animals. “You know the methane is kind of a waste product. And this energy, instead of losing it for the animal, it can be reused for the animal in terms of performance, and at the same time we are doing something for greenhouse gas emission and climate change” The product’s not on the market yet – toxicology tests are ongoing.



  1. Birds


They controlled for the birds’ age, sex, body size and species. And they found that the hunted specimen ‘s brains were actually five percent smaller, on average, than the brains of birds that died by other means. “The surprising thing is that, if you


make a smaller kind of analysis of liver or heart size, there is absolutely no difference there. So this is specific to the brain.”


  1. Momentum


By this time, however, paleontological momentum had moved to England. In 1812, at Lyme Regis on the Dorset coast, an extraordinary child named Mary Anning, aged eleven, twelve or thirteen, depending on whose account you read, found a strange fossilized sea monster; 17 feet long and now known as the ichthyosaurus, embedded in the steep and dangerous cliffs along the English Channel.


  1. Clementson


Clementson wanted to see if claims of question dodging actually held up, historically—not necessarily in the unique case of Trump. So Clementson analyzed the transcripts of 14 presidential debates, from 1996 to 2012.


Overall, he found 51 accusations of question dodging— 26 by Dems, 25 by Republicans.


  1. Eye


Some people object that in order for the eye to modify and still remain a useful instrument to its owner, many changes would have had to take




place simultaneously. However, it is not necessary to suppose this if the modifications were extremely slight and gradual.


  1. Health-related curriculum


The curriculum enhances the general management program with health-related courses, Dr. Schulman says. Required courses include healthcare in the 21st century and the economics and strategy of health-sector management. Students may also take electives such as medical device commercialization, healthcare marketing, and the economics and management of the pharmaceutical industry.



  1. English Revolution


The English Revolution has been interpreted in several ways by historians: as a fight between the aristocratic Cavaliers, who were open to life, and the serious Puritans; as a battle for power between parliament and the monarchy over the rights of Englishmen that had been going on for centuries; and as a class war similar to the French Revolution, of which it was a forerunner.


  1. Supernova


The term supernova was coined in the 1930s by a memorably odd astrophysicist named Frits Zwicky. Born in Bulgaria and raised in Switzerland, Zwicky came to the California Institute of Technology in the 1920s and there as once distinguished himself by his abrasive personality and erratic talents. He didn’t seem to be outstandingly bright, and many of his colleagues considered him little more than “an irritating buffoon”.


  1. Non-material culture


In comparing material with none-material culture – the first being the objects and technologies we create, and the second our customs, beliefs and attitudes – the speaker gives greater emphasis to the material culture. He gives the example of the development of genetic science and the benefits it has brought to mankind, despite a fair amount of opposition.


  1. Psychologist


Psychologist Saho Takagi, a graduate student at Kyoto University in Japan, strolls into one of Japan’s many cat cafes. These establishments allow customers to pay an hourly fee for the chance to cuddle some cats. They’re popular in Japan because so many apartment buildings forbid pet ownership. But Takagi isn’t a typical customer. She’s not there for feline affection, but to probe their minds.




  1. DeLone and McLean



DeLone and McLean’s model has been criticized by some authors. Indeed, this model is specific to contexts of voluntary use of information technology. The usage variable remains a success variable of information systems if the user himself decides to adopt or reject the technology. However, for mandatory uses, such as for ERP systems, the use of the technology is obvious. The success of information systems cannot, therefore, be measured by usage.


  1. Australian slang (Most Repeated)



Australians do speak English, however, for some tourists and travelers, it can be difficult to understand the slang. Also, the links between Australian and American English were seen to be very tenuous. At least some colloquialisms in Australian English does not exist in other types of English.


  1. Statistical information (Most Repeated)


The provision of accurate and authoritative statistical information strengthens modern societies. It provides a basis for decisions to be made on such things as where to open schools and hospitals, how much money to spend on welfare payments and even which football players to replace at half-time.


  1. Book choosing (Most Repeated)


This book is no ordinary book, and should not be read through from beginning to end. It contains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on the choices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission will hinge on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.


  1. Russia (Most Repeated)


Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of


European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.


  1. Diplomacy


For diplomacy the starting point must be that globalization requires bridges and removes barriers. A policy of containment is a difficult




strategy in the age of the fiber-optic cable, the jumbo jet and the satellite dish. There will always be the exception, such as the murderous regime in Iraq where the only safe strategy is to keep it in the isolation ward until it accepts the norms of international behavior. Or the military dictatorship in Burma which has persistently failed to respond to dialogue. It takes two to critically engage.


  1. MBA (Most Repeated)


Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone’s experience of doing MBA is, of course, different though denying that it’s hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.



  1. Side effects


Where there are effects, there are often side effects. The car is a boon to mobility, but can lead to obesity, deaths and pollution. Burning fossil fuel may keep economies going, but wrecks the climate in the long run. In a similar way, there are side effects to information technology in education settings – from childcare to the classroom to the lecture hall and beyond.


  1. Weakness (Most Repeated)


Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three categories, retailers enjoyed healthy


increases across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers were also revised higher.


  1. The founding fathers


The founding fathers established constitutional protections for the press because they understood that leaving the watchdog function to partisan politicians wouldn’t necessarily serve the public interest, both sides have too many incentives to preserve the status quo and ignore problems that elude quick fixes.


  1. Equity (Most Repeated)


It isn’t rare for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of business school, but 9 times out of 10, the students who nab these jobs are the




ones who had private equity experience under their belt before even starting their MBA program.


  1. Infinite variations


Surprisingly, despite what appear to be infinite variations, all difficult conversations share a common structure. When you’re caught up in the details and anxiety of a particularly difficult conversation, this structure is hard to see. But understanding that structure is essential to improving how you handle your most challenging conversations.


  1. Adulthood



Once most animals reach adulthood, they stop growing. In contrast, even plants that are thousands of years old continue to grow new needles, add new wood, and produce cones and new flowers, almost as if parts of their bodies remained “forever young”. The secrets of plant growth are regions of tissue that can produce cells that later develop into specialized tissues.



  1. Lincoln (Most Repeated)


Lincon’s apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.


  1. He


By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work having been finished in good time, he has a long interval of rest in the evening before the timely hour when he goes to bed. After a sound night’s rest, he rises early next morning in good health and spirits for the labors of a new day.


  1. Tube-shaped mic-robot


Each tube-shaped mic-robot is a sandwich of three materials. A graphene outer layer, which binds to heavy metals. A middle layer of nickel, which gives the bots magnetic polarity, so they can be pulled through wastewater with magnets. And platinum inside for propulsion. Just add a bit of peroxide to the wastewater, and it’ll react with the platinum to form water and oxygen bubbles, which can propel the tubes along.




  1. Trump (Most Repeated)



Trump has threatened to declare China a currency manipulator, but experts say he has little legal or economic basis to take such a step. He has also threatened to impose a tariff of up to 45 percent on Chinese imports if Beijing doesn’t “behave,” a move that could lead to a trade war and damage the economies of both nations.


  1. Police force


Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe. France had one long before indeed, the word police is taken from the



French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign as that is, French and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.


  1. Dike formation


This study marks the first time scientists have linked dike formation to large, damaging earthquakes, and Wauthier is looking back through history for more examples. She says researchers will never be able to predict exactly when an earthquake might strike after a dike intrusion. But at least now, researchers and rift zone residents know they’re not just in for bangs they may also be in for shudders.


  1. Samuel Shian


Study author Samuel Shian, a materials scientist, says this smart glass is cheaper than others, and uses minimal power much less, for example, than something like a curling iron. And since it’s flexible and foldable, he says it could even be used for things like camouflage uniforms, to switch, for example, from green and brown to white and gray. “This would be very useful when the background landscape suddenly changes, such as during early snowfall.”


  1. Neuro science


Since plato, philosophers have described the decision- making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate or we “blink” and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind’s black box with the latest tools of neuro science, they’re discovering that this is not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason – and the precise mix depends on the situation.




  1. Mathematics



Competence in mathematics was another trouble spot. More than half said that their real task school’s graduates are deficient in mathematics, more than 10% of respondents said college’s graduates are deficient in the subject, while 70% said they are adequate.


  1. Grand Canyon (Most Repeated)


Few things in the world produce such amazement such as the Grand Canyon. It took around more than 2 billion years to create this vast wonder. It is 17 miles wide, largely through the relentless force of Colorado River, which runs 277 miles along its length, a mile beneath its towering rims.



  1. Edison and Tesla (Most Repeated)


Tesla actually worked for Edison in his early career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison’s machines and when he asked him for the money which he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say:” Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor”.


  1. Tesla and Edison


Tesla’s theoretical work formed the basic of modern alternating current electric power systems. Thomas Edison promised him almost one million dollars in today’s money to undertake motor and generator improvement. However, when Tesla asked about the money, Edison replied, “Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor.” The pair then became arched rivals.


  1. MBA courses


Along with customary classes on subjects such as finance, accounting, and marketing, today’s MBA students are enrolling on courses for environmental policy and stewardship. Indeed, more than half of business schools require a course in


environmental sustainability or corporate social responsibility, according to a survey of 91 US business schools, published in October 2005.


  1. Electric car (Most Repeated)


First-year university students have designed and built a groundbreaking electric car that recharges itself. Fifty students from the University of Sydney’s Faculty of Engineering spent five months cobbling together bits




of plywood, foam and fiberglass to build the ManGo concept car. They developed the specifications and hand built the car. It’s a pretty radical design: a four-wheel drive with a motor in each wheel.


  1. Black swans


Before European explorers had reached Australia, it was believed that all swans were white. Dutch mariner, Antonie Caen, was the first to be amazed at the sight of Australia’s Black swans on the Shark Bay in 1636. Explorer Willem de Vlamingh captured two of these creatures on Australia’s Swan River and returned with them to Europe to prove their existence.



  1. Restaurant


The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure. Once restaurants are established in such environments they can do little about their location. All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises. Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.


  1. Brain development


Scientific studies show that by age three there is a gap in brain development between kids who are read to aloud and those who are not, and children from low – income families are disproportionately impacted by this gap. Making sure all


parents know the importance of reading aloud to their children is critical to closing the achievement gap.


  1. Grid resources


The grid-based infrastructure enables large-scale scientific applications to be run on distributed resources. However, in practice, grid resources are not very easy to use for the end- users who have to learn how to generate security credentials. There is an imminent need to provide transparent access to these resources so that the end- users are shielded from the complicated details.


  1. Social media (Most Repeated)


Social media are playing an increasingly important role as information sources for travelers. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent to which social media appear in search engine results in the context of




travel-related searches. It also provides evidence for challenges faced by traditional providers of travel-related information.


  1. Mental illness (Most Repeated)


A mental illness is a health problem that significantly affects how a person feels, thinks, behaves, and interacts with other people. People who experience mental illnesses and their family and friends suffer a great deal due to these illnesses. According to the World Health Organization, depression will be one of the biggest health problems worldwide by the year 2020.



  1. Black swans (Most Repeated)


From that point on, black swans and Australia have been closely linked. During the nineteenth century, the original Western Australian colony was called “the Swan River Settlement.” In 1973, the black swan was officially proclaimed as the “bird emblem” of the Government of Western Australia and now appears on the state flag.


Today, the black swan is still found in various wetland habitats in Australia, including the Murray River in the wine growing region South Eastern Australia.


  1. Bookkeepers (Most Repeated)


A national study into fraud by bookkeepers employed at small and medium- sized businesses has uncovered 65 instances of theft in more than five years, with more than $31 million stolen. Of the cases identified by the research, 56 involved women and nine instances involved men. However, male bookkeepers who defrauded their employer stole three times, on average, the amount that women stole.


  1. Fast food (Most Repeated)


Hundreds of millions of American people eat fast food every day without giving it too much thought, unaware of the subtle and not so subtle ramifications of their purchases. They just grab their tray off the counter, find a table, take a seat, unwrap the paper, and dig in. The whole experience is transitory and soon forgotten.


  1. Tourism


Tourism is a challenging sector on which divides statistic since businesses serving tourists, also service local people. Therefore, it is not a straightforward to estimate how much business sectors’ revenue and how many jobs are due to tourist expenditures.




  1. Over-packaging



The free market is extremely competitive and companies are constantly trying to gain an edge over their rivals. Merchandising and brand image play a major role in attracting customers, but they often lead to over-packaging. This is a serious problem since most packaging these days are made of plastics which are not biodegradable. Some people blame the manufacturers for their blatant disregard, while others point the finger at consumers.


  1. Love



It seems that when it comes to love, men and women are designed to misconstrue misread and misunderstand one another and themselves. You discover that in fact they make good sense. Being a deluded romantic is often the best way to make a good-biologically successful-choice about a potential partner on the basis.


  1. Stress


This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started the study by asking, ‘how much stress have you experienced in the last year? They are also asked, ‘how much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors people in your community?’ And then they used public records for the next five years to find out who died.


  1. Brain


Scientists know little about how exactly it works, especially when it comes to complex functions like memory formation. Research is more advanced in animals, but experiments on humans are hard. Yet, even today, some parts of the brain, like the motor cortex, are better understood. Nor is complete knowledge always needed. Machine learning can recognize patterns of neural activity; the brain itself gets the hang of controlling BCIS with extraordinary ease. And neurotechnology will reveal more of the brain’s secrets.


  1. Science competition


This year the National Environmental Science Competition received excellent undergraduate and postgraduate entries from all across the country, with a wide range of projects. We are delighted that our awards are encouraging exciting and valuable projects that go beyond research and analysis to develop solutions for a number of key problems.




Information about the shortlisted projects will be posted on our website in the first week in June.


  1. Legal writing


Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of term is often required.


  1. Marketing management



For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy and Principles of Marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guides students through step by step creation of a customized marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.


  1. The semiconductor industry


The semiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electric systems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However, this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, which is why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.


  1. Lenient parents (Most Repeated)


Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. “Our parents were very lenient.”


  1. Situation of economic


In his landmark account, first published over twenty years ago, the author argues that the ignorance and lethargy of the poor are direct results of the whole situation of economic, social and political domination. By being kept in a situation in which


critical awareness and response are practically impossible the disadvantaged are kept ‘submerged’.




  1. Utterance



In multi-lingual countries, code-mixing, the use of more than one variety in the same utterance or sentence and code-switching, the use of different languages or varieties between sentences is common and natural. Despite its frequency, or perhaps because of it, some scholars and self-appointed guardians of linguistic morality, view both code-mixing and code-switching as a sign of linguistic deficiency.


  1. Japanese tea ceremony V2 (Most Repeated)


The Japanese tea ceremony is a tour influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.



  1. Japanese tea ceremony V1


In Japan, tea ceremony is a ritual-like formalism in which green tea you prepare and serve to multiple guests in a tea full setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many tradition gestures that the server and the guests must perform.


  1. Tesla


Tesla came over from Graz and went to work for Thomas Edison. Nonetheless Edison offered him a job, promising Tesla fifty thousand dollars if Tesla could redesign Edison’s breakdown-prone DC generator designs. The new generator designs were a vast improvement over Edison’s originals. Upon completing the job


Tesla went to Edison to collect the $50,000 promised for the task. ‘Tesla,’ Edison replied, ‘you don’t understand our American humor.’ And Tesla was never paid.


  1. Father (Most Repeated)


Ever since I remembered, father woke up at five thirty every morning, made us all breakfast and read the newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realized he did that for a living.


  1. Fiscal year (Most Repeated)


At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University’s financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are




responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds


  1. Grand Canyon


The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are subjected to debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.


  1. Marine Biologist



The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things – so he began to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.


  1. market research


Market research is a vital part of the planning of any business. However, experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field, if you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area, it is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.


  1. CD quality sound


Reiss took a stab at settling the argument with a meta-analysis—a study of studies—on whether people can really perceive better- than- CD quality sound. He analyzed data from 18 studies, including more than 400 participants and nearly 13,000 listening tests. Overall, listeners picked out the better-than-CD-quality track 52.3 percent of the time. Statistically significant, if not all that impressive.


  1. Thompson


“Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride,” writes Judith Adams in The American Amusement Park Industry. “His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights.”




  1. Free trade



Free trade is an economic policy under which the government does not interfere with trade. No tariffs are applied to imports or exports, and people are allowed to trade goods and services as they please. Supply and demand dictate the prices for which goods and services sell and are the only factors that determine how resources are allocated in society.


  1. Smoking Ban


A smoking ban is a public policy that includes criminal laws and health regulations that prohibit smoking in certain public places and workspaces. There are varying definitions of smoking employed in this legislation. The strictest definitions define smoking as being the inhalation of any tobacco substance while the loosest define smoking as possessing any lit tobacco product.



  1. Galaxy


One of the unidentifiable objects in this study lies just outside Centaurus A, an elliptical galaxy located about 12 million light-years from Earth. The other is in a globular cluster of stars found just outside NGC 4636, another elliptical galaxy located 47 million lightyears from Earth in the constellation Virgo.


  1. Brain


The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytic side.


  1. Introvert and extrovert


Introverts tend to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.


  1. Easy to use statistics


The development of easy-to-use statistics is being taught and learned. Students can make transformations of variables, create graphs of distributions of variables, and select among statistical analyses all at the click of a button. However, even with these advancements, students sometimes find statistics to be an arduous task.







  1. The new drug will be tested in North America.


  1. Without doubt, his primary motive was economic growth.


  1. I’m afraid Professor Jones doesn’t suffer fools gladly.


  1. Does the professor keep regular office hours?


  1. The thought never crossed my mind.


  1. Vessels carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body. (Most




  1. The politics combine both the legislative and the political authorities.


(Most Repeated)


  1. All of our accommodations are within walking distance to the academic buildings.


  1. The application form must be submitted before the end of term.


  1. History is not a collection of dates and events.


  1. Generally, students have unusual problems in school, you can pay by cash or using a credit card.


  1. Before choosing your university course, you should consider your career.


  1. The problem with this is that it fails to answer the basic question.


  1. The professor will be the last speaker this evening. (Most Repeated)


  1. The gap between the rich and the poor did not decrease rapidly as expected.


  1. In market, short time thought often lead to disaster.


  1. Participants were not performing an actual purchase.


  1. The website interface represents the stimulus that influence consumer’s decision making.


  1. Diagnosis is not a discrete or limited process.


  1. This essay examined the use of computer in the science classroom.


  1. science-based approach is vital for effective advancements.




  1. A key feature in drug development is examination of the pharmacological effects.


  1. This process has enabled the rational identification of core machinery.


  1. Genetic and biochemical analyses have generated a detailed portfolios of mechanisms.


  1. Cellular engineering strategies are highly desirable.


  1. There has been a rapid growth in the commercial market.


  1. Most of the strategies are in a preclinical state.


  1. The current and conventional method has many disadvantages including the side effects.


  1. Proteins constitute at least thirty percent of the total mass of all living organism.


  1. Quantitative and temporal parameters of food consumption were used.


  1. We developed a method for evaluation of dynamic changes.


  1. Some methods for clinical applications have been presented as well.


  1. The aim of the work, presented could be formulated as follows.


  1. The search for universal explanations plays an important role in the development of archaeological theory.


  1. The chief industries are weaving, leather making, dying and working in iron and pottery.


  1. I think it’s a shame that some foreign language teachers were able to graduate from college without ever having studied with a native speaker.


  1. The university will introduce several new courses in the coming year.


  1. It is clear that little accurate documentation is in support of this claim. (Most Repeated)


  1. In the past, people ate very different food.


  1. It is easy to provide the definition of the world.


  1. During the second term, you are supposed to submit one essay per week.


  1. It provides an opportunity to work with other disciplines.




  1. Student discount cards can be used on campus in the coffee house.


  1. People with active lifestyles are less likely to die early or have major illnesses.


  1. Politicians can make better decisions if they listen to the public opinion.


  1. In our campus, prospective students have access to thirteen college libraries. (Most Repeated)


  1. You need to give a better example to support your argument.


  1. You can download all lecture handouts from the course website. (Most




  1. Please sort and order the slides of the presentation according to topic and speech time. (Most Repeated)


  1. Once more under the pressure of economic necessity, practice outstripped theory. (Most Repeated)


  1. Hypothetically, insufficient mastery in the areas slows future progress. (Most Repeated)


  1. Research has found that there is no correlation between diet and intelligence.


  1. Please explain what the author means by sustainability. (Most




  1. Students are not allowed to take the journal out of the library.


  1. The well-known economist was supposed to reread the subscription before eight.


  1. You can retake the module if your marks are too low.


  1. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body.


  1. But they haven’t come to widespread use yet.



  1. The investigation aims to establish stains of the problem.


  1. The lecture management in Japan will take place in the week seven.


  1. There is a limited amount of departmental funding which is available for qualified students.


  1. The chemistry building is still open during vacation. (Most Repeated)




  1. Tomorrow’s lunchtime seminar on nuclear engineering has been postponed.


  1. It’s important to keep this medicine in the fridge.


  1. His academic supervisor called in to see him last night.


  1. Higher fees cause the student to look more critically at what universities offer.


  1. Is hypothesis on black hole as rendered moot as explanation of explanations? (Most Repeated)


  1. She doesn’t even care about anything but what is honest and true.


  1. This session is not supported by documentation.


  1. The television output is giving evident educational programming.


  1. The study of archaeology requires intensive international fieldwork.


(Most Repeated)


  1. That country’s economy is primarily based on tourism. (Most




  1. Note-taking methods work great both on paper and digitally.


  1. Leading scientists speculate that numerous planets could support life forms.


  1. He is almost never in his office. (Most Repeated)


  1. Environmentalism is a category in which universities are competing.


  1. You must go to the reception to pick up your student card.


  1. Chapter one provides the historical background to the topic.


  1. Storytelling is a common teaching technique in many countries.


  1. Folk tales are passed orally from generation to generation.


  1. At the 1830, periodicals appeared in large numbers in America. (Most




  1. The US ranks twenty-second in foreign aid, given it as a percentage of GDP. (Most Repeated)


  1. Meeting with mentors can be scheduled for students who require additional support. (Most Repeated)




  1. I am pleased to report that many topics have been involved in this lecture. (Most Repeated)


  1. Students who selected two to three courses may need an extension.


  1. You need to be careful when quoting Internet source.


  1. One of the hardest things about starting university is finding your way around.


  1. The new professor used to work in a world bank.


  1. There is a position available for assistant lecturer for mathematics.


  1. Many medical volunteers no longer have access to medical literature.


  1. Most of these criticisms can be shown as false.


  1. He told me it was the most important assignment of all.


  1. Would you pass the material text book on the table?


  1. All lecture handouts are downloadable on the university website.


(Most Repeated)


  1. University students pay a lot of money for their education.


  1. I spent my time really studying human beings.


  1. The program will be shown on the television during the weekend.


  1. A hundred years ago, Albert Einstein first published his theory of general relativity.


  1. My satisfaction was complete when she looked at me.


  1. Half of the marks in mathematics are allocated to the correct working.


  1. The content of the book on the cover must be in capitals.


  1. Our log books make up of five percent of total marks.


  1. Please prepare a PowerPoint presentation for tomorrow’s meeting.


(Most Repeated)


  1. She ate a sandwich and drank juice.


  1. All the assignments should be submitted by the end of this week.


  1. It is acknowledged that his work is groundbreaking. (Most Repeated)


  1. You can get a student card at the reception.




  1. When I was in school, I had many of the same problems you do




  1. The result of the study will be published next month.


  1. The real reason for world’s hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.


  1. She has been in the library for a long time.


  1. 5% California residents don’t speak English at home.


  1. It is utmostly important that you don’t rely on translation online.


  1. The university celebrated the Earth Day by planting trees.


  1. Remember to sign the attendance register before leaving the lecture hall. (Most Repeated)


  1. To understand its entity, we need to go back to its origin.


  1. Children are not allowed in the chemical labs.


  1. I’m glad that you’ve got it.


  1. The test selected materials from all chapters in this course this semester.


  1. You should include your name and identity number in the registration form. (Most Repeated)


  1. The course registration is open early March for new students.


  1. I didn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration. (Most




  1. The tutorial is held on the 8th of April.


  1. The professor has promised to put his lecture notes online.


  1. I don’t like cheese and tomato sandwiches on white bread and orange juice.


  1. Your enrollment information, results and fees will be available online.


  1. We are delighted to have professor Robert to join our faculty. (Most




  1. Physics is the subject of matters and energy.


  1. The theoretical proposal was challenged to grasp. (Most Repeated)




  1. Would you prepare some PowerPoint slides with appropriate graphs?


(Most Repeated)


  1. All students and staff have the access to printers and laptops. (Most




  1. As for me, it is a strategy to go to judicial review.


  1. I still don’t understand the last sentence. (Most Repeated)


  1. It’s time to finalize the work before the Wednesday seminar.


  1. Most of the assignments should be submitted on the same day.


(Most Repeated)


  1. On this project, you will be asked to work as a group of three. (Most




  1. Residents hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time in the semester.


  1. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.


  1. The application form is available in the office.


  1. The development was mainly included in chapter nine.


  1. The first few sentences of an essay should capture the readers’ attention. (Most Repeated)


  1. The information on the Internet becomes more reliable.


  1. The library will be closed for 3 days over the bank holiday weekend.


  1. The majority of the hardware that we are using was built for a customer.


  1. The office said Dr. Smith would arrive later today.


  1. The results will be available in the main course and online.


  1. The trial is to increase the interests of the issue and the jurisdiction.


  1. There will be a guest lecturer visiting the department next month.


(Most Repeated)


  1. This can be used as a starting point of my discussion today.


  1. This year we are applying to use a different type of assessment on this module.


  1. Try to explain how your ideas are linked so that there is a logical flow. (Most Repeated)




  1. We don’t have enough evidence to draw conclusions.


  1. We don’t teach in the same way that we used to.


  1. We would like a first draft of the assignment by Monday. (Most




  1. Would you pass me the book on the left-hand side?


  1. You will be less stressed if you are well prepared for the exam.


  1. My tutorial class will begin on next Monday morning.


  1. We provide a wide range of courses to undergraduate and postgraduate students.


  1. The original Olympic game is one kind of original festival. (Most




  1. International students can get help with locating housing near the university. (Most Repeated)


  1. Maybe it is time for me to make some changes.


  1. Next time, we will discuss the influence of the media on public policy.


  1. Please come to the next seminar properly prepared.


  1. Please hand in assignments at the main office.


  1. Professor Smith will be late for today’s lecture. (Most Repeated)


  1. That brief outline takes us to the beginning of the 20th century.


  1. The country suffered a series of invasions by tribes from present-day Germany and Denmark.


  1. The final year will consist of four taught courses and one project.


  1. The fire left the area almost completely devoid of vegetation.


  1. The lecture on child’s psychology has been postponed until Friday.


(Most Repeated)


  1. The lecture would deal with the influence of technology on music.


(Most Repeated)


  1. The meeting will take place in the main auditorium.


  1. The mismatch between the intended and reported uses of the instrument has become clear.




  1. The part of the story is the story of my father.


  1. The professor will talk about the summary in the lecture.


  1. The seminar will be on the last week of the quarter.


  1. The student welfare officer can help with questions about exam techniques. (Most Repeated)


  1. The visiting professor is going to give a lecture for geology.


  1. There is plenty of cheap accommodation off-campus.


  1. There will be no extensions given for this project.


  1. A lot of agricultural workers came to the East End to look for alternative work.


  1. We are warning the clients that the rates are increasing.


  1. We will discuss these two pictures in the next lecture.


  1. We’ve decided to ask you to write four short pieces of written coursework this year.







  1. 3 stages of brain development (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about how the brain is built from the bottom up. The brain first builds basic circuits responsible for basic skills before building more complex circuits. It is shaped by the reciprocal relationship between genetics and experience. The brain also has multiple sections that specializes in different processes like cognitive function or emotion. A child who is socially competent will affect more productive learning while a child preoccupied with fears or anxiety will have impaired learning.



  1. Haussmann’s renovation of Paris (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about Haussmann’s renovation of Paris. Since Paris was originally founded as a small village, Emperor Napoleon III hired Haussmann to oversee its rebuilding. His basic instructions were to bring light and air into the central districts and make Paris a more modern beautiful city. Haussmann also created large avenues that connected the districts and made all the avenues look roughly the same. The result was to remove any local characteristics and create a uniform Paris.


  1. Price of housing


The speaker discusses how housing affordability in Australia has disrupted the typical housing cycle where people move out of their family homes as young adults and have housing security in old age. Young people now generally live at home for much longer and they generally rent for longer. They’re also more likely to be saddled with a mortgage into their retirement. Affordable rent is also an elusive right as we have very low rental vacancies and high turnover.


  1. Topic: Technology erode privacy


The lecture is about how technology continues to erode privacy. Privacy is a human right, as per the Universal Declaration. Locks and obscured glass provide evidence that we care about our privacy. However, technological advances such as security cameras and body scanners take away distance, anonymity and privacy. This process isn’t going to slow down as new quantum technologies are now able to do gravitational sensing and see through walls.


  1. Biology (Most Repeated)


The lecture discusses the basics of biology. Biology is defined as the study of life in living organisms. An organism is a living thing, such as plants and puppies. However, things get complicated when you ask yourself ‘what is life?’. Everyone has their own separate definition. So, before biology was invented, scientists needed to agree on the definition of life.




  1. London taxi drivers



The lecture is about how the Great Exhibition of 1851 gave us the world’s premier taxi service. Visitors were appalled because the cabbies and their horse -drawn carts were terrible, and they couldn’t find their way to the exhibition. After a public outcry, the Public Carriage Office was set up to oversee licensing of major taxi drivers in London. All taxi drivers from 1851 had to pass the London knowledge, which is the ability to remember 25,000 streets and the main arterial roads.


  1. London fog


The speaker discusses Turner’s 1835 painting ‘The Thames above Waterloo Bridge’, which depicts the London Fog. Smoke is at the painting’s centre. The bridge is partly obscured by the steam and smoke rising from the river. The smoky shot- tower and the various industries are barely visible. Rodner sees this painting as an essay on the energy and complexity of modern polluted organism. The speaker think that the smoke represents a flourishing economy, but also dirt and pollution.



  1. Animal behaviour (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about animal behavior. We study animal behavior because we are interested in understanding why animals do what they do. Conservation biologists also need to know what animals do if they’re going to save them. However, sometimes you can’t predict the research outcome. Although Nottebohm was initially interested in birds’ singing, his research led to an overhaul of the entire field of neurobiology. Additionally, the study of animal behavior has had many new developments.


  1. Immigration control (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about immigration control. Removing all immigration controls would double the world economy’s size, and even a small relaxation would lead to disproportionally big gains. It’s hard to argue against a policy that will give so much help to poorer people. It isn’t just migrants who gain, but also the countries they come from through money they send home. The remittances are also not wasted as they go straight into the pockets of local people.


  1. Animal behavior


The speaker discusses the two fundamental questions about animal behavior: proximate and ultimate. Proximate questions are concerned with mechanisms that bring about behavior while ultimate questions are concerned with the evolution of behavior. Proximate and ultimate questions can be further divided into two subquestions. Together, these comprise Tinbergen’s four questions about animal behavior which represent the different ways of studying it. Understanding the difference between those four questions are fundamental to understanding behavior and the whole of biology.




  1. Fire safety



The speaker discusses BSI’s worldwide reputation in testing and certification of fire safety products. Their team provides BSI height mark and Cee testing and certification for a range of products. They also help clients enter global markets through familiarity with market access regulations of most countries. The BSI height market is acknowledged worldwide as a symbol of trust and integrity. Each product is subject to rigorous testing and production control audits that ensure that they perform the required standards of safety and quality.


  1. Smartphone apps


The lecture is about Patel and his team’s new sensing systems. Although the initial focus was around energy and water monitoring, they are now focused on adapting the technology for personal health monitoring. They want to to take advantage of all the functionality built in our smartphones. For instance, this app can use microphones in smartphones to listen to background noise such as coughing. According to the researchers, the built-in sensors in smartphones may have far- reaching applications and implications for our health.



  1. Happiness (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about the use of happiness research in public policy. Bhutan is the only county that has adopted the Gross National Happiness as the central index of government policy. It has had a good deal of success in education, health and economic growth. But other countries are now beginning to have enough interest to do policy analyses of happiness research. Countries like Australia and France are considering publishing regular statistics on happiness.


  1. A survey


The speaker talked about the importance of paying attention to how surveys are conducted. The survey showed that 62% of people indicated that the internet is the source they most often use to get information. However, the survey was conducted on the website global and The sample was a biased sample since people who did this survey on a website must be frequent users of the internet.


  1. A new instrument


The lecture is about the Skoog, a new instrument. It helps students with special needs by allowing them to get involved in making music themselves. Unlike traditional instruments, the Skoog is a mixture of software and a sensor, designed to be touched and played with. Working with kids in classrooms has helped inform how it needs to work. It has been inspiring to work with these kids and provide them with an ability to start playing their own music.


  1. Superman


The lecture is about heroic tales of superhuman feats of strength in the face of disaster. The stories almost always involve one person lifting a car off of




another. Some aspect of leverage or buoyancy probably played some role, making the feats more believable. The majority of cases are anecdotal, and often, people were unable to summon the super strength again. But anecdotal evidence suggests that in times of crisis, some people can temporarily exercise superhuman strength.


  1. Bilingual kids (Most Repeated)


The speaker discusses some concerns about raising children bilingually. This is based on the conceptualization that the human brain at birth is essentially monolingual. Parents are worried that using two languages at home will confuse their child. They are also worried that if both parents use both languages, especially if they use both languages interchangeably, the child will not be able to separate the languages.



  1. Teaching (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about the speaker’s research on teaching, motivated by his students’ need to learn. For him, the end product was always better understanding, or a unifying theory that can help in teaching the subject. He views teaching as a vehicle for trying new ideas and for teaching research results. He has also uncovered interesting research problems in the course of teaching. He believes that this unity of research and teaching characterises the successful professor.


  1. Payment structures – straight salary


The lecture discussed straight salary sales compensation plans. This type of structure involves paying salespeople a straight but competitive salary, and nothing else. It is most often used when your industry prohibits direct sales, when salespeople work as part of small groups and all contributions are equal, or when your sales team is relatively small. However, these plans don’t tend to offer motivation to salespeople as there are no incentives for them to work harder.


  1. Payment structures – salary plus commission (Most Repeated)


The speaker talks about salary plus commission sales compensation plans, possibly the most common plans used today. Salespeople receive a lower base salary, but also receive commission pay. Organizations use this structure when there are opportunities to support all salespeople on this structure and when there are proper metrics for tracking sales to ensure fair splits. It is often the better choice as opposed to straight salary because it offers motivation to increase productivity, as well as more stability.


  1. Payment structures – commission only


The lecture is about commission only sales compensation plans where you pay your sales people only for the sales they bring in. These plans are easier to administer than salary plus commission and provide better value for your




money. Although they attract fewer candidates, they do attract top-performing sales professionals. However, they can also create aggression within your sales team and low income security, which can lead to a high turnover rate, and sales rep burnout from stress.



  1. Dog and sound


The speaker talks about dogs’ ability to distinguish between different types of growls. Neither another dog’s playful snarls nor growls of a dog being approached by a strange deter this dog from approaching some food. However, the dog does back off at the sound of a dog protecting its food.



  1. Australian immigration history (Most Repeated)


The lecture is about Australia’s immigration history. The first inhabitants in Australia were the Australian Aboriginal people. This migration was during the end of the Pleistocene epoch, when sea levels were lower and Australia and New Guinea formed a single landmass. During the 1970s and 1980s, southern Asian refugees


migrated to Australia. This is when Australia first began to adopt a policy termed “multiculturalism”. In 2004-05, Australia had a 40% increase in settlers over the past 10 years.


  1. Morton prince


The speaker discusses the work of American physician and psychologist Morton Prince, wherein the influence of Stevenson’s text on the discourse of dissociation is strikingly apparent. According to Rieber, Prince pioneered the phenomenon of popularizing MPD. In “Dissociation of a Personality”, Prince tells the story of Miss Christine Beau-champ, a person in whom he claims several personalities have become developed.


  1. Human behavior


The lecture discusses explanations for human behavior. Human behavior is influenced by internal personal factors as well as external environmental factors. Personal factors include people’s beliefs and their individual thinking about it, while the environmental factors include temperature and air pressure. In conclusion, human behavior is affected by both himself and the environment.









  1. Which place has higher humidity, desert or rainforest? Rainforest


  1. Which color we made by blending black and white? Grey


  1. Before airplanes were invented, how did people travel from America to Europe? By ship


  1. Which one would you most likely to see in the lake, a swan or a crocodile? A swan


  1. What is the wet place does crocodile prefer to live? Swamp


  1. What are your options in gender when you completing an application form?


Male and female


  1. How do you call a student that has finished his first year? Sophomore


  1. If one’s response is simultaneous, quick or slow? Quick


  1. In statistics, what is a circle divided into many parts called? Pie


  1. How many extra days in February in a leap year? One


  1. What is the collection of pictures called? Album


  1. How would you describe the process in which ice becomes water? Melting


  1. What is a thermometer used to measure? Temperature


  1. What kind of animal is butterfly? Insect


  1. What natural resource is used in paper industry? Wood


  1. What is a man-made river called? Canal


  1. What do you call an individual musical sound? Solo


  1. What kind of knowledge do scientists believe in, subjective or objective?




  1. What kind of drugs are used for killing bacteria? Antibiotics


  1. What do we call the government runs by the dictator, autocracy or democracy? Autoracy


  1. What do we call the science of animal life, biology or zoology? Zoology


  1. Oral English is different from academic English. Which is the best example for academic English: tolerate or put up with it? Tolerate


  1. Under which circumstance would you describe the economy as a good one, the one with high unemployment or low unemployment? Low unemployment




  1. What do we call a doctor who can sell prescribed medicines? Pharmacist or chemist


  1. What do we call the language which is confused and unintelligible, jargon or vocabulary? Jargon


  1. A man whose wife is dead. Is he a widow or widower? Widower


  1. What do we call the first paragraph of a report? Introduction


  1. What kind of forms are tragedy and comedy? Literature


  1. Which of the following is not a means of transportation: by plane, by public transportation or car model? Car model


  1. What is the thing that has iron inside and can attract iron? Magnet


  1. Which one has more academic articles, magazines or journals? Journals


  1. What is the opposite of convex? Concave


  1. What is the opposite of still? Dynamic or active


  1. Oral English is different from academic English. Which is the best term to describe academic English: tolerant or rigorous? Rigorous


  1. Which part of your leg can make it possible to bend? Knee


  1. How many times does a biannual magazine published in one year? Two


  1. What will snow become after it’s melt? Water


  1. What electronic device wakes you up in the morning? Alarm clock


  1. What publication reports daily news? Newspaper


  1. What is the heading at the top of an article or page in a newspaper or magazine? Headline


  1. What is the second month of the year? February


  1. What attitude would you have when you are in a job interview, enthusiastic, lazy or passive? Enthusiastic


  1. What kind of transportation runs on the railway? Train


  1. How do you call the tower containing a light to warn or guide ships at sea?


Beacon or lighthouse


  1. Who is a physician who performs surgical operations? Surgeon


  1. “We went somewhere”, how do you understand it’s a past sentence? Went


  1. What is the opposite side that sun rises? West


  1. What is the cracking or breaking of a hard object or material? Fracture




  1. Who sits in the cockpit of an airplane? Pilot


  1. What institution helps people save money? Bank


  1. Which kind of people use periodic table to study? Chemist


  1. Some magazines are published once a year, and some are published twice a year. How do you describe the type of magazine that is published four times a year? Quarterly


  1. How do you describe the line that segment a circle? Chord


  1. How do you describe the line that divide a circle into the same half?




  1. How do you call someone who likes to drink heavily every day? Alcoholic


  1. What term is used for the amount of money we owe, asset or debt? Debt


  1. Which one can be put into a backpack, a book or a table? A book


  1. If a species is described as venomous, what substance it has? Toxin


  1. What is the opposite of maximize? Minimize


  1. How often is an annual conference held in one year? Once a year


  1. When your bone is injured and broken, what would you say you have?




  1. Which literacy genre describes all details of a famous person’s life?




  1. If you invented something, what can you apply to prevent others copying your invention? Patent


  1. Despite all the advances and qualities of sexes, would more men or women play professional football? Men


  1. Where is the “Power” button? Upper left


  1. What material is used both on window and light bulb? Glass


  1. Which continent do China, India, Korea and Japan locate? Asia


  1. What do people hold over head when it’s raining? Umbrella


  1. In the word ‘postgraduate’, what does the ‘post’ mean? After


  1. How do we call a baby cat? Kitten or pussy


  1. What is the name for cultivating and managing gardens? Horticulture


  1. What is the antonym of artificial? Natural or genuine or real


  1. What does the sun do during dawn? Sunrise




  1. What is the fluid that pumped from the organ related to cardiology? Blood


  1. What do we call the place selling gold and silver? Jewelry store or bullion market


  1. Why do plants need bees? Pollination or pollinating


  1. How do we call the people who work in companies? Employee or officer


  1. What type of shape has four corners, four lines that are equal in length?


Square or diamond


  1. What type of plant is mint? Herb


  1. What does the sun do during dusk? Sunset


  1. Where is the crossword normally seen? Newspaper


  1. What do we call the person who can speak two languages? Bilingual


  1. What is the line between countries? Boundary or border


  1. Unions work for who, workers or managers? Workers


  1. What is the feature that guitars and violins have in common? Strings


  1. What is called our planets such as sun, earth and moon? Solar system


  1. What do we call a festival which is held every four years gathering people together as a sporting event? The Olympic Games


  1. Do scapegoats escape or undertake the crime? Undertake


  1. If a parent has a couple of children, how many children does he have? Two


  1. What is the opposite word of “stale”? Fresh


  1. Which is easier to be recycled, plastic or paper? Paper


  1. Which kind of mountain can erupt? Volcano


  1. What do we call the “Times New Roman” in word? Typeface/Font


  1. In addition to the A, E, I, O, what is the other vowel? U


  1. What is the altitude related to, weight or height? Height


  1. What is a part of the digestive system and is essential for churning food?




  1. Which is more expensive, gold or silver? Gold


  1. What is the item of footwear intended to protect and comfort human foot?




  1. What is a standard set of letters that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle? Alphabet




  1. What kind of dictionary provides synonyms, antonyms and related words?




  1. Inhalation of which tobacco substance or activity is dangerous? Nicotine


  1. What century are we now? Twenty first


  1. In the library, which books we are not allowed to bring them out with ourselves? Closed reserve book


  1. What material is used for most of vehicles and craft? Metal


  1. A dozen is a grouping of which number? Twelve


  1. What is the name of the student who has not completed his course?


Undergraduate student


  1. When a company’s position improved, revenue decrease or increase?




  1. If you want to reference all pages in a book that discuss a certain topic, where to find it? Index


  1. Where do we hang our clothes, closet or drawer? Closet


  1. Which source is more reliable, magazine or journal? Journal


  1. Which part at the end of book can be used for further reading? An index or a bibliography? A bibliography


  1. What’s the material that we use to stick two things together? Glue


  1. What type of resources does an electric device use? Electricity


  1. What is the time after noon called? Afternoon/Post Meridian (P.M.)


  1. What is the opposite of positive? Negative


  1. What is the day that someone is born? Birthday


  1. What is someone that can’t see called? Blind


  1. What is one half of 100%? 50%


  1. What instrument do you use when long-distance learning? Computer


  1. What does a sundial measure? Time


  1. What do you call the middle of something? Center


  1. The instructions that tell you how to cook food? Recipe


  1. Name a country located in the Southern hemisphere. Australia/ New


Zealand etc.


  1. If a coat had a stain on it, where would you take it? Dry cleaner’s




  1. If a button has come off a shirt, what would someone most likely use to put it back on? Needle and thread.


  1. How do butterflies fly? Flutter


  1. Which one is past tense: “has gone”, “went” or “going”?


  1. In mathematics and arithmetic, there are addition, multiplication, division. What is the other one? Subtraction


  1. Which category does a novel fit in, a book or a printer? A book


  1. What color is the medal if you win the competition? Gold


  1. What can’t you do after drinking?


  1. When you get lost in city. What do you need? Map


  1. Which department studies the human body part of heart? Cardiology


  1. How many years are there in a millennium? A thousand years What do you call a person who makes a living by serving people food? A Cook


  1. What do you call a person who write novels for a living? Novelist


  1. Who cuts men’s hair? Barber


  1. What are the people that plant food, raise crop are commonly known as?




  1. What is the red liquid that flows through a body? Blood


  1. Who is a person that makes bread, cakes and pastries? Baker


  1. What is a series of events that happen in your mind while you are sleeping? Dream


  1. What is the piece of paper with official information written on it called?




  1. Which kind of shop contain more kinds of products, supermarket or grocery? Supermarket


  1. What kind of crime has someone stealing items from a shop committed: shop fitting or shoplifting? Shoplifting


  1. Where you can see the whale? Ocean / Sea


  1. How many days in a week? 7 days


  1. Tons kilograms and stones measure what property? Weight


  1. What is more fuel-efficient, car or truck? Car


  1. Which department has increased their revenue over the three years? Sale


  1. What is the quickest way to get to the 21st floor? By elevator / lift




  1. Why people wear gloves when they do experiment? Protection


  1. What is the chemical name of Gold? Mg, Au OR O2? AU


  1. What does the black square represent? Students


  1. What does ASAP mean? As soon as possible


  1. How many years are there in a decade? 10 years


  1. What word is used to describe frozen water? Ice


  1. A planet or a galaxy that is very distant can be seen with what device?




  1. What is the name of the field of study that studies the human mind and behavior? Psychology


  1. Would fresh milk last longer in a fridge or in a cool cupboard? Fridge


  1. Would a person suffering problems with their vision consult a biologist or an optometrist? Optometrist


  1. Which of the 5 senses are you using, if you detect the odor of gas in a laboratory or in your kitchen? Smell


  1. A lack of which kind of weather causes drought, dry weather or rainy weather? Rainy weather


  1. Name a city in the USA. New York or Washington or Boston


  1. What is the month between January and March? February


  1. How many years does it take to finish undergraduate study? Three or four years


  1. How many years are there in a century? 100 (years)


  1. The large island just off the coast of mainland Europe is the home to which country? The United Kingdom


  1. Will it be better to use kilometers or kilograms to measure the distance between two cities? Kilometers


  1. To improve their health and fitness, most people either try to improve their diet or? Do more physical exercise


  1. There are two main ways to pay for goods bought in a shop, one is by cash, and the other is by? Credit card


  1. What is the last thing to do when baking a cake? Cook it in the oven


  1. What is the quickest way to travel from Hong Kong to Paris? By plane


  1. This work is due for submission, one month from 15th June. On what date should it be submitted? The 15th (of) July




  1. Which of these was last to be explored, the Himalayas, the moon or Australia? The moon


  1. Where would you go to see exhibits of dinosaurs? A museum


  1. In which century did the automobile become manufactured on a mass scale? The 20th century


  1. What does the main difference between a wristwatch and a clock relate to?


Their relative sizes


  1. Where would you go to work out on a treadmill? Gymnasium


  1. Where do you pay for your purchases at a supermarket? Checkout


  1. Which of these would probably be found in an office, a printer, a blanket or a nailbrush? A printer


  1. What do we call the last game in a sporting competition, which decides the champion? The final


  1. If someone is feeling a little ill, they may say they are feeling under the what? Weather


  1. What do you call the document that gives you details about your qualifications and work experience? Resume / CV


  1. What is the economic sector that deals with farming? Agriculture


  1. A business doesn’t want to make a loss – what does it want to make?




  1. Who is the main journalist responsible for producing a newspaper or magazine? Editor


  1. What is the word for the place where a river starts? Source


  1. What is the word in geometry for a shape that has three sides? Triangle


  1. When ice is at room temperature, what does it become? Water / liquid


  1. What type of food is an apple? Fruit


  1. What are winter, spring, summer and autumn? Seasons


  1. When the writer of a book is unknown, what word is used for the author?




  1. What do we call the organs in our chest that we use to breathe? Lungs


  1. What desk should you go to when you first arrive to stay at a hotel?




  1. What do we call the meeting where an employer asks a potential employee questions about their work experience? Interview




  1. A manufacturing process releases noxious gases. What is the most important safety measure for workers at that plant? ensuring good ventilation, or appropriate footwear. (Ensuring good) ventilation


  1. Historians use evidence to draw conclusions about the past, would a contemporary artist’s painting of an ancient battle be an original source or secondary source? Secondary source


  1. How do you call the pointing device that is connected to the computer?




  1. How do you call the seasonal flying from cold to warmer areas? Mitigation or migration? Migration


  1. How do you describe the desert? Humid or dry? Dry


  1. How many alphabets are there in English? 26


  1. How many days added in February during a leap year? One day.


  1. How many months are in a year? Twelve/Twelve months


  1. How many people are there in a quartet? Four/Four people


  1. How many seasons are there in a year? Four/Four seasons


  1. How many sides does a pentagon have? Five/Five sides


  1. How many years does a centennial celebrates? 100 years


  1. How would you call people who study ancient bones, rocks and plants?




  1. How would you describe an economy that is largely based on farming?




  1. If there are 8 black balls and 1 white ball, and I randomly pick one, which color is mostly likely to be picked?


  1. If you want to buy a ring, who do you approach, a jeweler or pharmacist?




  1. In which subject would you learn gravity? Physics or chemistry?









  1. Oil price decline


A plunging oil price has dragged UK inflation to zero over recent months. But analysts say the fall in retail prices cannot solely be attributed to oil.


Discount retailers continue to steal market share from established industry giants, taking an increased chunk of both food and non-food markets. And, as retail analyst Nick Bubb notes, “the big supermarkets have had to respond to this by bringing down their own ‘rip off’ prices”. The result is a sector-wide fall in prices paid at the till.



The growth of online retailers has also brought prices down, in part due to the ease with which customers can compare prices and purchase goods elsewhere if they find an item cheaper on a competitor’s site. Retailers are also reluctant to offer different prices in their physical and online stores, according to retail analyst Richard Hyman, which means shops are forced to cut prices on the high street.


An ever-expanding range of shops is also to blame, according to Mr. Hyman. “Overcapacity is the biggest of the issues affecting prices,” he says. “In the last 10 years, online alone has added the equivalent of 110m square feet of trading space— that’s roughly equal to 65 additional Westfield London shopping malls. An increase in supply of retailers, with no increase in demand, has left the industry massively oversupplied.”


  1. Take-all disease


The soil dwelling fungus ‘take-all’ inflicts devastating stress to the roots of cereals crops worldwide and is a major disease problem in UK wheat crops.


However, recent field trial data from Rothamsted Research, an institute of the BBSRC, has demonstrated that farmers could control this devastating disease by selecting wheat cultivars that reduce take-all build up in the soil when grown as a first wheat.


Wheat is an important staple crop worth 1.6 Billion a year to the UK economy alone. This work funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the HGCA will help farmers to increase yields, combating global food security and contributing to UK economic growth.


Take-all disease, caused by the fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, reduces grain yield and quality and results in an increased amount of residual applied nitrogen fertilizer left in the soil post-harvest. Despite the use of chemical, biological and cultural control methods the take-all fungus is still one of the most difficult pathogens of wheat to control. The risk of take-all infection




in second and third wheat crops is directly linked to the amount of fungus remaining in the soil after the first wheat is harvested.


The Rothamsted Research study, published in Plant Pathology, has demonstrated that wheat cultivars differ in their ability to build-up the take-all fungus.


Growing a low building cultivar, such as Cadenza, as a first wheat crop can be used to manipulate take-all inoculum levels in the soil resulting in better yields from the second and third wheat crops. Yield increases of up to 2 tons per hectare in 2nd wheats have been observed.


  1. The Great Sphinx



The face, though better preserved than most of the statue, has been battered by centuries of weathering and vandalism. In 1402, an Arab historian reported that a Sufi zealot had disfigured it “to remedy some religious errors.” Yet there are clues to what the surface looked like in its prime. Archaeological excavations in the early 19th century found pieces of its carved stone beard and a royal cobra emblem form its headdress. Residues of red pigment are still visible on the face, leading researchers to conclude that at some point, the Sphinx’s entire visage was painted red. Traces of blue and yellow paint elsewhere suggest to Lehner that the Sphinx was once decked out in gaudy comic book colors.


For thousands of years, sand buried the colossus up to its shoulders, creating a vast disembodied head atop the eastern edge of the Sahara. Then, in 1817, a Genoese adventurer, Capt. Giovanni Battista Caviglia, led 160 men in the first modern attempt to dig out the Sphinx. They could not hold back the sand, which poured into their excavation pits nearly as fast as they could dig it out. The Egyptian archaeologist Selim Hassan finally freed the statue from the sand in the late 1930s.


“The Sphinx has thus emerged into the landscape out of shadows of what seemed to be an impenetrable oblivion,” the New York Times declared.


  1. Benefits of physical activities


Promoting active lifestyles can help us address some of the important challenges facing the UK today. Increasing physical activity has the potential to improve the physical and mental health of the nation, reduce all-cause mortality and improve life expectancy. It can also save money by significantly easing the burden of chronic disease on the health and social care services. Increasing cycling and walking will reduce transport costs, save money and help the environment. Fewer car journeys can reduce traffic, congestion and pollution, improving the health of communities.


Other potential benefits linked to physical activity in children and young people include the acquisition of social skills through active play (leadership, teamwork and co-operation), better concentration in school and displacement of anti-social and criminal behavior. The importance of physical activity for health was identified over 50 years ago. During the 1950s, comparisons of bus drivers with




more physically active bus conductors and office-based telephonists with more physically active postmen demonstrated lower rates of coronary heart disease and smaller uniform sizes in the more physically active occupations. This research led the way for further investigation, and evidence now clearly shows the importance of physical activity in preventing ill health. It is important for us to be active throughout our lives. Physical activity is central to a baby’s normal growth and development. This continues through school, and into adulthood and older years. Being physically active can bring substantial benefits and there is consistent evidence of a dose–response relationship, i.e. the greater the volume of physical activity undertaken, the greater the health benefits that are obtained.


  1. Is Language decaying or not



Let us begin by asking why the conviction that our language is decaying is so much more widespread than the belief that it is progressing, in an intellectual climate where the notion of the survival of the fittest is at least as strong as the belief in inevitable decay, it is strange that so many people are convinced of the decline in the quality of English, a language which is now spoken by an estimated half billion people – a possible hundredfold increase in the number of speakers during the past millennium.


One’s first reaction is to wonder whether the members of the anti-slovenliness brigade, as we may call them, are subconsciously reacting to the fast-moving world we live in, and consequently resenting change in any area of life. To some extent this is likely to be true. A feeling that ‘fings ain’t wot they used to be’ and an attempt to preserve life unchanged seem to be natural reactions to insecurity, symptoms of growing old. Every generation inevitably believes that the clothes, manners and speech of the following one have deteriorated. We would therefore expect to find a respect for conservative language in every century and every culture and, in literate societies, a reverence for the language of the ‘best authors’ of the past.


  1. Australia-US Alliance (Most Repeated)


Some “moments” seem more important in hindsight than they were at the time. David Day, for example, looks at John Curtin’s famous “Australia looks to America” statement of December 1941, a moment remembered as embodying a fundamental shift in Australia’s strategic alliance away from Britain towards the US. As Day points out, the shift to the US as our primary ally was a long, drawn-out process which occurred over half a century. Curtin’s statement is iconic – it represents and symbolizes the shift – but in and of itself it made almost no difference. Russell McGregor makes similar arguments with regard to the 1967 referendum, falsely hailed in our memories as a huge advance in Aboriginal rights.


There are many other important events which our contributors examine – the campaign to save the Franklin River; the landings at Gallipoli, the discovery of




gold in 1851, the disastrous Premiers’ Plan designed to cope with the Great Depression, to name just a few.


Taken together, our contributors show that narrative approaches to Australian history are not as simple as might be imagined. There is of course the issue of what should be included and what should not be – what, after all, makes a moment or an event sufficiently important to be included in an official narrative? Just as importantly, the moments and events that are included in narrative histories are open to multiple interpretations.


We hope this collection will provide an important reminder to those wanting to impose a universal history curriculum for our schoolchildren, and indeed a lesson to all Australians wishing to understand their nation’s past; History is never simple or straightforward, and it always resists attempts to make it so.



  1. Fertile farmland


A farming technique practiced for centuries by villagers in West Africa, which converts nutrient-poor rainforest soil into fertile farmland, could be the answer to mitigating climate change and revolutionizing farming across Africa.


A global study by researchers has for the first-time identified and analyzed rich fertile soils found in Liberia and Ghana. They discovered that the ancient West


African method of adding charcoal and kitchen waste to highly weathered, nutrient poor tropical soils can transform the land into enduringly fertile, carbon-rich black soils which the researchers dub ‘African Dark Earths’.


Similar soils created by Amazonian people in pre-Columbian eras have recently been discovered in South America — but the techniques people used to create these soils are unknown. Moreover, the activities which led to the creation of these anthropogenic soils were largely disrupted after the European conquest.


Encouragingly researchers in the West Africa study were able to live within communities as they created their fertile soils. This enabled them to learn the techniques used by the women from the indigenous communities who disposed of ash, bones and other organic waste to create the African Dark Earths.


  1. Writing system


The origins of writing are largely unclear. Writing systems were created independently all over the world. The earliest we know of were developed in the Middle East around 5,000 years ago. But other scripts were invented in India, Egypt, China and Central America. It has been suggested that some of these systems may have influenced others, but this has not been proved.


These forms of writing look completely different, follow different rules and are often read in completely different ways. But they all perform the same basic function. They are all a visual means of recording language.




Knowledge of some early scripts invented in certain regions was picked up by peoples living in surrounding areas. They would then adopt and adapt them to their own needs and language. Chinese, for example, was adopted in Japan and Korea, though it had to be altered to apply to the languages spoken there.


Methods of recording information have varied over time and place. Not all sophisticated societies have developed writing systems and not all methods of recording information require writing.


The Inca empire of South America was at its height in the sixteenth century AD and held power over a huge area that stretched from modern Equador and Peru, to areas of Bolivia and Chile. It was a complex civilisation, but did not develop a writing system.



  1. Wright brothers


After the 1905 flying season, the Wrights contacted the United States War Department, as well as governments and individuals in England, France, Germany, and Russia, offering to sell a flying machine. They were turned down time and time again — government bureaucrats thought they were crackpots; others thought that if two bicycle mechanics could build a successful airplane, they could do it themselves. But the Wright persisted, and in late 1907, the U.S. Army Signal Corps asked for an aircraft. Just a few months later, in early 1908, a French syndicate of businessmen agreed to purchase another.


Both the U.S. Army and the French asked for an airplane capable of carrying a passenger. The Wright brothers hastily adapted their 1905 Flyer with two seats and a more powerful engine. They tested these modifications in secret, back at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina for the first time in several years. Then the brothers parted temporarily — Wilbur to France and Orville to Virginia.


In 1908 and 1909, Wilbur demonstrated Wright aircraft in Europe, and Orville flew in Fort Meyer, Virginia. The flights went well until Orville lost a propeller and crashed, breaking his leg and killing his passenger Lt. Thomas Selfridge. While Orville recuperated, Wilbur kept flying in France, breaking record after record. Orville and his sister Kate eventually joined Wilbur in France, and the three returned home to Dayton to an elaborate homecoming celebration. Together, Orville and Wilbur returned to Fort Meyer with a new Military Flyer and completed the U.S. Army trials. A few months later, Wilbur flew before over a million spectators in New York Harbor — his first public flight in his native land. All of these flights stunned and captivated the world. The Wright Brothers became the first great celebrities of the twentieth century.


  1. The History of the Khoikhoi in South Africa


In around 2300 BP (Before Present), hunter gatherers called the San acquired domestic stock in what is now modern day Botswana. Their population grew, and spread throughout the Western half of South Africa. They were the first pastoralists in southern Africa, and called themselves Khoikhoi (or Khoe), which




means ‘men of men’ or ‘the real people’. This name was chosen to show pride in their past and culture. The Khoikhoi brought a new way of life to South Africa and to the San, who were hunter gatherers as opposed to herders. This led to misunderstandings and subsequent conflict between the two groups.


The Khoikhoi were the first native people to come into contact with the Dutch settlers in the mid-17th century. As the Dutch took over land for farms, the Khoikhoi were dispossessed, exterminated, or enslaved and therefore their numbers dwindled. The Khoikhoi were called the ‘Hottentots’ by European settlers because the sound of their language was so different from any European language, and they could not pronounce many of the words and sounds.



  1. Nutrition science


Most of the time when I embark on such an investigation, it quickly becomes clear that matters are much more complicated and ambiguous — several shades grayer — than I thought going in. Not this time. The deeper I delved into the confused and confusing thicket of nutritional science, sorting through the long-running fats versus carb wars, the fiber skirmishes and the raging dietary supplement debates, the simpler the picture gradually became. I learned that in fact science knows a lot less about nutrition than you would expect – that in fact nutrition science is, to put it charitably, a very young science. It’s still trying to figure out exactly what happens in your body when you sip a soda, or what is going on deep in the soul of a carrot to make it so good for you, or why in the world you have so many neurons – brain cells! – in your stomach, of all places. It’s a fascinating subject, and someday the field may produce definitive answers to the nutritional questions that concern us, but — as nutritionists themselves will tell you — they’re not there yet. Not even close.


Nutrition science, which after all only got started less than two hundred years ago, is today approximately where surgery was in the year 1650 – very promising, and very interesting to watch, but are you ready to let them operate on you? I think I’ll wait awhile.


  1. Infants imitation


Contrary to popular belief, babies under a few months don’t grin at you because they’re copying your own smile, according to new research. Many studies have indicated that from birth, infants imitate the behaviors and facial expressions of the adults around them. However, a team of Australian, South African and British researchers have released a study this week that refutes this widespread belief. “Numerous studies from the 1980s and 90s indicated no imitation by newborns, while others claimed it was there,” says Virginia Slaughter, a biologist at the University of Queensland and co-author of the study. “We wanted to clear up the confusion because the ‘fact’ that newborns imitate is widely cited, not just in the fields of psychology, neuroscience and pediatrics, but also in popular sources for parents.” The international research team, led by Janine Oostenbroek, a psychologist at the University of York in the UK, exposed more




than 100 infants to a broad range of gestures and recorded their responses at one, two, six and nine weeks of age. The gestures included social cues like adults poking their tongues out, frowning or grinning, as well as non-social cues such as pointing or opening a box.


The findings showed no link between behaviors exhibited by babies in their first few months and the gestures they were exposed to. The babies were just as likely to exhibit gestures they had never seen before as repeat ones they had. For instance, babies stuck their tongues out just as frequently if they were being exposed to pointing or opening a box, rather than anything to do with mouths or tongues.



  1. Modern art (Most Repeated)


Broadly speaking, there are two different ways of thinking about modern art, or two different versions of the story. One way is to view art as something that can be practiced (And though of) as an activity radically separate from everyday life or worldly concerns. From this point of view, art is said to be “autonomous” from society – that is, it is believed to be self-sustaining and selfreferring. One particularly influential versions of this story suggest that modern art should be viewed as process by which features extraneous to a particular branch of art would be progressively eliminated, and painters or sculptors would come to concentrate on problems specific to their domain. Another way of thinking about modern art is to view it as responding to the modern world, and to see modern artists immersing themselves in the conflicts and challenges of society. That is to say, some modern artists sought ways of conveying the changing experiences generated in European by the twin processes of commercialization (the commodification of everyday life) and urbanization. From this point of view, modern art is a way of reflecting on the transformation that created what we call, in a sort of shorthand, “modernity”.


  1. Academic networking


Getting to know fellow academics, especially more senior ones, can be very daunting. Lecturers and researchers are used to spending a lot of time in isolation working independently. The thought of going public and ‘selling yourself’ does not seem enticing. However, it is easier than you think to begin to develop your own career-enhancing networks. Your PhD supervisor and examiners or if you are already in post, your mentor, are a great place to start. They will have been chosen


to guide you because they are more experienced and in most cases they will work close to your field of interest. Ask their advice for ways of building up your own network of contacts. Also it is easier to approach someone unknown to you if you can mention the name of a mutual acquaintance.


If you are a postgraduate who is serious about a career in academia, or a more senior scholar wanting to develop one, you will surely be attending conferences on a fairly regular basis. There is no right or wrong number of these, some




scholars stick to one or two a year, others seem to attend one a month! Conferences are the main way that academics network with each other, so do not miss out on these opportunities. If you are presenting a paper it gives others a chance to see what you are working on, and the informal sections of the programmed (such as food and drink breaks) encourage mingling and further discussion.


  1. Continental drift


According to the theory of continental drift, the world was made up of a single continent through most of geologic time. That continent eventually separated and drifted apart, forming into the seven continents we have today. The first comprehensive theory of continental drift was suggested by the German meteorologist Alfred Wegener in 1912. The hypothesis asserts that the continents consist of lighter rocks that rest on heavier crustal material—similar to the manner in



which icebergs float on water. Wegener contended that the relative positions of the continents are not rigidly fixed but are slowly moving—at a rate of about one yard per century.


According to the generally accepted plate- tectonics theory, scientists believe that Earth’s surface is broken into a number of shifting slabs or plates, which average about 50 miles in thickness. These plates move relative to one another above a hotter, deeper, more mobile zone at average rates as great as a few inches per year. Most of the world’s active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called plate-boundary volcanoes.


The peripheral areas of the Pacific Ocean Basin, containing the boundaries of several plates, are dotted with many active volcanoes that form the so-called Ring of Fire. The Ring provides excellent examples of plate-boundary volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens.


However, some active volcanoes are not associated with plate boundaries, and many of these so-called intra-plate volcanoes form roughly linear chains in the interior of some oceanic plates. The Hawaiian Islands provide perhaps the best example of an intra-plate volcanic chain, developed by the northwest-moving Pacific plate passing over an inferred “hot spot” that initiates the magma-generation and volcano-formation process.


  1. Logged forest


Mammals can be one of the hardest-hit groups by habitat loss, and a lot of research has been carried out to find the best ways to conserve mammal diversity.


Much of this research has focused on very large-scale changes in land use and the impacts this will have on overall mammal diversity. However, many important decisions about land use are made at much more local scales, for example at the level of individual landowners.




Now, in a detailed study led by Imperial College London that looked at mammal diversity across different small-scale landscapes in Borneo, researchers have identified previously logged forests as an overlooked source of refuge for mammals.


These ‘selectively logged’ forests, where only certain tree species are removed, are often considered to be degraded and are frequently cleared to make way for plantations. The new results, published in the journal Ecological Applications, suggest they should be better protected.


The team recorded mammals using trap-and-release techniques and motion-sensing cameras over three years, creating an unprecedented 20,000 records of species in three land-use types: old-growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation. This is one of the most intensive studies of rainforest mammal diversity ever undertaken.



To their surprise, they found that mammal diversity for large mammals, like the clouded leopard and civets, was similar for both old-growth forests and logged forests. For small mammals, such as squirrels and rodents, the diversity was actually higher in logged forests.


  1. Micro-plastics


Fish are being killed, and prevented from reaching maturity, by the litter of plastic particles finding their way into the world’s oceans, new research has proved.


Some young fish have been found to prefer tiny particles of plastic to their natural food sources, effectively starving them before they can reproduce. The growing problem of microplastics – tiny particles of polymer-type materials from modern industry – has been thought for several years to be a peril for fish, but the study published on Thursday is the first to prove the damage in trials. Microplastics are near-indestructible in natural environments. They enter the oceans through litter, when waste such as plastic bags, packaging and other convenience materials are discarded. Vast amounts of these end up in the sea, through inadequate waste disposal systems and sewage outfall. Another growing source is microbeads, tiny particles of hard plastics that are used in cosmetics, for instance as an abrasive in modern skin cleaners. These easily enter waterways as they are washed off as they are used, flushed down drains and forgotten, but can last for decades in our oceans. The impact of these materials has been hard to measure, despite being a growing source of concern. Small particles of plastics have been found in seabirds, fish and whales, which swallow the materials but cannot digest them, leading to a buildup in their digestive tracts.


  1. International trade (Most Repeated)


The world is shrinking rapidly with the advent of faster communication, transportation, and financial flows. Products developed in one country—Gucci




purses, Sony electronics, McDonald’s hamburgers, Japanese sushi, German BMWs—have found enthusiastic acceptance in other countries. It would not be surprising to hear about a German businessman wearing an Italian suit meeting an English friend at a Japanese restaurant who later returns home to drink Russian vodka and watch Dancing with the Stars on TV.


International trade has boomed over the past three decades. Since 1990, the number of multinational corporations in the world has grown from 30,000 to more than 63,000. Some of these multinationals are true giants. In fact, of the largest 150 “economies” in the world, only 81 are countries. The remaining 69 are multinational corporations. Walmart, the world’s largest company, has annual revenues greater than the GDP of all but the world’s 21 largest countries.



Between 2000 and 2008, total world trade grew more than 7 percent per year, easily outstripping GDP output, which was about 3 percent. Despite a dip in world trade caused by the recent worldwide recession, the world trade of products and services last year was valued at more than $12 trillion, about 17 percent of GDP worldwide.


Many U.S. companies have long been successful at international marketing: McDonald’s, Coca-Cola, Starbucks, GE, IBM, Colgate, Caterpillar, Boeing, and dozens of other American firms have made the world their market. In the United States, names such as Sony, Toyota, Nestlé, IKEA, Canon, and Nokia have become household words. Other products and services that appear to be American are, in fact, produced or owned by foreign companies.


  1. Guinness world record


One of Guinness World Records’ more unusual awards was presented at the National Maritime Museum yesterday. After a 100-day trial, the timepiece known as Clock B – which had been sealed in a clear plastic box to prevent tampering – was officially declared, by Guinness, to be the world’s “most accurate mechanical clock with a pendulum swinging in free air”. It was an intriguing enough award. But what is really astonishing is that the clock was designed more than 250 years ago by a man who was derided at the time for “an incoherence and absurdity that was little


short of the symptoms of insanity”, and whose plans for the clock lay ignored for two centuries. The derision was poured on John Harrison, the British clockmaker whose marine chronometers had revolutionized seafaring in the 18th century (and who was the subject of Longitude by Dava Sobel). His subsequent claim – that he would go on to make a pendulum timepiece that was accurate to within a second over a 100-day period – triggered widespread ridicule. The task was simply impossible, it was declared. But now the last laugh lies with Harrison. At a conference, Harrison Decoded: Towards a Perfect Pendulum Clock, held at Greenwich yesterday, observatory scientists revealed that a clock that had been built to the clockmaker’s exact specifications had run for 100 days during official tests and had lost only five-eighths of a second in that period.




  1. Online safety for children (Most Repeated)



When Tim Berners-Lee invented the world wide web, he surely didn’t anticipate that children would end up becoming some of its main users. Most start using the internet at the average age of three – and as recent research shows, children now spend more time playing and socializing online than watching television programs. Given this change in habits, it is not surprising that a recent House of Lords report has raised online safety and behavior as an important issue. The report said that for children, learning to survive in a world dominated by the internet should be as


important as reading and writing. The House of Lords Communications Committee also warned that children should not be leaving school without “a well-rounded understanding of the digital world”. It also suggested that the government should think about implementing new legal requirements and a code of conduct companies would have to adhere to, which would help to bring the internet up to “childfriendly standards”. Of course, trying to rectify this lack of child-centered design is not an easy task, but one that requires the cooperation and goodwill of many sectors. It will need to involve consultation with technology, education, legal and policy experts. And it would also be a good idea to make children and young people part of the process.



  1. The importance of soil


It’s very easy to forget about what’s in the ground beneath our feet and why it’s so important to protect it. One tablespoon of soil contains more organisms than there are people on Earth; billions of bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms combine with minerals, water, air and organic matter to create a living system that supports plants and, in turn, all life. Healthy soil can store as much as 3,750 tons of water per hectare, reducing the risk of flooding, and the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has said that 89% of all agricultural emissions could be mitigated if we improved the health of our soil. Good soil management also increases disease


resistance in livestock and ultimately drives profits for farmers – yet soil and its impact on the health of our animals has, over recent decades, been one of the most neglected links in UK agriculture. Over the last 50 years’ agriculture has become increasingly dependent on chemical fertilizers, with applications today around 10 times higher than in the 1950s. Farmers often think the chemical fertilizer NPK (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium) provides all the nutrition a plant requires, but it also has a detrimental effect on the long-term health of the land: research suggests there are fewer than 100 harvests left in many of the world’s soils.


  1. Asda


Asda has become the first food retailer in the country to measure how much customers can save by cutting back on food waste, thanks to a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) with the University of Leeds. The idea behind the KTP




was for the University, using Asda’s customer insight data, to apply its research to identify, investigate and implement ways of helping customers to reduce their food waste.


This was one of the first times that a major retailer had tried to deliver large-scale sustainability changes, with the two-year project seen as a way for Asda to position themselves as true innovators in this area. The campaign focused on providing customers with advice on everything from food storage and labelling, to creative recipes for leftovers. Meanwhile, in-store events encouraged customers to make


changes in their own homes. In fact, two million customers have said they will make changes to how they deal with food waste in their own homes, leading to an average saving of 57 pounds per customer, as well as a reduction in waste. A key aspect of a KTP is that an associate is employed by the University to work in the firm and help deliver the desired outcomes of the KTP. As a part of the collaboration with Asda, Laura Babbs was given the task of driving forward the sustainability changes in the retailer. As a result of the success of her work, Laura eventually became a permanent member of the team at Asda.


  1. Giant panda


The worldwide population of wild giant pandas increased by 268 over the last decade according to a new survey conducted by the government of China. The increase in population brings the total number of wild giant pandas to 1,864. The population increase represents 16.8% rise compared to the last panda survey in 2003. Wild giant pandas, a global symbol of wildlife conservation, are found only in China’s Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu provinces. According to the report, formally known as the Fourth National Giant Panda Survey, the geographic range of pandas throughout China also increased. The total area inhabited by wild giant pandas in China now equals 2,577,000 hectares, an expansion of 11.8% since 2003. “These results are a testament to the conservation achievements of the Chinese government,” said Xiaohai Liu, executive director of programs, WWF-China. “A lot of good work is being done around wild giant panda conservation, and the government has done well to integrate these efforts and partner with conservation organizations including WWF.” The report, the fourth in a series of decadal (10 year) surveys conducted by the State Forestry Administration of China, began in 2011 with financial and technical support from WWF. Much of the success in increasing the panda population comes as a result of conservation policies implemented by the Chinese government, including the Natural Forest Protection Project and Grain for Green.


  1. Fallow fields: resting the lands


With a good system of crop rotation, and especially with the addition of any sort of fertilizer you may be able to come up with, it’s possible to grow crops on a plot of land for upwards of 2 – 3 years at a time with good results. Ultimately, though, you must let the land rest if you hope to continue farming there in the




long-run. Allowing a plot of land to rest for a period of time is known as letting the field go fallow, and there are several reasons for this.


Allowing a field or plot to lie fallow means that you don’t grow anything new on it, don’t harvest anything and don’t graze any animals on the land for at least a year. Sometimes a field will lay fallow for two, three or even four years, but the traditional


standard on many farms was to let a field lie fallow once every 2 – 3 years. This fallow period allows the land to replenish many of its nutrients. The root networks of various grasses or groundcovers (like clover) have a chance to expand and grow, which further strengthens the soil and protects it from erosion. During the fallow period, there are many beneficial flora and micro-fauna, including cyanobacteria, which live in the soil. These microorganisms continue to be active at the root level, steadily improving the quality of the soil so that when you come back in a year or two, you can begin planting food or cash crops anew.



  1. People-watching observation


According to researchers, the invisibility cloak illusion stems from the belief that we are much more socially observant than the people around us. This means that, while we watch and wonder about other people as much as possible, we often think that people around us are less aware. This illusion occurs because, while we are fully aware of our own impressions and speculations about other people, we have no idea about what those other people are thinking unless they choose to share with us, something that rarely happens except in exceptional circumstances. To better understand what is happening, it is important to consider the groundbreaking research by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman on cognitive biases. When people make judgments about other people in social situations, they often depend on specific biases such as the availability heuristic, i.e., that we attach more significance to thoughts that come to mind easily. This is why we consider thoughts about other people as being more important than thoughts about inanimate objects. And so, as we look around us, we tend to focus our thoughts on the people we see and what they happen to be doing. Which is why people-watching can be so addictive. What adds to the sense that we are relatively invisible to others is that people tend to be as discreet as possible about their people-watching. Just because other people aren’t sharing their observations with us, it’s easy to pretend that they are not as observant as we are. Of course, people may share their people- watching observations with anyone they happen to be with but, for the most part, that only applies to something remarkable enough to comment on. For most of us, what we are seeing tends to be extremely private and not to be shared with others.


  1. Animals (Most Repeated)


No animal is capable of asking questions or generating problems that are irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily-designed needs.




When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies’ south, it doesn’t wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south. Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally-defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to establish human-created goals.


  1. Males and females


Males do the singing and females do the listening. This has been the established, even cherished view of courtship in birds, but now some ornithologists are changing tune.



László Garamszegi of the University of Antwerp, Belgium, and colleagues studied the literature on 233 European songbird species. Of the 109 for which information on females was available, they found evidence for singing in 101 species. In only eight species could the team conclude that females did not sing.


Females that sing have been overlooked, the team say, because either their songs are quiet, they are mistaken for males from their similar plumage or they live in less well-studied areas such as the tropics (Behavioral Ecology, DOI:

10.1093/beheco/arl047). Garamszegi blames Charles Darwin for the oversight. “He emphasised the importance of male sexual display, and this is what everyone has been looking at.”


The findings go beyond modern species. After carefully tracing back an evolutionary family tree for their songbirds, Garamszegi’s team discovered that, in at least two bird families, singing evolved in females first. They suggest these ancient females may have been using their songs to deter other females from their territories, to coordinate breeding activities with males, or possibly to attract mates.







  1. TV


Nowadays television has become an essential part of life. It is a medium for disseminating news and information, and for some it acts as a companion. What is your opinion about this?


  1. Formal written examination


Formal written examination can be a valid method to assess students’ learning. To what extent do you agree or disagree?



  1. Decision making


Senior executives should get their employees involved in the decision making process. What is your opinion in this?


  1. Learning


With enough amount of motivation and practice, people can learn anything that the experts teach in the classroom. Do you agree or not?


  1. Voting


In some countries around the world, voting is compulsory. Do you agree with the notion of compulsory voting?


  1. Shopping malls (Most Repeated)


Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion on this? Do you think this is a good or bad change?


  1. Life and work (Most Repeated)


Nowadays, people spend too much time at work to the extent that they hardly have time for their personal life. Discuss.


  1. Responsibilities (Most Repeated)


Parents should be held legally responsible for their children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.


  1. Advertisement in school


Some people think placing advertisements in school is a great resource for public schools that need additional funding, but others think it exploits children by treating them as a captive audience for corporate sponsors. Choose which position you most agree with and discuss why you choose that position. Support your point of view with details from your own experiences, observations or reading.







In the 18th century due to industrialization, a lot of people migrated to developed countries. This affected lifestyle and increased problems in developed countries. What is your opinion about this?


  1. Women in the workplace


Most high-level jobs are done by men. Should governments encourage that a certain percentage of these jobs be reserved for women? What is your opinions?


  1. Mass media



The mass media, including TV, radio and newspapers, influences our society and shapes our opinions and characters. What is your opinion? / Mass media have an influence on human, particularly on younger generation. It plays a vital role on shaping the opinions of people. What do you think about it?


  1. Digital age (Most Repeated)


Some people claim that digital age has made us lazier, others claim it has made us more knowledgeable. Discuss both opinions, use your own experience to support.


  1. Cashless society (Most Repeated)


Advantages & disadvantages of cashless society


  1. Unhealthy lifestyle


Many people are living in poor lifestyle which affected people’s health. List some unhealthy lifestyles and give some solution suggestions to national health service.


  1. Climate


You are given climate as the field of study. Which area would you prefer? Explain why you picked this up the particular area of your study?


  1. Urbanization


Over half of population lives in cities. Is it a positive or negative development?


  1. Pressing problems (Most Repeated)


The world’s governments and organizations are facing a lot of issues. Which do you think is the most pressing problem for the inhabitants on our planet and give the solution?


  1. Education


“The only thing that interferes with my learning is education.” – Albert Einstein. What did he mean by that? Do you think he is correct?




  1. Communication



Communication has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Discuss the positive and negative impacts of this change.


  1. Industrial revolution


Do you believe that the industrial revolution was the main factor for problems in developed nations?


  1. The internet (Most Repeated)


Does the advent of the Internet change the role of teachers? To what extent do you agree?



  1. New language


Learning a new language at an early age is helpful for children. It is more positive for their future prospects, though it can also have some adverse effects. Do you agree or disagree?


  1. Social media


What are the pros and cons of staying connected on social media 24 hours a day?


  1. Fun v.s. money


Different people are successful in different fields. Some people work long hours to get success, but others feel that we should spend free time for fun than money. Which style closely related to you and explains your opinion?


  1. Xenophobia


Xenophobia has accelerated rapidly in the western countries. According to you what solutions can be proposed by government and individuals?


  1. Tourism


Tourism is good for some less developed countries, but also has some disadvantages. Discuss.


  1. Online materials


Online materials like music, movies, xxx are accessible at no cost. Do you think online material should be accessed at no cost?


  1. Library (Most Repeated)


With the increase of digital media available online, the role of the library has become obsolete. Universities should only procure digital materials rather than constantly textbooks. Discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of this position and give your own point of view.




  1. Films



For children, use films to study is as important as study literature. To what extent do you agree?


  1. Learn and exams


Some people claim that instead of having to prepare for huge numbers of exams in school, children should learn more. To what extent do you agree with this statement?


  1. Medical technology (Most Repeated)



The advanced medical technology will expand human’s life. Do you think it is a blessing or a curse?


  1. Experiential learning


Some people point that experiential learning (i.e. learning by doing it) can work well in formal education. However, others think a traditional form of teaching is the best. Do you think experiential learning can work well in high schools or colleges?


  1. Packaging


Do you think consumers should avoid over-packaged products or is it the responsibility of manufacturers to avoid extra packaging? Give your views or any relevant examples based on your own experience.


  1. Theatres


There are both problems and benefits for high school students study plays and works of theatres written centuries ago. Discuss and use your own experience


  1. A man’s life


Some people say that a man’s life is defined by the place where he grows up.


What is your opinion? Use a celebrity to support your idea.


  1. Competitive environment


Is a competitive environment in school or university good or bad? Discuss and give your own experiences as examples.


  1. Invention


Talk about an invention that you think beneficial or harmful.


  1. Education


The purpose of education is for workers and good members of society, or individuals to fulfill their life. Which opinion do you agree with?









  1. Effective leaders


In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both.



  1. SWIMS


Understanding the number of species, we have in our marine environment is a basic need if we are to protect and conserve our biodiversity. This is vital in today’s rapidly changing world, not just here in Hong Kong, but especially in Southeast Asia which holds the world’s most diverse marine habitats. SWIMS is playing a major role in trying to measure and conserve these important resources, both within Hong Kong but also, together with its regional collaborators, in Southeast Asia.” said Professor Gray A. Williams, the leader of this study and the Director of HKU SWIMS. The enormous array of marine life in Hong Kong, however, has yet to receive its desirable level of conservation as currently only less than 2% of Hong Kong’s marine area is protected as marine parks or reserve as compared with approximately 40 % of our terrestrial area. The Government has committed to designate more new marine parks in the coming years. The Brothers Marine Park in the northern Lantau waters will be launched soon, which will bring Hong Kong’s total protected marine area to more than 2%. The research team welcomed the initiative of the new marine park while also urging the Hong Kong government to move towards the global target of at least 10% marine protected area by the year 2020 under United Nation’s Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)


  1. Promoting good customer service


Promoting good customer service must start at the top. If management doesn’t realize how important this aspect of their business is, they will be at an instant disadvantage in their industry. Good customer response equates to loyal customers, which are the cornerstone of any successful business. No matter how money you invest in your marketing, if you don’t much have the fundamental elements of your business right, it’s wasted money.


  1. Sigmund Freud


That Sigmund Freud became a major intellectual presence in twentieth-century culture is not in doubt. Nor is there any doubt that at all times there was both fervent enthusiasm over and bitter hostility to his ideas and influence. But the




exact means by which Freud became, despite this hostility, a master of intellectual life, on a par, already in the 1920s, with Karl Marx, Albert Einstein, Marie Curie and Bertrand Russell, has not been sufficiently explored. Strikingly, Freud emerged as a twentieth-century icon without the endorsement and support of an institution or a profession (in contrast to Einstein, Curie and Russell). Where are we to look for the details of this story of an emergent – and new figure of immense cultural authority? One of the principal aims of this book is to show how this happened in one local, parochial yet privileged, site – Cambridge, then as now a university town stranded in the English Fens with a relatively small fluctuating population.


  1. Global heating



Three degrees does not sound like much, but it represents a rise in temperature compared with the global heating that occurred between the last ice age, some 15,000 years ago, and the warmth of the eighteenth century. When Earth was cold, giant glaciers sometimes extended from the polar regions as far south as St Louis in the US and the Alps in Europe. Later this century when it is three degrees hotter glaciers everywhere will be melting in a climate of often unbearable heat and drought, punctuated with storms and floods. The consequences for humanity could be truly horrific; if we fail to act swiftly, the full impact of the plants and animals with whom we share Earth. In a worst case scenario, there might – in the twenty-second century – be only a remnant of humanity eking out a diminished existence in the polar regions and the few remaining oases left on a hot and arid Earth.


  1. Daniel Harris (Most Repeated)


Daniel Harris, a scholar of consumption and style, has observed that until photography finally supplanted illustration as the “primary means of advertising clothing” in the 1950s, glamour inhered less in the face of the drawing, which was by necessity schematic and generalized, than in the sketch’s attitude, posture, and gestures, especially in the strangely dainty positions of the hands. Glamour once resided so emphatically in the stance of the model that the faces in the illustrations cannot really be said to have expressions at all, but angles or tilts. The chin raised upwards in a haughty look; the eyes lowered in an attitude of introspection; the head cocked at an inquisitive or coquettish angle: or the profile presented in sharp outline, emanating power the severity like an emperor’s bust embossed on a Roman coin.


  1. English language


English is the world’s language. Such dominance has its downside, of course. There are now about 6,800 languages left in the world, compared with perhaps twice that number back at the dawn of agriculture. Thanks in part to the rise of über-languages, most importantly English, the remaining languages are now dying at the rate of about one a fortnight.



  1. Kiwi (Most Repeated)



A Massey ecologist has teamed up with a leading wildlife photographer to produce the definitive book on New Zealand’s national bird, the kiwi. Kiwi: A Natural History was written by Dr. Isabel Castro and features photographs by Rod Morris. Dr.


Castro has been working with kiwi since 1999, with a focus on their behavior. “I’ve specifically been looking at the sense of smell that kiwi uses when foraging, but also in their interactions with their environment and other kiwi,” she says. The book covers all aspects of kiwi, from their evolution, prehistory and closest relatives to their feeding and breeding behavior and current conservation issues, making this the perfect introduction for anyone with an interest in these fascinating birds. The book is the second title in a new series on New Zealand’s wildlife, targeted at a family readership.



  1. Brain actions


Researchers in Europe and the US wanted to find out exactly what happens to our brain when we find ourselves stunned with fright in the hope of better understanding how fear interplays with human anxiety disorders. For the first time, they traced and linked three parts of the brain responsible for freezing behaviours: the amygdala, ventrolateral periaqueductal grey region and magnocellular nucleus. Mice are excellent lab animals where it comes to anxiety and fear experiments.


When a mouse is scared, its defensive behaviours range from freezing, attacking, risk assessment or fleeing the scene. How a mouse acts depends on variables such as access to escape routes or the level of threat faced. So Andreas Lüthi at the Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research in Switzerland and colleagues from Europe and the US observed brain activity in mice placed in frightening situations to trace the brain circuits responsible for freezing behaviours. In particular, the researchers wanted to learn more about a part of the brain called the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey region, which was believed to play some part in a mouse’s instinct to freeze or flee.


  1. Job-hunting (Most Repeated)


When it comes to job-hunting, first impressions are critical. Remember, you are marketing a product — yourself — to a potential employer. The first thing the employer sees when greeting you is your attire; thus, you must make every effort to have the proper dress for the type of job you are seeking. Will dressing properly get you the job? Of course not, but it will give you a competitive edge and a positive first impression.


Should you be judged by what you wear? Perhaps not, but the reality is, of course, that you are judged. Throughout the entire job-seeking process employers use short-cuts, heuristics or rules of thumb, to save time. With cover letters, it’s the opening paragraph and a quick scan of your qualifications. With




resumes, it is a quick scan of your accomplishments. With the job interview, it’s how you’re dressed that sets the tone of the interview.


How should you dress? Dressing conservatively is always the safest route, but you should also try and do a little investigating of your prospective employer so that what you wear to the interview makes you look as though you fit in with the organization. If you overdress (which is rare but can happen) or underdress (the


more likely scenario), the potential employer may feel that you don’t care enough about the job.


  1. Folklore (Most Repeated)



Folklore, a modern term for the body of traditional customs, superstitions, stories, dances, and songs that have been adopted and maintained within a given community by processes of repetition is not reliant on the written word. Along with folk songs and folktales, this broad category of cultural forms embraces all kinds of legends, riddles, jokes, proverbs, games, charms, omens, spells, and rituals, especially those of pre- literate societies or social classes. Those forms of verbal expression that are handed on from one generation or locality to the next by word of the month are said to constitute an oral tradition.


  1. Edison (Most Repeated)


Like Ben Franklin, Thomas Alva Edison was both a scientist and an inventor. Born in 1847, Edison would see tremendous change take place in his lifetime. He was also to be responsible for making many of those changes occur. When Edison was born, society still thought of electricity as a novelty, a fad. By the time he died, entire cities were lit by electricity. Much of the credit for that progress goes to Edison. In his lifetime, Edison patented 1,093 inventions, earning him the nickname “The Wizard of Menlo Park” The most famous of his inventions was the incandescent light bulb. Beside the light bulb, Edison developed the phonograph and the “kinetoscope,” a small box for viewing moving films. He also improved upon the original design of the stock ticker, the telegraph, and Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. He believed in hard work, sometimes working twenty hours a day. Edison was quoted as saying, “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.” In tribute to this important American, electric lights in the United States were dimmed for one minute on October 21, 1931, a few days after his death.


  1. Halcyon days (Most Repeated)


Those were his halcyon days when his music was constantly heard in Venice, and his influence blanketed Europe. He spent much of his time on the road, performing


and overseeing productions of his music. In Germany, Bach studied Vivaldi’s scores, copied them for performance and arranged some for other instruments.




  1. Animals coordination



In animals, a movement is coordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cord called the central patterns generator (CPG). This produces signals that drive muscles to contract rhythmically in a way that produces running or walking, depending on the pattern of pulses. A simple signal from the brain instructs the CPG to switch between different modes, such as going from a standstill to walking.


  1. Serving on a jury (Most Repeated)


Serving on a jury is normally compulsory for individuals who are qualified for jury service. A jury is intended to be an impartial panel capable of reaching a verdict. There are often procedures and requirements, including a fluent understanding of the language and the opportunity to test jurors’ neutrality or otherwise exclude jurors who are perceived as likely to be less than neutral or partial to one side.



  1. Dairy farms


A few summers ago I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths and vulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular, each was centered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering and milking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite- facing rows of cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows graze outdoors in lush pastures during the summer, produced their hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows through the winter, and increased their production of summer fodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields. The two farms were similar in an area (a few square miles) and barn size, Huls barn holding somewhat more cows than Gardar barn (200 vs. 165 cows, respectively). The owners of both farms were viewed as leaders of their respective societies. Both owners were deeply religious. Both farms were located in gorgeous natural settings that attract tourists from afar, with backdrops of high snow-capped mountains drained by streams teaming with fish, and sloping down to a famous river (below Huls Farm) or 3ord (below Gardar Farm).


  1. Dark energy (Most Repeated)


The rest of the universe appears to be made of a mysterious, invisible substance called dark matter and a force that repels gravity known as dark energy. Scientists have not yet observed dark matter directly. It doesn’t interact with baryonic matter, and it’s completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, making dark matter impossible to detect with current instruments. But scientists are confident it exists because of the gravitational effects it appears to have on galaxies and galaxy clusters. The visible universe—including Earth, the sun, other stars, and galaxies—is made of




protons, neutrons, and electrons bundled together into atoms. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries of the 20th century was that this ordinary, or baryonic, matter makes up less than 5 percent of the mass of the universe.


  1. Water security (Most Repeated)


Equally critical is the challenge of water security. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has pointed out that about one – third of the world’s population lives in countries with moderate to high water stress, with a disproportionate impact on the poor. With current projected global population growth, the task of providing water for human consumption will become increasingly difficult. And increasing competition over this scarce but vital resource may fuel instability and conflict within states as well as between states. The UN is doing a great deal in both areas to proactively foster collaboration among Member States. UNEP has long been actively addressing the water issue together with partner UN agencies and other organizations. Looking ahead, the UN can do more to build synergies of technology, policy and capacity in this field. In this regard, events like the annual World Water Week in Stockholm come to the forefront of the public mind when talking about championing water issues.



  1. Allergies (Most Repeated)


Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people. When you’re allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harmful to your body.


(Substances that cause allergic reactions — such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens.) In an attempt to protect the body, the immune system produces IgE antibodies to that allergen. Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body to release chemicals into the bloodstream, one of which is histamine (pronounced: HIS-tuh -meen). The histamine then acts on the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract and causes the symptoms of the allergic reaction. Future exposure to that same allergen will trigger this antibody response again. This means that every time you come into contact with that allergen, you’ll have some form of allergy symptoms.


  1. Leadership


Leadership is all about being granted permission by others to lead their thinking. It is a bestowed moral authority that gives the right to organize and direct the efforts of others. But moral authority does not come from simply managing people effectively or communicating better or being able to motivate. It comes from many sources, including being authentic and genuine, having integrity, and showing a real and deep understanding of the business in question. All these factors build


confidence. Leaders lose moral authority for three reasons: they behave unethically; they become plagued by self-doubt and lose their conviction, or




they are blinded by power, lose self-awareness and thus lose connection with those they lead as the context around them changes. Having said all this, it has to be assumed that if someone becomes a leader, at some point they understood the difference between right and wrong. It is up to them to abide by a moral code and up to us to ensure that the moment we suspect they do not, we fire them or vote them out.


  1. Legal deposit (Most Repeated)


Legal deposit has existed in English law since 1662. It helps to ensure that the nation’s published output (and thereby its intellectual record and future published heritage) is collected systematically, to preserve the material for the use of future generations and to make it available for readers within the designated legal deposit libraries. The Legal Deposit Libraries are the British Library, the National Library of Scotland, the National Library of Wales, the Bodleian Libraries, Oxford and the University Library, Cambridge. The legal deposit system also has benefits for authors and publishers: Deposited publications are made available to users of the deposit libraries on their premises, are preserved for the benefit of future generations, and become part of the nation’s heritage. Publications are recorded in the online catalogs and become an essential research resource for generations to come.



  1. Seatbelt


I am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced that these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets, “donors on wheels”. But a book on ‘Risk’ by my colleague John Adams has made me re-examine my convictions.


Adams has completely undermined my confidence in these apparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. Between 1970 and 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is compulsory had on average about five percent road accident death than before the introduction of law. In the United Kingdom road deaths decreased steadily about seven thousand a year in.


  1. Bronze vs Silver (Most Repeated)


In an often-cited study about counterfactuals, Medvec, Madey, and Gilovich (1995) found that bronze medalists appeared happier than silver medalists in television coverage of the 1992 Summer Olympics. Medvec et al. argued that bronze medalists compared themselves to 4th place finishers, whereas silver medalists compared themselves to gold medalists. These counterfactuals were the most salient because they were either qualitatively different (gold vs. silver) or categorically different (medal vs. no medal) from what actually occurred.




Drawing on archival data and experimental studies, we show that Olympic athletes (among others) are more likely to make counterfactual comparisons based on their prior expectations, consistent with decision affect theory. Silver medalists are more likely to be disappointed because their personal expectations are higher than those of bronze medalists. We provide a test between expectancy-based versus category- based processing and discuss circumstances that trigger each type of processing.


  1. Southern cone


In the southern cone especially, from Venezuela to Argentina, the region is rising to overthrow the legacy of external domination of the past centuries and the cruel and destructive social forms that they have helped to establish. The mechanisms of imperial control – violence and economic warfare, hardly a distant memory in Latin America – are losing their effectiveness, a sign of the shift toward independence. Washington is now compelled to tolerate governments that in the past would have drawn intervention or reprisal. Throughout the region a vibrant array of popular movements provides the basis for a meaningful democracy. The indigenou6s populations, as if in a rediscovery of their pre-Columbian legacy, are much more active and influential, particularly in Bolivia and Ecuador. These developments are in part the result of a phenomenon that has been observed for some years in Latin America: As the elected governments become more formally democratic, citizens express an increasing disillusionment with democratic institutions. They have sought to construct democratic systems based on popular participation rather than elite and foreign domination.



  1. Descendants of the Maya (Most Repeated)


Descendants of the Maya living in Mexico still sometimes refer to themselves as the corn people. The phrase is not intended as metaphor. Rather, it’s meant to acknowledge their abiding dependence on this miraculous grass, the staple of their diet for almost nine thousand years. Forty percent of the calories Mexican eats in a day comes directly from corn, most of it in the form of tortillas. So when a Mexican says I am maize or corn walking, it is simply a statement of fact: The very substance of the Mexicans body is to a considerable extent a manifestation of this plant.


  1. Interdisciplinary center


A new interdisciplinary center for the study of the frontiers of the universe, from the tiniest subatomic particle to the largest chain of galaxies, has been formed at The University of Texas at Austin. The Texas Cosmology Center will be a way for the university’s departments of Astronomy and Physics to collaborate on research that concerns them both. “This center will bring the two departments together in an area where they overlap in the physics of the very early universe,” said Dr. Neal Evans, Astronomy Department chair. Astronomical observations have revealed the presence of dark matter and dark energy,




discoveries that challenge our knowledge of fundamental physics. And today’s leading theories in physics involve energies so high that no Earth-bound particle accelerator can test them. They need the universe as their laboratory. Dr. Steven Weinberg, Nobel laureate and professor of physics at the university, called the Center’s advent “a very exciting development” for that department.


  1. Sales Jobs (Most Repeated)


Sales jobs allow for a great deal of discretionary time and effort on the part of the sales representatives – especially when compared with managerial, manufacturing, and service jobs. Most sales representatives work independently and outside the immediate presence of their sales managers. Therefore, some form of goals needs to be in place as motive and guide their performance. Sales personnel are not the only professionals with performance goals or quotas. Health care professionals operating in clinics have daily, weekly, and monthly goals in terms of patient visits. Service personnel are assigned a number of service calls they must perform during a set time period. Production workers in manufacturing have output goals. So, why are achieving sales goals or quotas such a big deal? The answer to this question can be found by examining how a firm’s other departments are affected by how well the company’s salespeople achieve their performance goals. The success of the business hinges on the successful sales of its products and services. Consider all the planning, the financial, production and marketing efforts that go into producing what the sales force sells. Everyone depends on the sales force to sell the company’s products and services and they eagerly anticipate knowing things are going.



  1. Classic


One of the most important things to remember is that “classic” does not necessarily translate to “favorite” or “bestselling”. Literature is instead considered classic when it has stood the test of time and it stands the test of time when the artistic quality it expresses – be it an expression of life, truth, beauty, or anything about the universal human condition – continues to be relevant and continues to inspire emotional responses, no matter the period in which the work was written. Indeed, classic literature is considered as such regardless of book sales or public popularity. That said, classic literature usually merits lasting recognition – from critics and other people in a position to influence such decisions and has a universal appeal. And, while effective use of language as well as technical excellence – is a must, not everything that is well-written or is characterized by technical achievement or critical acclaim will automatically be considered a classic. Conversely, works that have not been acknowledged or received positively by the writer’s contemporaries or critics can still be considered as classics.


  1. Fluid (Most Repeated)


If you see a movie, or a TV advertisement, that involves a fluid behaving in an unusual way, it was probably made using technology based on the work of a




Monash researcher. Professor Joseph Monaghan who pioneered an influential method for interpreting the behavior of liquids that underlies most special effects involving water has been honored with election to the Australian Academy of Sciences. Professor Monaghan, one of only 17 members elected in 2011, was recognized for developing the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) which has applications in the fields of astrophysics, engineering and physiology, as well as movie special effects. His research started in 1977 when he tried to use computer simulation to describe the formation of stars and stellar systems. The algorithms available at the time were incapable of describing the complicated systems that evolve out of chaotic clouds of gas in the galaxy. Professor Monaghan, and his colleague Bob Gingold, took the novel and effective approach of replacing the fluid or gas in the simulation with large numbers of particles with properties that mimicked those of the fluid. SPH has become a central tool in astrophysics, where it is currently used to simulate the evolution of the universe after the Big Bang, the formation of stars, and the processes of planet building.



  1. Tomb


The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remained far from deserted. Instead of the tranquility that usually descends on the area in the evening, it was a hive of activity. TV crews trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard Carter discovered the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for public display. Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt’s archaeology supremo Zahi Hawass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested — mostly undisturbed — for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a wooden stretcher and transported to its new home, a high- tech, climate-controlled plexi-glass showcase located in the outer chamber of the tomb where, covered in linen, with only the face and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.


  1. Herb


A herbal is a book of plants, describing their appearance, their properties and how they may be used for preparing ointments and medicines. The medical use of plants is recorded on fragments of papyrus and clay tablets from ancient Egypt, Samaria and China that date back 5,000 years but document traditions far older still. Over 700 herbal remedies were detailed in the Papyrus Ebers, an Egyptian text written in 1500 BC. Around 65 BC, a Greek physician called Dioscorides wrote an herbal that was translated into Latin and Arabic. Known as ‘De materia medica’, it became the most influential work on medicinal plants in both Christian and Islamic worlds until the late 17th century. An illustrated manuscript copy of the text made in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) survives from the sixth century. The first printed herbals date from the dawn of




European printing in the 1480s. They provided valuable information for apothecaries, whose job it was to make the pills and potions prescribed by physicians. In the next century, landmark herbals were produced in England by William Turner, considered to be the father of British botany, and John Gerard, whose illustrations would inspire the floral fabric, wallpaper and tile designs of William Morris four centuries later.


  1. Foreign policy (Most Repeated)


The foreign policy of a state, it is often argued, begins and ends with the border. No doubt an exaggeration, this aphorism nevertheless has an element of truth. A state’s relation with its neighbors, at least in the formative years, are greatly influenced by its frontier policy, especially when there are no settled borders.



Empire builders in the past sought to extend imperial frontiers for a variety of reasons; subjugation of kings and princes to gain their allegiance (as well as handsome tributes or the coffers of the state), and, security of the core of the empire from external attacks by establishing a string of buffer states in areas adjoining the frontiers. The history of British empire in India was no different. It is important to note in this connection that the concept of international boundaries (between two sovereign states), demarcated and delineated, was yet to emerge in India under Mughal rule.


  1. Video-conferencing technology (Most Repeated)


Never has the carbon footprint of multi-national corporations been under such intense scrutiny. Inter-city train journeys and long-haul flights to conduct face-to- face business meetings contribute significantly to greenhouse gases and the resulting strain on the environment. The Anglo-US company Teliris has introduced a new video-conferencing technology and partnered with the Carbon Neutral Company, enabling corporate outfits to become more environmentally responsible. The innovation allows simulated face-to-face meetings to be held across continents without the time pressure or environmental burden of international travel. Previous designs have enabled video-conferencing on a point-to-point, dual-location basis. The firm’s VirtuaLive technology, however, can bring people together from up to five separate locations anywhere in the world – with unrivaled transmission quality.


  1. Film


Film is where art meets commerce. As Orson Welles said: “A painter just needs a brush and the writer just needs a pen, but the producer needs an army.” And an army needs money. A producer is just like an entrepreneur; we raise money to make films. First we need to find an original idea or a book or a play and purchase the rights, then we need money to develop that idea often a reasonably small sum. Besides, to commission a writer for the screenplay isn’t something you would want to gamble your own money on, so you find a partner. We are lucky here in the UK, as we have Film 4, BBC Films and the UK Film Council, all of these are good places to develop an idea. Producing in Britain is




very different to producing in America or even Europe because the economic dynamic is different.


  1. Intelligence comparing


Comparing the intelligence of animals of different species is difficult. How do you compare a dolphin and a horse? Psychologists have a technique for looking at intelligence that does not require the cooperation of the animal involved. The relative size of an individual’s brain is a reasonable indication of intelligence. Comparing across species is not as simple an elephant will have a larger brain than a human simple because it is a large beast, instead we use the Cephalization index, which compare the size of an animal’s brain to the size of its body. Based on the Cephalization index, the brightest animals on the planet are humans, followed by great apes, porpoises and elephants. As a general rule, animals that hunt for a living (like canines) are smarter than strict vegetarians (you don’t need much intelligence to outsmart a leaf of lettuce). Animals that live in social groups are always smarter and have large EQ’s than solitary animals.



  1. Northern spotted owls


Our analysis of the genetic structure of northern spotted owls across most of the range of the subspecies allowed us to test for genetic discontinuities and identify landscape features that influence the subspecies’ genetic structure. Although no distinct genetic breaks were found in northern spotted owls, several landscape features were important in structuring genetic variation. Dry, low elevation valleys and the high elevation Cascade and Olympic Mountains restricted gene flow, while the lower Oregon Coast Range facilitated gene flow, acting as a “genetic corridor.” The Columbia River did not act as a barrier, suggesting owls readily fly over this large river. Thus, even in taxa such as northern spotted owls with potential for long- distance dispersal, landscape features can have an important impact on gene flow and genetic structure.


  1. Push and pull factors (Most Repeated)


People move to a new region for many different reasons. The motivation for moving can come from a combination of what researchers sometimes call ‘push and pull factors’ – those that encourage people to leave a region, and those that attract people to a region. Some of the factors that motivate people to move include seeking a better climate, finding more affordable housing, looking for work or retiring from work, leaving the congestion of city living, wanting a more pleasant environment, and wanting to be near to family and friends. In reality, many complex factors and personal reasons may interact to motivate a person or family to move.


  1. Bennett (Most Repeated)


In the last years of the wheat boom, Bennett had become increasingly frustrated at how the government seemed to be encouraging an exploitative




farming binge. He went directly after the Department of Agriculture for misleading people. Farmers on the Great Plains were working against nature; he thundered in speeches.


  1. Architectural Museum


The Edo-Tokyo Tatemono En is an open-air architectural museum, but could be better thought of as a park. Thirty buildings from the 19th and early 20th centuries from all around Tokyo were restored and relocated to the space, where they can be explored by future generations to come. The buildings are a collection of houses and businesses, shops, and bathhouses, all of which would have been present on a typical middle-class street from Edoera to Showaera Tokyo. The west section is residential, with traditional thatched roof bungalows of the 19th century. Meiji-era houses are also on view, constructed in a more Western style after Japan opened its borders in 1868. The Musashino Sabo Cafe occupies the ground floor of one such house, where visitors can enjoy a cup of tea. Grand residences like that of Korekiyo Takahashi, an early 20th century politician assassinated over his controversial policies, demonstrate how the upper class lived during that time period. The east section is primarily businesses from the 1920s and ‘30s, preserved with their wares on display. Visitors are free to wander through a kitchenware ship, a florist’s, an umbrella store, a bar, a soy sauce shop, a tailor’s, a cosmetics shop, and an inn complete with an operational noodle shop.



  1. Opportunity cost (Most Repeated)


Opportunity cost incorporates the notion of scarcity: No matter what we do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade off one thing for another because resources are limited and can be used in different ways. By acquiring something, we use up resources that could have been used to acquire something else. The notion of opportunity cost allows us to measure this trade-off. Most decisions involve several alternatives. For example, if you spend an hour studying for an economics exam, you have one fewer hour to pursue other activities. To determine the opportunity cost of an activity, we look at what you consider the best of these “other” activities. For example, suppose the alternatives to studying economics are studying for a history exam or working in a job that pays $10 per hour. If you consider studying for history a better use of your time than working, then the opportunity cost of studying economics is the four extra points you could have received on a history exam if you studied history instead of economics. Alternatively, if working is the best alternative, the opportunity cost of studying economics is the $10 you could have earned instead.


  1. Primates


With their punk hairstyles and bright colors, marmosets and tamarins are among the most attractive primates on earth. These fast-moving, lightweight animals live in the rainforests of South America. Their small size makes it easy for them




to dart about the trees, catching insects and small animals such as lizards, frogs, and snails.


Marmosets have another unusual food source – they use their chisel-like incisor teeth to dig into tree bark and lap up the gummy sap that seeps out, leaving telltale, oval-shaped holes in the branches when they have finished. But as vast tracts of rainforest are cleared for plantations and cattle ranches marmosets and tamarins are in serious danger of extinction.


  1. SpaceX (Most Repeated)


SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on Friday at 1845 GMT (1445 EDT), reaching orbit 9 minutes later. The rocket lofted an uncrewed mockup of SpaceX’s Dragon capsule, which is designed to one-day carry both crew and cargo to orbit. “This has been a good day for SpaceX and a promising development for the US human spaceflight program,” said Robyn Ringuette of SpaceX in a webcast of the launch. In a teleconference with the media on Thursday, SpaceX’s CEO, Paypal co- founder Elon Musk, said he would consider the flight 100 percent successful if it reached orbit. “Even if we prove out just that the first stage functions correctly, I’d still say that’s a good day for a test,” he said. “It’s a great day if both stages work correctly.” SpaceX hopes to win a NASA contract to launch astronauts to the International Space Station using the Falcon 9. US government space shuttles, which currently make these trips, are scheduled to retire for safety reasons at the end of 2010.



  1. History books (Most Repeated)


What history books tell us about the past is not everything that happened, but what historians have selected. They cannot put in everything: choices have to be made. Choices must similarly be made about which aspects of the past should be formally taught to the next generation in the shape of school history lessons. So, for example, when a national school curriculum for England and Wales was first discussed at the end of the 1980s, the history curriculum was the subject of considerable public and media interest. Politicians argued about it; people wrote letters to the press about it; the Prime Minister of the time, Margaret Thatcher, intervened in the debate. Let us think first about the question of content. There were two main camps on this issue – those who thought the history of Britain should take pride of place, and those who favored what was referred to as ‘world history’.


  1. Professor Phoenix


Moreover, for Professor David Phoenix, the dean of the faculty of science and technology, the return of single-honours chemistry is a matter of credibility and pride. “If you say you’re a science faculty, you have to have all the core sciences, and this course will mean we attract a new supply of potential Masters and PhD students in chemistry.” Phoenix is adamant that the new course will teach solid chemistry, but he thinks that an attraction for students will be a teaching approach that differs significantly from his days as an undergraduate.




This takes real -life issues as the starting point of lectures and modules, such as how drugs are made or the science behind green issues. Out of this study, he says, students will be exposed to the same core chemistry unchanged over decades, but they will be doing it in a way that is more engaging and more likely to lead to more fundamental learning. It is an approach that symbolizes chemistry} ’s recent success story: moving with the times, while holding fast to the subject’s essential role as a building block of science and technological advance.


  1. Alchemy


To learn the speech of alchemy, an early form of chemistry in which people attempted to turn metals into gold, it helps to think back to a time when there was no science: no atomic number or weight, no periodic chart no list of elements, to the alchemists the universe was not made of leptons, bosons, gluons, and quarks. Instead, it was made of substances, and one substance-say, walnut oil – could be just as pure as another – say, silver – even though modern chemistry would say one is heterogeneous and the other homogeneous. Without knowledge of atomic structures how would it be possible to tell elements from compounds?



  1. Intractable debt


Books and articles highlighting intractable debt, poverty and development abound in both the academic and popular literature. This addition to the debate is both timely and interesting as it subsumes the economic debate to the broader social, political, environmental and institutional context of debt in developing countries.


Debt-for Development Exchanges: History and New Applications is intended for


a wide audience including: academics from a range of disciplines (including accounting and finance); non-Govemment organizations (NGOs); civil society groups; and, both debtor and creditor governments and public sector organization. Professor Ross Buckley, author and editor has developed an international profile in the area of debt relief and this book is the outcome of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery grant to explore debt-for development mechanisms that relieve debt, improve development outcomes from aid, are practically and politically attractive to creditors and contribute to regional security.


  1. Life expectancy


Life expectancy: Life expectancy at birth is one of the most widely used and internationally recognized indicators of population health. It focuses on the length of life rather than its quality, and provides a useful summary of the general health of the population. While an indicator describing how long Australians live that simultaneously takes into account quality of life would be a desirable summary measure of progress in the area, currently no such measure exists, and this is why life expectancy at birth is used as the Main Progress




Indicator here. During the decade 1999 to 2009, life expectancy at birth improved for both sexes. A girl born in


2009 could expect to reach 83.9 years of age, while a boy could expect to live to


  1. 3 years. Over the decade, boys ‘life expectancy increased slightly more than girls'(3.1 compared with 2. 1 years). This saw the gap between the sexes’ life expectancy decrease by one year to 4.6 years. In the longer term, increases in life expectancy also occurred over most of the 20th century. Unfortunately, life expectancy isn’t shared across the whole population though, being lower in Tasmania and the Northern Territory, and for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.



  1. Complementary therapies (Most Repeated)


Complementary therapies – such as those practiced by naturopaths, chiropractors, and acupuncturists – have become increasingly popular in Australia over the last few decades. Interest initially coincided with enthusiasm for alternative lifestyles, while immigration and increased contact and trade with China have also had an influence. The status of complementary therapies is being re-visited in a number of areas: legal regulation; the stances of doctors’ associations; their inclusion in medical education; and scientific research into their efficacy.


  1. Parliament (Most Repeated)


No one in Parliament would know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyright can confer so it may seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5 percent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to their families for as much as 150 years. But that ignores the truth that copyright law is a scandal, recently exacerbated by the Free Trade Agreement with the US which required the extension of copyright to 70 years after death. Is it scandalous that really valuable copyrights end up in the ownership of corporations (although Agatha Christie’s no-doubt worthy great-grandchildren are still reaping the benefits of West End success for her whodunnits and members of the Garrick Club enjoy the continuing fruits of A.A. Milne’s Christopher Robin books)? No. The scandals are that been peasants politicians have attempted to appear cultured by creating private assets which depend on an act of Parliament for their existence and by giving away much more in value than any public benefit could justify. In doing so, they have betrayed our trust.


  1. Egg-eating snakes


Egg-eating snakes are a small group of snakes whose diet consists only of eggs. Some eat only bird’s eggs, which they have to swallow whole, as the snake has no teeth. Instead, these snakes have spines that stick out from the backbone.


The spines crack the egg open as it passes through the throat.


  1. Artists




In the U.S, artists in the mid-1950s began to create a bridge to Pop. Strongly influenced by Dada and its emphasis on appropriation and everyday objects, artists increasingly worked with college, consumer products, and a healthy dose of irony. Jasper Johns reimagined iconic imagery like the American flag Robert Rauschenberg employed silk-screen printings and found objects and Larry Rivers used images of mass-produced goods. All three are considered American forerunners of Pop.


  1. Spanish speakers


If after years of Spanish classes, some people still find it impossible to understand some native speakers, they should not worry. This does not necessarily mean the lessons were wasted. Millions of Spanish speakers use neither standard Latin American Spanish nor Castilian, which predominate in US schools. The confusion is partly political — the Spanish — speaking world is very diverse. Spanish is the language of 19 separate countries and Puerto Rico. This means that there is no one standard dialect. The most common Spanish dialect taught in the US is standard Latin American. It is sometimes called “Highland” Spanish since it is generally spoken in the mountainous areas of Latin America. While each country retains its own accents and has some unique vocabulary, residents of countries such as Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia generally speak Latin American Spanish, especially in urban centers. This dialect is noted for its pronunciation of each letter and its strong “r” sounds. This Spanish was spoken in Spain in the sixteenth centuries and was brought to the Americans by the early colonists. However, the Spanish of Madrid and northern Spain, called Castilian, developed characteristics that never reached the New World. These include the pronunciation of “ci” and “ce” as “th”. In Madrid, “gracias” (thank you) becomes “gratheas” (as opposed to “gras- see-as” in Latin America). Another difference is the use of the word “vosotros” (you all, or you guys) as the informal form of “ustedes” in Spain. Castilian sounds to Latin Americans much like British English sounds to US residents.



  1. New Zealand


Twelve hundred miles east of Australia lay the islands of New Zealand. Long before they were discovered by Europeans, a Polynesian race of warriors, the Maoris, had sailed across the Pacific from the northeast and established a civilization notable for the brilliance of its art and the strength of its military force. When Captain Cook visited these islands towards the end of the 18th century, he estimated that the population numbered about a hundred thousand.




What is a country, and how is a country defined? When people ask how many countries there are in the world, they expect a simple answer. After all, we’ve explored the whole planet; we have international travel, satellite navigation and plenty of global organizations like the United Nations, so we should really know how many countries there are! However, the answer to the question varies according to whom you ask. Most people say there are 192 countries, but




others point out that there could be more like 260 of them. So why isn’t there a straightforward answer? The problem arises because there isn’t a universally agreed definition of ‘country’ and because, for political reasons, some countries find it convenient to recognize or not recognize other countries.


  1. Genetically modified foods


Genetically modified foods provide no direct benefit to consumers; the food is not noticeably better or cheaper. The greater benefit proponents argue, is that genetic engineering will play a crucial role in feeding the world’s burgeoning population. Opponents disagree, asserting that the world already grows more food per person than ever before – more, even than we can consume.







Question1 (Most Repeated)


Colorful poison frogs in the Amazon owe their great [diversity] to ancestors that leapt into the region from the Andes Mountains several times during the last 10 million years, a new study from The University of Texas at Austin suggests.


This is the first study to show that the Andes have been a [major] source of diversity for the Amazon basin, one of the largest reservoirs of [biological] diversity on Earth. The finding runs [counter] to the idea that Amazonian diversity is the result of evolution only within the tropical forest itself.





Children who skip school are increasingly on family holidays, government figures [revealed] today. Fewer children played truant this spring term compared with the spring term last year. Children missed 3 unauthorized days of school last term, compared with 3.7 days of school in the same [period] last year. But a [hardcore ] group of truants – 6% of the school population – who account for more than three-quarters of all those on unauthorized absence, are more likely to be on a family holiday than they were in the same period last


year. Some 1.2% of all absence was for family holidays not agreed by their school last term, [compared] with 0.9% for the same term last year.




Symbiosis is a general term for [interspecific] interactions in which two species live together in a long-term, [intimate] association. In everyday life, we sometimes use the term symbiosis to mean a relationship that [benefits] both parties. However, in ecologist-speak, symbiosis is a broader concept and can include close, lasting relationships with a variety of positive or negative effects on the participants.


Question4 (Most Repeated)


Over the last ten thousand years there seem to have been two separate and conflicting building sentiments throughout the history of towns and cities. One is the desire to start


again, for a variety of reasons: an earthquake or a tidal wave may have demolished the settlement, or fire [destroyed] it, or the new city [marks] a new political beginning.


The other can be likened to the effect of a magnet: [established] settlements attract people, who tend to come whether or not there is any planning for their arrival. The clash between these two sentiments is evident in every established city [unless] its development has been almost completely [accidental ] or is lost in history. Incidentally, many settlements have been planned from the beginning but, for a variety of reasons, no settlement followed the plan. A good




example is Currowan, on the Clyde River in New South Wales, which was


[surveyed] in the second half of the 19th century, in expectation that people would come to establish agriculture and a small port. But no one came.


Question5 (Most Repeated)


Remember when universities were bursting at the seams with students sitting in the aisles, balancing books on their knees? No more, it seems. E-learning is as likely to stand for empty lecture theatres as for the internet [revolution], which has greatly increased the [volume] and range of course materials available online in the past five years.


The [temptation] now is to simply think, ‘Everything will be online so I don’t need to go to class’,” said Dr Kerri -Lee Krause, of the Centre for the Study of Higher Education at the University of Melbourne. The nation’s universities are in the process of opening the doors for the new academic year and, while classes are generally well [attended] for the early weeks, it often does not last.



“There is concern at the university level about student attendance [dropping] and why students are not coming to lectures.” Dr Krause said. But lecturers’ pride – and [fierce] competition among universities for students – mean few are willing to acknowledge publicly how poorly attended many classes are.




The article subjects the assumptions and prescriptions of the ‘Corporate Culture’ literature to critical scrutiny, the body of the article is [devoted] to teasing out the distinctive basis of


its appeal compared with earlier management [theory]. It is seen to build upon earlier efforts (e.g. ‘theory Y’) to constitute a self-disciplining form of employee subjectivity by asserting that ‘practical autonomy’ is [conditional] upon the development of a strong corporate culture.


The paper illuminates the dark side of this project by drawing attention to the subjugating and totalitarian [implications] of its excellence quality prescriptions. To this end, [parallels] are drawn with the philosophy of control favored by the Party in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty- Four. Specifically, the paper critiques the ‘double think’ contention that autonomy can be realized in mono cultural conditions that systematically [constrain] opportunities to wrestle with competing values standpoints and their associated life projects.


Question7 (Most Repeated)


In geologic terms, a plate is a large, rigid slab of solid rock. The word tectonics comes from the Greek [root] “to build.” Putting these two words together, we get the term plate tectonics, which [refers] to how the Earth’s surface is built of plates. The theory of plate tectonics [states] that the Earth’s outermost layer is [fragmented] into a dozen or more large and small plates that are moving [relative] to one another.




Question8 (Most Repeated)



Music is an important part of our lives. We connect and interact with it daily and use it as a way of projecting our self-identities to the people around us. The music we enjoy – whether it’s country or classical, rock n’ roll or rap – [reflects] who we are.


But where did music, at its core, first come from? It’s a puzzling question that may not have a definitive answer. One [leading] researcher, however, has proposed that the key to understanding the origin of music is nestled snugly in the loving bond between mother and child.


In a lecture at the University of Melbourne, Richard Parncutt, an Australian-born professor of systematic musicology, endorsed the idea that music originally spawned from ‘motherese’ – the playful voices mothers [adopt] when speaking to infants and toddlers.



As the theory goes, increased human brain sizes caused by evolutionary changes occurring between one and 2,000,000 years ago resulted in earlier births, more fragile infants and a [critical] need for stronger relationships between mothers and their newborn babies.


According to Parncutt, who is based at the University of Graz in Austria, ‘motherese’ arose as a way to strengthen this maternal bond and to help [ensure] an infant’s survival.




No two siblings are the same, not even [identical] twins. Parents often


[puzzle] about why their children are so different from one another. They’ll say, ‘I [brought] them l up all the same.’ They forget that what [determines] our behaviour isn’t what happens to us but how we interpret what happens to us, and no two people ever see anything in exactly the same way. However, it is possible to [group] sibling relationships under three [broad] headings – close, distant, and anxious attachment.


Question10 (Most Repeated)


Barrie Finning’s, a professor at Monash University’s college of pharmacy in Melbourne, and PhD student Anita Schneider, recently [tested] a new wrinkle cure. Twice daily, 20 male and female volunteers applied a liquid containing Myoxinol, a patented [extract] of okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed, to one side of their faces. On the other side they applied a similar liquid without Myoxinol. Every week for a month their wrinkles were tested by self- assessment, photography and the size of depressions made in silicon moulds. The results were [impressive]. After a month the [depth] and number of wrinkles on the Myoxinol- treated side were reduced by approximately 27 per cent.


But Finnin’s research, commissioned by a cosmetics company, is unlikely to be published in a scientific journal. It’s hard to even find studies that show the




active ingredients in cosmetics [penetrate] the skin, let alone more comprehensive research on their effects.


Even when [rigorous] studies are commissioned, companies usually control whether the work is published in the traditional scientific literature.




Agrarian parties are political parties chiefly [representing ] the interests of peasants or, more broadly, the rural sector of society. The [extent] to which they are important, or whether they even exist, depends mainly on two factors. One, obviously, is the size of an identifiable peasantry, or the size of the rural relative to the urban population. The other is a matter of social [integration]: for agrarian parties to be important, the representation of countryside or peasantry must not be integrated with the other [major] sections of society. Thus a country might possess a sizable rural population but have an economic system in which the interests of the voters were predominantly related to their incomes, not to their [occupations] or location.





People modify cultural ideas in their minds, and sometimes they pass on the modified versions. Inevitably, there are unintentional modifications as well, partly because of [straightforward] error, and partly because explicit ideas are hard to [convey] accurately: there is no way to download them directly from one brain to another like computer programs. Even native speakers of a language will not give identical definitions of [every ] word. So it can be only rarely, if ever, that two people hold [precisely] the same cultural idea in their minds. That is why, when the founder of a political or philosophical movement or a religion dies, or even before, schisms typically happen. The movement’s most devoted followers are often shocked to [discover] that they disagree about what its doctrines really are.




Look at the recent-Most Respected Companies survey by the Financial Times. Who are the most respected companies and business leaders at the [current] time? Rather predictably, they are Jack Welch and General Electric, and Bill Gates, and Microsoft. Neither have achieved their world class status [through] playing nice. Welch is still remembered for the brutal downsizing he led his business through and for the environmental pollution incidents and prosecutions. Microsoft one of the [highest] profile cases of bullying market dominance of recent times – and Gates has been able to achieve financial status where he can choose to give lots of money away by being ruthless in business.




Timing is important for revision. Have you [noticed] that during the school day you get times when you just don’t care any longer? I don’t mean the lessons you don’t like, but the ones you find usually find OK, but on some [occasions] you




just can’t be bothered with it. You may have other things on your mind, be tired, restless, or looking forward to what comes next. Whatever the reason, that particular lesson doesn’t get 100 percent [effort] from you. The same is true of revision. Your mental and physical [attitudes] are important. If you try to revise when you are tired or totally occupied with something else, your revision will be [inefficient] and just about worthless. If you approach it feeling fresh, alert and happy, it will be so much easier and you will learn more, faster. However, if you make no plans and just [slip] in a little bit of revision when you feel like it, you probably won’t do much revision! You need a revision timetable so you don’t keep putting it off.





Economic dimension of globalization [involves] the international financial institutions i.e. the IMF & WB. Stabilization and adjustment are sponsored by the two [respectively] and are rooted in the ideology of free market. At the other end of the spectrum, protesters see globalization in a very different light than the treasury secretary of the United States, or the finance or trade ministers of most of the advanced industrial countries. The difference in [views] is so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the policymakers talking about the same [phenomenon ]? Are they looking at the same data? Are the visions of those in [power] are so clouded by special and particular interests?




In search of lessons to [apply] in our own careers, we often try to emulate what


effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves


that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more


[productive], though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders


[think]. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author


discovered that most are [integrative] thinkers -that is, they can hold in their


heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that


contains elements of [each] but is superior to both.


Question17 (Most Repeated)


Charles Darwin knew intuitively that tropical forests were places of


[tremendous ] intricacy and energy. He and his cohort of scientific naturalists were awed by the beauty of the Neotropics, where they collected tens of thousands of [species] new to science. But they couldn’t have guessed at the complete contents of the rain forest, and they had no idea of its [value] to humankind.




It’s that time again: exams looming, essays or reports outstanding and you wonder where the year’s gone already. You start [wondering] how you going to cope with it all. Fear and [anxiety] are insidious things and they can take hold if you don’t do something about them. This amounts to a bad type of stress which




is just what you don’t need, especially at this time of year. This is not to say that all anxiety is bad, however. A limited amount of anxiety can help you to be more motivated and more [purposeful]. It can help you to plan your work and to think more clearly and [logically] about it. In other words, it can help you to stay on top of things. So how can you limit your stress and stay in control? There are a number of practical things you can do, even at this late stage before the exams. Don’t give up hope, even if you start to feel snowballed when you think of the all the work you have to do. First of all, it’s essential to get yourself organized. Sit down at your desk and make a start on writing down all the things you have to do to [prepare] for the exams. If you feel there’s too much to do, then work out priorities for your work. Outstanding assignments should take priority but make sure to leave time for [revision] of your lecture notes.



Question19 (Most Repeated)


For many first-year students, the University may be their first experience living away from home for an [extended] period. It is a [definite ] break from home. In my point of view, this is the best thing that you can do. I know you have to fend for yourself, cook and clean after yourself, basically look after yourself without your parents but the truth is some time in your life you are going to have to part with lovely Mummy and Daddy. But they are only just a phone call away, and it is really good to have some QUALITY TIME without them. The first few weeks can be a [lonely] period. There may be concerns about forming the friendship.


When new students look around, it may seem that everyone else is self-confident and [socially] successful! The reality is that everyone has the same concerns.


Increased personal freedom can feel both wonderful and [frightening]. Students can come and go as they choose with no one to hassle them. The strange environment with new kinds of procedures and new people can create the sense of being on an emotional roller coaster. This is normal and to be expected. You meet so many more people in the halls


than if you stayed at home. The main points about living away from home are NO PARENTS! You don’t have to tell them where you’re going, who you’re going with, what time you’ll be coming, why you’re going etc. etc.


You learn various social skills you have to get along with your roommates Living with them can present special, sometimes intense, problems. Negotiating respect of personal property, personal space, sleep, and relaxation needs, can be a complex task. The complexity increases when roommates are of different [backgrounds] with very different values. It is unrealistic to expect that roommates will be best friends. Meaningful, new relationships should not be expected to develop overnight. It took a great deal of time to develop intimacy in high school friendships the same will be true of intimacy in university friendships.







Alaska’s the Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to [shipwrecks]. They


have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran


[aground] near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic


[archipelago] in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the


ship’s infestation [scurried] ashore and made itself at home. Since then, there


have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.


Question21 (Most Repeated)


Australia and New Zealand have many common links. Both countries were recently settled by Europeans, are predominantly English speaking and in that sense, share a common cultural [heritage ]. Although in close proximity to one another, both countries are geographically isolated and have small populations by world [standards]. They have similar histories and enjoy close relations on many fronts. In terms of population [characteristics], Australia and New Zealand have much in common. Both countries have minority indigenous populations, and during the latter half of the 20th century have seen a steady stream of migrants from a variety of regions throughout the world. Both countries have [experienced] similar declines in fertility since the high levels recorded during the baby boom, and alongside this have enjoyed the benefits of continually improving life expectancy. One consequence of these trends is that both countries are faced with an ageing population, and the [associated] challenge of providing appropriate care and support for this growing group within the community.





Fans of biographical criticism have a luxurious source in the works of Hans Christian Andersen. Like Lewis Carroll (and, to a lesser extent, Kenneth Grahame), Andersen was near- pathologically uncomfortable in the company of adults. Of course, all three had to work and [interact] with adults, but all three really related well to children and their simpler worlds. Andersen, for a time, ran a puppet theatre and was incredibly popular with children, and, of course, he wrote an impressive body of fairy tales which have been produced in thousands of editions since the 19th century.


Most everyone has read or at least knows the titles of many of Andersen’s works: “The Ugly Duckling,” “The Emperor’s New Clothes,” “The Nightingale,” “The Little Mermaid,” “The Match Girl,” and many others. Though, as with most folk and fairy tales, they [strike] adult re-readers much differently than they do young first-time readers.


Charming tales of ducks who feel [awkward] because they don’t fit in, only to exult in the discovery that they are majestic swans, gives child readers clearly-identifiable messages: don’t tease people because they’re different; don’t fret about your being different because someday you’ll discover what special [gifts] you have.




A closer, deeper look at many of Andersen’s tales (including “The Ugly Duckling,” which is not on our reading list), reveals a darker, harder, more [painful] thread. People are often cruel and unfeeling, love is torturous–in general, the things of the material world cause suffering. There is often a happy ending, but it’s not conventionally happy. Characters are rewarded, but only after they manage (often through death) to transcend the rigors of the mortal world.




The exponential growth of the internet was [heralded], in the 1990s, as revolutionizing the production and [dissemination] of information. Some people saw the internet as a means of [democratizing] access to knowledge. For people [concerned] with African development, it seemed to offer the possibility of [leapfrogging] over the technology gap that separates Africa from advanced industrialized countries.



Question24 (Most Repeated)


Roads of rails called Wagonways were being used in Germany as [early] as 1550. These [primitive ] railed roads consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads. Wagonways were the beginnings of modern railroads.


By 1776, iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts. Wagonways evolved into Tramways and spread throughout Europe. Horses still provided all the pulling power. In 1789, an English man, William Jessup designed the first wagons with [flanged] wheels. The flange was a groove that allowed the wheels to grip the rail better; this was an important design that carried over to later locomotives.


Question25 (Most Repeated)


For a start, we need to change our [concept] of ‘retirement’, and we need to change mind- sets arising from earlier government policy which, in the face of high unemployment levels, encouraged mature workers to take early retirement.


Today, government encourages them to [delay] their retirement. We now need


to think of retirement as a phased process, where mature age workers


[gradually] reduce their hours, and where they have considerable flexibility in


how they combine their work and non-work time.


We also need to recognize the broader change that is occurring in how people


work, learn, and live. Increasingly we are moving away from a linear relationship


between education, training, work, and retirement, as people move in and out of


jobs, careers, caregiving, study, and leisure. Employers of choice remove the


[barriers] between the different segments of people’s lives, by creating flexible


conditions of work and a range of leave entitlements.


They take an individualised approach to workforce planning and development so that the needs of employers and employees can be met [simultaneously]. This




approach supports the different transitions that occur across the life course – for example, school to work, becoming a parent, becoming responsible for the care of older relatives, and moving from work to retirement.


Question26 (Most Repeated)


“Sustainable job growth” is a motto for many governments, especially in the aftermath of a recession. The problem of ‘job quality’ is less often addressed and may be seen as [hindering] job growth.


The sentiment ‘any job is better than no job’ may resonate with governments as well as people, especially in the context of high unemployment. However, if the [balance] between improving the quality of [existing] jobs and creatingnew jobs becomes greatly imbalanced towards the latter, this could increase work stress among [current] and future workers, which in turn has health, economic and social costs. A recent British Academy Policy Centre Report on Stress at Work highlights these [concerns], and describes the context, determinants and consequences of work-related stress in Britain.



Question27 (Most Repeated)


In reality, however, the causes of truancy and non-attendance are diverse and [multifaceted]. There are as many causes of non-attendance as there are non-attenders. Each child has his/her own [unique] story, and whilst there may often be certain identifiable factors in common, each non-attending child demands and [deserves] an individual response, tailored to meet his/her individual needs. This applies [equally] to the 14-year-old who fails to attend school because a parent is terminally ill, the overweight 11 -year-old who fails to attend because he/she is [embarrassed] about changing for PE in front of peers, the 15-year-old who is ‘bored’ by lessons, and to the seven-year-old who is teased in the playground because he/she does not wear the latest designer-label clothes.




Stress that tense feeling often connected to have too [much] to do, too many bills to pay and not enough time or money is a common emotion that knows few [borders]. About three fourths of people in the US, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy say they [experience] stress on a daily basis, according to [polling]. The anxious feelings are even more intense during the holidays. Germans feel stress more intensely than those in other countries polled. People in the US cited financial pressure as the top worry.




Walt Disney World has become a pilgrimage site partly because of the luminosity of its cross-cultural and marketing and partly because its utopian aspects appeal [powerfully] to real needs in the capitalist [society]. Disney’s marketing is unique because it captured the [symbolic] essence of childhood but the company has gained access to all public communication media. Movies,




television shows, comic books, dolls, apparels, and educational film strips all point to the parks and each other.




Arbitration is a method of conflict resolution which, with more or less formalized


mechanisms, occurs in many political and legal spheres. There are two main


[characteristics] to arbitration. The first is that it is a voluntary process under


which two parties in conflict agree between themselves to be [bound] by the


judgment of a third party which has no other authority over them; the


judgment, however, is not legally binding. The second is that there is usually no


clear body of [law] or set of rules that must apply; the arbitrator is free, subject



to any prior agreement with the conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis


of justice is deemed [suitable].




Genius, in the popular conception, is inextricably tied up with precocity doing something truly creative, we’re inclined to think, requires the freshness and energy of youth. Orson Welles made his masterpiece Citizen Kane, at twenty-five. Herman Melville wrote a book a year through his late twenties, culminating at age thirty-two, with Moby-Dick. Mozart wrote his breakthrough Piano Concerto No. 9 in E- Flat-Major at the age of twenty- one. In some creative forms, like lyric poetry, the [importance] of precocity has hardened into an iron law. How old was T.S. Eliot when he wrote The Love Song of Alfred Prufrock (I grow old … I grow old)? Twenty-three. Poets peak young, the creativity researcher James Kaufman maintains, the author of Flow agrees: “The most creative lyric verse is believed to be that written by the young.” According to the Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner, a leading [authority] on creativity, “Lyric poetry is a [domain] where [talent] is discovered early, burns brightly, and then peters out at an early age.”




Want to know what will make you happy? Then ask a total stranger or so says a new study from Harvard University, which shows that another person’s experience is often more [informative] than your own best guess. The study, which appears in the current issue of Science, was led by Daniel Gilbert, professor of psychology at Harvard and author of the 2007 bestseller stumbling on Happiness, along with Matthew Killingsworth and Rebecca Eyre, also of Harvard, and


Timothy Wilson of the University of Virginia. If you want to know how much you will enjoy an experience, you are better off knowing how much someone else enjoyed it than knowing anything about the experience itself says Gilbert. “Rather than closing our eyes and [imagining ] the future, we should examine the experience of those who have been there.




Previous research in psychology, neuroscience, and behavioral economics has shown that people have difficulty predicting what they will like and how much they will like it, which [leads] them to make a wide variety of poor decisions. Interventions aimed at [improving] the accuracy with which people imagine future events have been generally unsuccessful.




This summer, 41 UBC alumni and friends participated in expeditions to the Canadian Arctic and the legendary Northwest Passage. Presentations, conversations and learning accompanied their exploration of the great outdoors [aboard] the Russian-flagged.



Akademik Ioffe, designed and built in Finland as a scientific research vessel in 1989. Her bridge was open to passengers virtually 24 hours a day. Experts on board presented on topics including climate change, wildlife, Inuit culture and history, and early European explorers. UBC professor Michael Byers presented on the issue of Arctic sovereignty, a [growing] cause of debate as ice melts, new shipping routes open, and natural resources become [accessible].


Recommended pre-trip reading was late UBC alumnus Pierre Bertons book, The Arctic Grail.




Before effective anaesthetics, surgery was very crude and very painful. Before 1800, alcohol and opium had [little] success in easing pain during operations. Laughing gas was used in 1844 in dentistry in the USA, but failed to ease all pain and patients [remained]


conscious. Ether (used from 1846) made patients totally unconscious and lasted a long time. However, it could make patients cough during operations and sick afterwards. It was highly [flammable ] and was transported in heavy glass bottles. Chloroform (used from 1847) was very effective with few side effects. However, it was difficult to get the dose right and could kill some people because of the effect on their heart. An inhaler helped to [regulate] the dosage.




The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. Due to its unique international character, and the powers vested in its founding Charter, the organization can take [action] on a wide range of issues and provide a forum for its 193 Member States to [express] their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees. The work of the United Nations reaches every [corner] of the globe. Although best known for peacekeeping, peacebuilding, conflict [prevention], and humanitarian assistance, there are many other ways the United Nations and its system (specialized agencies, funds, and programmes) affect our lives and make the world a better place.


Question36 (Most Repeated)




Volcanoes blast more than 100 million tons of carbon dioxide into the


atmosphere every year but the gas is usually [harmless]. When a volcano


erupts, carbon dioxide spreads out into the atmosphere and isn’t


[concentrated] in one spot. But sometimes the gas gets trapped


[underground] under enormous pressure. If it escapes to the surface in a


dense [cloud], it can push out oxygen-rich air and become deadly.


Question37 (Most Repeated)


Down the road, the study authors write, a better understanding of shark’s


[personalities] may help scientists learn more about what drives their choice of things like prey and [habitat]. Some sharks are shy, and some are outgoing some are [adventurous], and some prefer to stick close to what they know, information that could prove useful in making sense of larger species-wide behavior [patterns].







  1. Lindbergh (Most Repeated)


  • After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri.


  • He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH-4 biplane to Springfield, Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.


  • During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances.


  • After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria’s airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.


  1. SEPAHUA (Most Repeated)


  • SEPAHUA, a ramshackle town on the edge of Peru’s Amazon jungle, nestles in a pocket on the map where a river of the same name flows into the Urubamba.
  • That pocket denotes a tiny patch of legally loggable land sandwiched between four natural reserves, all rich in mahogany and accessible from the town. “Boundaries are on maps,” says a local logger, “maps are only in Lima,” the capital.


  • In 2001 the government, egged on by WWF, a green group, tried to regulate logging in the relatively small part of the Peruvian Amazon where this is allowed.


  • It abolished the previous system of annual contracts.


  • Instead, it auctioned 40-year concessions to areas ruled off on a map, with the right to log 5% of the area each year. The aim was to encourage strict management plans and sustainable extraction.


  1. Bankrupt


  • In MontCat have acquired older mines respond to demands to pay for cleanup in either of two ways.


  • Especially if the company is small, its owners may declare the company bankrupt, in some cases conceal its assets, and transfer their business efforts to other companies or to new companies that do not bear responsibility for cleanup at the old mine.


  • If the company is so large that it cannot claim that it would be bankrupted by cleanup costs (as in the case of ARCO that I shall discuss below), the company instead denies its responsibility or else seeks to minimize the costs.


  • In either case, either the mine site or areas downstream of it remain toxic, thereby endangering people, or else the U.S. federal government and the




  • Montana state government (hence ultimately all taxpayers) pay for the cleanup through the federal Superfund and a corresponding Montana state fund.


  1. Foreign aid (Most Repeated)


  • But beginning in the 1990s, foreign aid had begun to slowly improve.


  • Scrutiny by the news media shamed many developed countries into curbing their bad practices.


  • Today, the projects of organizations like the World Bank are meticulously inspected by watchdog groups.


  • Although the system is far from perfect, it is certainly more transparent than it was when foreign aid routinely helped ruthless dictators stay in power.


  1. Sustainable development (Most Repeated)


  • Whatever happened to the idea of progress and a better future? I still believe in both.


  • The Brundtland Report, our Common Future (1987) defines sustainable development as” development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


  • Implicit in this definition is the idea that the old pattern of development could not be systained. Is this true?
  • Development in the past was driven by growth and innovation. It led to new technologies and huge improvements in living standards.


  • To assume that we know what the circumstances or needs of future generations will be is mistaken and inevitably leads to the debilitating sense that we are living on borrowed time.


  1. Computer Science


  • Why Applied Computer Science?


  • Our Applied Computer Science major is all about giving you the skills to solve computer- related problems.


  • With rapid advances in technology and new applications being developed constantly, it is hard to say what those problems will be.


  • One thing is for sure, though, it is going to be exciting finding out.


  1. Copernicanism


  • The expanding influence of Copernicanism through the seventeenth century transformed not only the natural philosophic leanings of astronomers but also the store of conceptual material accessible to writers of fiction.


  • During this period of scientific revolution, a new literary genre arose, namely that of the scientific cosmic voyage.




  • Scientists and writers alike constructed fantastical tales in which fictional characters’ journey to the moon, sun, and planets.


  • In so doing, they discover that these once remote worlds are themselves earth-like in character.


  • Descriptions of these planetary bodies as terrestrial in kind demonstrate the seventeenth- century intellectual shift from the Aristotelian to the Copernican framework.


  1. Palaus


  • Palaus and his colleagues wanted to see if any trends had emerged from the research to date concerning how video games affect the structure and activity of our brains.
  • They collected the results from 116 scientific studies, 22 of which looked at structural changes in the brain and 100 of which looked at changes in brain functionality and or behavior.


  • The studies show that playing video games can change how our brains perform, and even their structure.


  • For example, playing video games affects our attention, and some studies found that gamers show improvements in several types of attention, such as sustained attention or selective attention.


  1. Science and technology (Most Repeated)


  • It is a truism to say that in 21st century society science and technology are important.


  • Human existence in the developed world is entirely dependent on some fairly recent developments in science and technology.


  • Whether this is good or bad is, of course, up for argument.


  • But the fact that science underlies our lives, our health, our work, our communications, our entertainment and our transport is undeniable.


  1. Poor students


  • England’s most selective universities must do more to attract teenagers from disadvantaged backgrounds if they want to charge higher tuition fees, the country’s fair access watchdog has warned.


  • Professor Les Ebdon, director of Fair Access to Higher Education, has said universities can no longer make excuses about the number of poorer students they take on.


  • In a statement issued yesterday, Prof Ebson dismissed the argument from the country’s most selective universities, which claim that young people from poorer backgrounds generally secure worse grades.
  • Such defenses from the country’s most elite universities “do not hold water”, Prof Ebdon said, as he urged the institutions to do more to widen their intakes.




  1. Easier said than Done



  • In ‘Easier Said than Done’, we set out some of the reasons why we might find it hard to live in a healthy way, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep, and checking for early warning symptoms.


  • Perhaps most importantly, we look to the field of behavioral science for strategies that people can use to overcome those hurdles and to initiate lifestyle changes.
  • These include Commitment devices, where we make it very unattractive to not follow through on an intention.


  • Changing existing behavior can be a difficult task, but with the help of these strategies new behaviors can become habitual, facilitating a long-term sustained healthy lifestyle


  1. American housing


  • Americans bought far fewer new homes last month, according to government data released on Wednesday that showed sales fell at the fastest rate in 13 years.


  • House prices also eased as the median cost of a new home fell 2.1 percent from a year ago to $239,800.


  • The pace of sales fell to 937,000 from a rate of 1.1m the previous month, while inventories of unsold homes stood at 537,000.


  • The biggest drop was in the west, where sales fell 37 percent to an annual rate of 166,000.


  • Stephen Stanley, chief economist at RBS Greenwich Capital, said: “Builders will probably have to continue to work off bloated stocks of finished homes for most of 2007.”


  • However, the Federal Reserve views the overhang of unsold homes as a cause for concern but remains curiously.


  1. Repeat photography project


  • In 1997 Lisa McKeon, a physical scientist with the United States Geological Survey who works in the park, came across a pair of historic photographs depicting the glaciers she studies.
  • Over the years, countless photos of the majestic park have been snapped, and many of those have become part of the park’s official archive, spanning over a century.


  • It was a lightbulb moment: Why not use the old photos to create a timeline of the morphing glaciers, and add new photos every year?


  • The Repeat Photography Project was born


  1. Easier said than done


  • Many of us know what we should be doing to live healthily, yet many of us struggle to actually actively manage our health.




  • In ‘Easier Said than Done’, we set out some of the reasons why we might find it hard to live in a healthy way, exercising, eating well, getting adequate sleep, and checking for early warning symptoms.
  • Perhaps most importantly, we look to the field of behavioral science for strategies that people can use to overcome those hurdles and to initiate lifestyle changes.


  • Changing existing behavior can be a difficult task, but with the help of these strategies new behaviors can become habitual, facilitating a long-term sustained healthy lifestyle.


  1. Restaurant


  • The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure.
  • Once restaurants are established in such environments, they can do little about their location.


  • All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises.


  • Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.


  1. Railway


  • Ever since the completion of the Great Western Railway, in the 1840s, intrigue has swirled around the Box Tunnel, a long, steep bypass near Bath, England.


  • The question was this: did the railway’s creator, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, really have the tunnel carved in such a way that when the sun rose on his birthday—April 9th—it would be flooded with light?


  • This past Sunday, April 9th, the railway’s current engineers decided to test the rumor once and for all. They weren’t disappointed.


  • “When you look from the east portal, the cutting provides a lovely V-shape,” communications manager Paul Gentleman told the Guardian.
  • While the west side’s view wasn’t quite so impressive, the engineers generously chalked that up to centuries of dirt and grime.


  1. Botanical conservation


  • The BCGI (Botanical Gardens Conservation International) has revealed that more than 60,000 species of trees are available globally. The organization compiled the list of trees on the basis of data gathered from its network of 500 members organizations.


  • The researchers claim to have collected information over a period of two years from sources including over 500 published contents and 80 experts in the BCGI’s network.


  • BGCI in collaboration with the International Union for Conservation of nature identified 60,065 tree species currently living on earth.


  • Of that number, more than half were found to only occur in a single country, which could suggest an increased vulnerability to threats, said the authors of the database.




  1. Sloths and birds



  • A Technology for recording brainwaves in wild animals awakens a more sophisticated understanding of the function of sleep. Studies using miniature sleep recording devices known as neurologgers have already challenged several long-held beliefs about the sleeping habits of sloths and birds.


  • Three toed sloths, for example, sleep far less than once thought.


  • And male sandpipers can go almost entirely without sleep during the three-week breeding season, helping maximize success at that time.
  • Now John Lesku of La Trobe University in Melbourne and his colleagues are using neurologgers to investigate whether light pollution interferes with the circadian rhythms of tammar wallabies in Australia.


  1. Rugby


  • Citizens commonly identify with their nation in the context of major sporting events: imagining the nation is easier when there is a national team playing another nation (Hobsbawm, 1990).


  • Rugby in Wales is a particularly strong example of this phenomenon, being perhaps the main thing that unites people in Wales.
  • In many ways rugby in Wales defines what Wales is and what people in Wales share.


  • From outside Wales, too, it is the rugby that commonly defines the nation


– with the sport providing both widespread interest and one of the few positive associations of outsiders’ perceptions of Wales.


  1. Reading


  • Humans appear to be the only species which is able to translate their communication into another medium, and in this case the medium provides a semi-durable record of the elements of the communication.
  • So reading is a very special ability that we have.


  • Reading also is special because, unlike language, most children have to be taught to read, write and spell.


  • So though we may be predisposed to being able to read and usually have the abilities necessary to master reading, it is something that most of us only accomplish through the direct help of others.


  1. Earthquake (Most Repeated)


  • At 5:12 a.m. on April 18, 1906, the people of San Francisco were awakened by an earthquake that would devastate the city.
  • The main temblor, having a 7.7–7.9 magnitude, lasted about one minute and was the result of the rupturing of the northernmost 296 miles of the 800-mile San Andreas fault.
  • But when calculating destruction, the earthquake took second place to the great fire that followed.




  • The fire, lasting four days, most likely started with broken gas lines (and, in some cases, was helped along by people hoping to collect insurance for their property—they were covered for fire, but not earthquake, damage).


  1. Elephants


  • Earlier this year, researchers from Duke University went to Gabon to monitor that country’s dwindling elephant population. They took along three drones, which they planned to use to count the elephants, follow their herds, and map their migrations.


  • Only things didn’t exactly go as planned.


  • The elephants noticed the drones, which hovered anywhere from 25 feet to 300 feet above them. And it wasn’t just that the elephants noticed them; in many cases, the elephants were clearly agitated. Some of them took off running. In at least one case, an elephant used her trunk to hurl mud in the drone’s direction. “She had her baby with her,55 said Missy Cummings, the director of Duke’s Robotics Lab.


  • The elephants reacted so strongly, the researchers believe, because drones, it turns out, sound a lot like bees. And elephants do not like bees. At all.


  1. Jean Briggs


  • Jean Briggs has worked with the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic and has described how, within these communities, growing up is largely seen as a process of acquiring thought, reason and understanding (known in Inuit as ihuma).


  • Young children don’t possess these qualities and are easily angered, cry frequently and are incapable of understanding the external difficulties facing the community, such as shortages of food.


  • Because they can’t be reasoned with, and don’t understand, parents treat them with a great deal of tolerance and leniency.


  • It’s only when they are older and begin to acquire thought that parents attempt to teach them or discipline them.


  1. New Ventures (Most Repeated)


  • New Ventures is a program that helps entrepreneurs in some of the world’s most dynamic, emerging economies– Brazil, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia and Mexico.


  • We have facilitated more than $203 million in investment, and worked with 250 innovative businesses whose goods and services produce clear, measurable environmental benefits, such as clean energy, efficient water use, and sustainable agriculture.


  • Often they also address the challenges experienced by the world’s poor.


  • For example, one of the companies we work with in China, called Ecostar, refurbishes copy machines from the United States and re-sells or leases them for 20 percent less than a branded photocopier.




  1. Ecological footprint



  • Ecological footprint accounting measures the demand on and supply of nature.


  • On the demand side, the ecological footprint measures the ecological assets that a given population requires to produce the natural resources it consumes.


  • It tracks the use of six categories of productive surface areas; cropland, grazing land, fishing grounds, built-up land, forest area, and carbon demand on land.
  • On the supply side, a city, state or nation’s bio-capacity represents the productivity of its ecological assets.
  • Both the ecological footprint and bio-capacity are expressed in global hectares— globally comparable, standardized hectares with world average productivity.


  1. Tectonic plate


  • The mantle makes up 84 percent of Earth’s volume, and though it’s solid rock, over the course of millions of years, it behaves like a liquid.


  • This leads the tectonic plates on top to slowly jostle one another.


  • The buildup and sudden release of friction from this movement can cause earthquakes.


  • The movement also creates gaps in tectonic plates, which reduce the pressure on the mantle beneath it, allowing it to melt and push through.


  1. Airbnb


  • Back in 2008 a small company in San Francisco called Airbnb had a dream.


  • People with spare bedrooms would welcome strangers into their homes and share restaurant recommendations with them for a small fee.


  • Fast forward to 2016 and the big, successful Airbnb is considered a mainstay of what we now call “the sharing economy”.


  • It is also the business that defines the mentality of the millennial.


  1. Painting and photography


  • Dependence, rivalry, envy, emulation: painting and photography, like members of a dysfunctional yet inseparable family, just cannot cast off lineages of influence and appropriation.
  • Photography, from its appearance in 1839, looked to painting for fundamental models of depiction.


  • Yet it threw the older medium into crisis, removing at a stroke painting’s unique capacity to bear witness.


  • How these two media leapfrogged through the Victorian age, defining themselves against one another, is the subject of Tate Britain’s exhibition Painting with Light.




  1. European Union (Most Repeated)



  • The European Union has two big fish problems.


  • One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.


  • The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.


  • The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.


  • As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.


  1. Summer school


  • The Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering will be holding the eleventh neutron summer school at Chalk River on May 8 – 13, 2011.


  • The aim of the school is to cover a wide range of topics associated with thermal neutron scattering, including powder diffraction, stress analysis, texture, reflectometry, and small-
  • angle neutron scattering together with the underlying theory associated with neutron scattering.
  • The theory will be presented in a way that should be understood by people in any of these fields.


  • For more information, see the Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering’s Neutron Summer School.


  1. Karl Marx


  • Karl Marx is arguably the most of the most famous political philosopher of all time, but he was also one of the great foreign correspondents of the nineteenth century.
  • During his 11 years writing for the New York Tribune – their collaboration began in 1852 – Marx tackled an abundance of topics, from issues of class and the state to world affairs.


  • Particularly moving pieces’ highlight social inequality and starvation in Britain, while others explore his groundbreaking viewson the slave and opium trades – Marx believed Western powers relied on these and would stop at nothing to protect their interests.


  • Above all, Marx’s fresh perspective on nineteenth-century events encouraged his readers to think, and his writing is surprisingly relevant today.


  1. Speak English well (Most Repeated)


  • Anyone wanting to get to the top of international business, medicine or academia (but possibly not sport) needs to be able to speak English to a pretty high level.




  • Equally, any native English speaker wanting to deal with these new high achievers needs to know how to talk without baffling them.


  • Because so many English-speakers today are monoglots, they have little idea how difficult it is to master another language.


  • Many think the best way to make foreigners understand is to be chatty and informal.


  • This may seem friendly but, as it probably involves using colloquial expressions, it makes comprehension harder.


  1. University of Otago Center


  • University of Otago Center of International Health co-directors Professor Philip Hill and Professor John Crump share a view that global health is a multidisciplinary activity.


  • In their work – from Tanzania to the Gambia, from Myanmar to Indonesia and beyond -they tap into a wide range of expertise from across the University, including clinicians, microbiologists and molecular microbiologists, public health experts, economists and mathematicians.


  • They have also forged relationships and collaborations with research and aid agencies around the world.


  • For the past seven years Professor Philip Hill has been part of a collaborative tuberculosis research project in Indonesia, with the University of Padjadjaran in Bandung, West Java, undertaking European Commission-funded research into the causative links between infectious and non-communicable diseases in this case tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus.


  1. Mario de Andrade


  • Early in 1938, Mario de Andrade, the municipal secretary of culture here, dispatched a four- member Folklore Research Mission to the northeastern hinterlands of Brazil on a similar mission.


  • The intention was to record as much music as possible as quickly as possible, before encroaching influences like radio and cinema began transforming the region’s distinctive culture.


  • They recorded whoever and whatever seemed to be interesting: piano carriers, cowboys, beggars, voodoo priests, quarry workers, fishermen, dance troupes and even children at play.
  • But the Brazilian mission’s collection ended up languishing in vaults here.


  1. Higher Income


  • Most people expect and achieve higher income. They desire a greater purchasing power…


  • Some people maintain a same income.


  • Thus, their purchasing power has been eaten away by the inflation rate.




  1. Internet



  • Decades ago, we connected computers and got today’s powerful Internet.


  • In the last few years, we started to connect everyday objects using machine-to-machine (M2M) technologies, to create the Internet of Things.


  • But what does this really mean to you, your company and your country? What are the possibilities it offers, and the threats it poses?


  1. Journalists (Most Repeated)


  • Although experts like journalists are expected to be unbiased they invariably share the system biases of the disciplines and cultures in which they work.


  • Journalists try to be fair and objective by presenting all sides of a particular issue.


  • Practically speaking, however, it is about as easy to present all sides of an issue as it is to invite candidates from all political parties to a presidential debate.
  • Some perspectives ultimately are not included


  1. International Economics (Most Repeated)


  • International Economics: Theory and Policy is a proven approach in which each half of the book leads with an intuitive introduction to theory and follows with self-contained chapters to cover key policy applications.


  • The Eighth Edition integrates the latest research, data, and policy in hot topics such as outsourcing, economic geography, trade and environment, financial derivatives, the subprime crisis, and China’s exchange rate policies.


  • New for the Eighth Edition, all end-of-chapter problems are integrated into MyEconLab, the online assessment and tutorial system that accompanies the text.


  • Students get instant, targeted feedback, and instructors can encourage practice without needing to grade work by hand. For more information, visit MyEconLab.


  1. Technology Revolutions


  • Sometime about a million and a half years ago, some forgotten genius of the hominid world did an unexpected thing.


  • He (or very possibly she) took one stone and carefully used it to shape another.


  • The result was a simple teardrop-shaped hand-axe, but it was the world’s first piece of advanced technology.


  • It was so superior to existing tools that soon others were following the inventor’s lead and making hand-axes of their own.


  • Eventually whole societies existed that seemed to do little else.




  1. Graduation



  • During the school year, we had the benefit of being both unaccountable and omnipotent.


  • We could engage in impassioned debates about how as chief executive of a certain company we would have done this, or if we had been the banker on that deal we would have structured it like that.


  • Insulated from the consequences of such decisions, and privy to all critical information about the case, we were able to solve complex business problems with relative ease.
  • We knew that once we began our internships, this would no longer be the case.
  • The information would be more nebulous and the outcomes of our decisions would be unpredictable.


  • So in approaching this impending summer period, what lingered in the back of our minds was a collectively felt, unspeakable thought: “Were we really up to the challenge?”


  1. Motivation of employee


  • The job of a manger in the workplace is to get things done through the employees. In order to do this, the manager should be able to motivate its employees.


  • However, this easier said than done.


  • Motivation practice and theory are difficult, complex subjects touching on several disciplines.


  1. Tree ring (Most Repeated)


  • Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help – if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records – written in nature’s hand.
  • The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.


  • However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.


  • For example, tree rings, Dendrochronology (literally, —tree timell) dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.


  1. Desert festival


  • The “Festival in The Desert” is a celebration of the musical heritage of the Touareg, a fiercely independent nomadic people.
  • It is held annually near Essakane, an oasis some 40 miles north-west of Timbuktu, the ancient city on the Niger River.


  • Reaching it tests endurance, with miles of impermanent sand tracks to negotiate.


  • The reward of navigating this rough terrain comes in the form of a three-day feast of music and dance.




  1. Choosing Schools



  • There are more than 100 schools in the country.


  • Do not ever choose a school without going to the place and having a look. You should go and see once you have a chance.


  • You can see the facilities and accommodations around the school. Because you might be living there.


  • And they can be helpful to your study as well.




  1. Investigation for Children’s Medicine


  • A major review of antidepressants has found they are largely ineffective and may even be harmful for children and teens’ depression in the Amazon.


  • The true effectiveness and risk of serious harms is found in the borders of Amazon such as suicidal thoughts remain unclear because of the small number of trials and the selective reporting findings in published trials and clinical study reports.


  • The study authors recommend that ‘children and adolescents taking antidepressants should be carefully monitored closely and permanently, however, prohibits the study of children’s antidepressants.
  • This was widely opposed by multi-billion companies that have already invested antidepressants.


  • It is therefore recommended a child could self-reproach starting with a low dose and build up gradually within to prevent the side effects.


  1. Teenagers and Fruits


  • Fruit and vegetable intake is important for the prevention of future chronic disease. So it’s important to know whether intakes of teens are approaching national objectives for fruit and vegetable consumption.


  • Larson and colleagues from the University of Minnesota undertook the study to examine whether or not teens in the state were increasing their intake of fruits and vegetables.
  • The study gathered information about fruit and vegetable intake among 944 boys and 1.161 girls in 1999 and again in 2004.


  • Teens in middle adolescence are eating fewer fruits and vegetables than in 1999. Larson and colleagues found.
  • This is giving us the message that we need new and enhanced efforts to increase fruit and vegetable intake that we haven’t been doing in the past


  1. Memory loss (Most Repeated)


  • In 1992 a retired engineer in San Diego contracted a rare brain disease that wiped out his memory.


  • Every day he was asked where the kitchen was in his house, and every day he didn’t have the foggiest idea.




  • Yet whenever he was hungry he got up and propelled himself straight to the kitchen to get something to eat.


  • Studies of this man led scientists to break through: the part of our brains where habits are stored has nothing to do with memory or reason.
  • It offered proof of what the US psychologist Willian James noticed more than a century ago that humans “are mere walking bundles of habits.”


  1. Time management


  • Because of great demand, more and more employees are putting themselves into the limit. They go to work very early, from 7:00 to 8:00.


  • And they went home very late, some even overwork.


  • Many managers find the employee’s performance column is decreasing.


  • They (manager) should avoid this phenomenon because this is not good for the company.


  1. Traffic Accidents


  • Road safety analyses of driver behavior have traditionally concentrated on the role of the male driver.


  • While this is in keeping with the fact that the majority of drivers involved in fatal crashes are male, the relative proportion of fatal crashes involving female drivers has been steadily increasing over many decades.


  • Thus, while virtually all drivers killed 45 years ago were male, the percentage of female driver fatalities had risen to 13% in 1970 and in recent years females have accounted for between 22% and 27% of all driver deaths.


  • In view of this situation, this report examines differences between male and female drivers in terms of travel characteristics, fatal crash risk, fatal crash characteristics and factors affecting injury outcome.


  1. Drugs and regulations


  • A person or company located in New South Wales may not supply by wholesales any substance which is for their therapeutic use and included in Schedule 2 of the Poisons List.
  • Unless they are licensed or authorised to do so under the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Regulation 2002, no one may supply these Schedule 2 substances.


  • Additionally, wholesales have an obligation to ensure that the persons or companies they supply are licensed or authorised, to obtain, use, supply or possess the substance.


  • Any breach of these regulations will result in immediate termination employment.




  1. Car accident



  • A report conducted to examine the difference between male and female drivers in term of travel characteristics and found that fatal crash rush occurred during morning periods.


  • This is the data with road safety analyses that most accidents occurred at the periods as early as 5 AM in the morning to 7 AM.


  • While virtually all drivers killed, young drivers should be given special attention.


  • In particular, reckless behavior which have traditionally concentrated on the role of the young drivers.


  • Laws need enforcement to be effective and a various program should target areas of traffic safety, young drivers training crash reduction, and injury reduction.


  1. Australia’s refugee policy


  • Australia used to have a generous immigration policy for refugees fleeing violence and conflict.


  • We took even more than our share of refugees on a population-weighted basic.


  • With the election of a new administration, all refugees were subject to detention while waiting for a decision on their application.


  • At the same time, a raft of changes was introduced to alter Australia’s migration law and policy.


  • The rate of refugee arrivals has indeed slowed; but, as some argue, at the expense of our human rights reputation.


  1. Cell


  • Embryonic stem cells are valued by scientists because the cells’ descendant can turn into any other sort of body cell.


  • These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver.
  • They might thus be used as treatments for diseases that require the replacement of a particular, lost cell type.


  • Some example cited for a possible treatment using these cells are diabetes, motor neuron disease and Parkinson’s disease.


  1. Fiber v.s Wool and silk


  • Fibers suitable for clothing have been made for the first time from the wheat protein gluten. The fibers are as strong and soft as wool and silk, but up to 30 times cheaper.


  • Narendra Reddy and Yiqi Yang, who produced the fibers at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln.


  • He says that because they are biodegradable, they might be used in biomedical applications such as surgical sutures.




  1. Record (Most Repeated)



  • Over the years many human endeavors have had the benefit of language.


  • In particular, a written language can convey a lot of information about past events, places, people and things.


  • But it is difficult to describe music in words, and even more difficult to specify a tune.


  • It was the development of a standard musical notation in the 11th century that allowed music to be documented in a physical form.


  • Now music could be communicated efficiently, and succeeding generations would know something about the music of their ancestors.


  1. New energy


  • Many countries are suffering a shortage of scholars of new energy. Especially engineers about new energy with the climate change.
  • The money distributed in energy research will double.


  • Become an engineer not only means more opportunities in their career but will gain more money in their research.


  1. Sea level raise


  • Sea level raise led to 36 thousand people died every year.


  • This number can be raised if sea level ceaseless goes up, scientists notified. According to the research, if sea level raises 50 centimeters, 86 million people will die. If sea level raises 1 meter, 168 million people will die all around the world.


  1. Fostering a child


  • According to the Australian Institute of Family Studies in 2014 a 11 old boy was unable to live with his family, due to child abuse.


  • But upbringing in the foster care system means he has no-one to help him. It’s not his fault, yet he is being penalized for something he can’t change.


  • He went to two schools while he was in foster care and one was Barr Beacon School, formerly Barr Beacon Language College, is a mixed comprehensive for foster children.


  • Children like him involved with child protective services were shown to have consistently low average math and reading standardized test scores.
  • One of the recommendations was to send him to his relatives who were willing to take care until he was 18. This resulted a positive outcome in academic achievement.


  1. Rosa parks


  • It was there that Rosa Parks, an African American woman, refused to vacate her seat in the middle of the bus so that a white man could sit in her place.




  • She was arrested for her civil disobedience.


  • Parks’ arrest, a coordinated tactic meant to spark a grassroots movement, succeeded in catalyzing the Montgomery bus boycott.


  • Parks was chosen by King as the face for his campaign because of Parks’ good standing with the community, her employment, and her marital status.


  • Earlier in 1955, Claudette Colvin, a 15-year old African American girl, had been arrested for the same crime. However, King and his civil rights compatriots did not feel that she would serve as an effective face for the civil rights campaign.


  1. German writer and his books


  • This site contains a comprehensive listing of the works of Norbert Elias, a German sociologist.


  • The site lists not only his published books and articles but also manuscripts and oral communications, in a variety of media and including reprints and translations.


  • The material has been catalogued, cross-referenced and organized by date. There is, however, no search facility.


  1. System (Most Repeated)


  • Are there any systems that can measure the Accounting system?


  • Well, there is accounting software describes a type of application software that records and processes accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, and trial balance.


  • It is a system in which functions as an accounting information system.


  • This enables the access anywhere at any time with any device which is Internet-enabled, or maybe desktop based. It varies greatly in its complexity and cost.


  • These tools identify quality customer service and create a climate of confidence, a customer service strategy that helps meet the specific needs.


  1. Religious (Most Repeated)


  • Yet my study of the history of religion has revealed that human beings are spiritual animals. Indeed, there is a case for arguing that Homo sapiens is also Homo religious.


  • Men and women started to worship gods as soon as they became recognizably human; they created religions at the same time as they created works of art.
  • This was not simply because they wanted to propitiate powerful forces.


  • But these early faiths expressed the wonder and mystery that seems always to have been an essential component of the human experience of this beautiful yet terrifying world.




  1. Meeting



  • People always think it’s easy to organize a meeting. However, there are many potentials can hinder the starting time.


  • This is especially true when employees are working with a large number of partners.


  • Employees may meet troubles such as contacting and organizing a date and time, arranging accommodation, etc.


  • In addition, sometimes you have to find children facility or other health care for the meeting participants.


  1. Study Overseas


  • All over the world students are changing countries for their university studies.


  • They don’t all have the same reasons for going or for choosing a particular place to study.
  • They may choose a university because of its interesting courses or perhaps because they like the country and its language.


  • Some students go overseas because they love travel.


  • Whatever the reason, thousands of students each year make their dreams of a university education come true.


  1. Carbon Pricing in Canada


  • There is a growing consensus that, if serious action is to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, a price must be applied to those emissions.


  • There are, however, challenges associated with the political acceptability of carbon pricing.


  • If Canada implements a carbon price on its own, there are worries that Canadian factories will relocate to other countries to avoid the regulation.


  • Even if other countries act in concert with Canada to price carbon, the effects will be uneven across sectors, and lobbying efforts by relatively more-affected sectors might threaten the political viability of the policy.


  1. Competence and Performance (Most Repeated)


  • In language learning there is a distinction between competence and performance. Competence is a state of the speaker’s mind. What he or she knows?
  • Separate from actual performance – what he or she does while producing or comprehending language. In other words, competence is put to use through performance.


  • An analogy can be made to the Highway Code for driving. Drivers know the code and have indeed been tested on it to obtain a driving license.
  • In actual driving, however, the driver has to relate the code to a continuous flow of changing circumstances, and may even break it from time to time.




  • Knowing the Highway Code is not the same as driving.



  1. Language


  • It is wrong, however, to exaggerate the similarity between language and other cognitive skills, because language stands apart in several ways.


  • For one thing, the use of language is universal—all normally developing children learn to speak at least one language, and many learn more than one.


  • By contrast, not everyone becomes proficient at complex mathematical reasoning, few people learn to paint well, and many people cannot carry a tune.


  • Because everyone is capable of learning to speak and understand language, it may seem to be simple.


  • But just the opposite is true—language is one of the most complex of all human cognitive abilities.


  1. Stored Food


  • A consequence of a settled existence is that it permits one to store food surpluses, since storage would be pointless if one didn’t remain nearby to guard the stored food.
  • So, while some nomadic hunter-gatherers may occasionally bag more food than they can consume in a few days, such a bonanza is of little use to them because they cannot protect it.


  • But stored food is essential for feeding non-food-producing specialists, and certainly for supporting whole towns of them.


  • Hence nomadic hunter- gatherer societies have few or no such full-time specialists, who instead first appear in sedentary societies.


  1. Humanities 104


  • A requirement of Humanities 104 is to write a persuasive paper on a topic of your choice. The topic you choose should be supported by a range of sources.


  • The source should be cited under APA guidelines, and the final draft should be written in APA styles.


  • The final draft is due one week before the final exam.


  1. City Mayors


  • Education scholars generally agree that mayors can help failing districts, but they are starting to utter warnings.


  • Last summer the editors of the Harvard Educational Review warned that mayoral control can reduce parents’ influence on schools.
  • And they pointed to Mr. Bloomberg’s aggressive style as an example of what not to do.


  • All this must be weighed up by the New York state legislature in 2009, when mayoral control is up for renewal – or scrapping.




  1. Global Health



  • University of Otago Centre of International Health co-directors Professor Philip Hill and Professor John Crump share a view that global health is a multidisciplinary activity.


  • In their work – from Tanzania to the Gambia, from Myanmar to Indonesia and beyond – they tap into a wide range of expertise from across the University, including clinicians, microbiologists and molecular microbiologists, public health experts, economists and mathematicians.


  • They have also forged relationships and collaborations with research and aid agencies around the world.


  • For the past seven years Professor Philip Hill has been part of a collaborative tuberculosis research project in Indonesia, with the University of Padjadjaran in Bandung, West Java, undertaking European Commission-funded research into the causative links between infectious and non-communicable diseases – in this case tuberculosis (TB) – and diabetes mellitus.


  1. The formation of the moon


  • For more than 30 years, the prevailing view of the formation of our moon has been the “giant impact hypothesis”.


  • The precursors to the current four rock planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – appear to have been dozens of smaller bodies known as “planetary embryos”.


  • According to the giant impact hypothesis, our moon formed as the result of the last of a series of “giant impact” mergers between planetary embryos that eventually formed the Earth.


  • In this last collision, one embryo was nearly Earth-sized and the other approximately Mars- sized.


  1. Opinion compromise (Most Repeated)


  • In general, there is a tendency to underestimate how long it takes to discuss and resolve an issue on which two people initially have different views.
  • The reason is that achieving agreement requires people to accept the reality of views different from their own and to accept change or compromise.


  • It is not just a matter of putting forward a set of facts and expecting the other person immediately to accept the logic of the exposition.


  1. Arcelor-mittal takeover (Most Repeated)


  • Arcelor, established in Dutch, had been the largest European steel maker by 2006.


  • It was taken over by Mittal, a Dutch-registered company run from London by its biggest single shareholder, Lakshmi Mittal, an Indian who started his first business in Indonesia.




  • The takeover battle raged for six months before Arcelor’s bosses finally listened to shareholders who wanted the board to accept Mittal’s third offer.
  • The Arcelor-Mittal deal demonstrates Europe’s deepening integration into the global economy.


  1. Young employees


  • Employers are often reluctant to hire young people, even though there are more than 850,000 unemployed 16-to24-year-olds and UK businesses are struggling to fill one in five vacancies because of skills shortages.


  • They are skeptical about young people’s skills and their readiness for work.


  • But a growing number of companies are setting up schemes to recruit young workers. They can be surprised by the results.


  1. A $300-house (Most Repeated)


  • When Vijay Govindarajan and Christian Sarkar wrote a blog entry on Harvard Business Review in August 2010 mooting the idea of a “$300-house for they were merely expressing a suggestion. “.


  • Of course, the idea we present here is an experiment,” wrote Prof Govindarajan, a professor of international business at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth and Mr. Sarkar, a marketing consultant who works on environmental issues an almost apologetic disclaimer for having such a “far-out” idea.


  • Who could create a house for $300 and if it was possible, why hadn’t it been done before?


  • Nonetheless, they closed their blog with a challenge: “We ask chief executives, governments, NGOs, foundations.


  1. Artificial intelligence (Most Repeated)


  • ReseaCnce have long been intrigued by games, and not just as a way of avoiding work.


  • Games provide an ideal setting to explore important elements of the design of cleverer machines, such as pattern recognition, learning and planning.


  • Ever since the stunning victory of Deep Blue, a program running on an IBM supercomputer, over Gary Kasparov, then world chess champion, in 1997, it has been clear that computers would dominate that particular game.


  • Today, though, they are pressing the attack on every front.


  1. Silent students in tutorials


  • Many students sit in a tutorial week after week without saying anything. Why is that?


  • Maybe they do not know the purpose of a tutorial.




  • They think it is like a small lecture where the tutor gives them information.


  • Even if students do know what a tutorial is for, there can be other reasons why they keep quiet.


  1. The job of a manager


  • The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. In order to accomplish this, the manager should be able to motivate employees. That is, however, easier said than done.


  • Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, encompassing various disciplines.


  1. 1 Monash student ne tan


  • Mechanical engineering student Ne Tan is spending the first semester of this year studying at the University of California, Berkeley as part of the Monash Abroad program.
  • Ne, an international student from Shanghai, China, began her Monash journey at Monash College in October 2006.


  • There she completed a diploma that enabled her to enter Monash University as a secondyear student.


  • Now in her third year of study, the Monash Abroad program will see her complete four units of study in the US before returning to Australia in May 2009.


  1. Sojourner


  • More recent missions to Mars include the hugely successful Mars Pathfinder, which landed a small `rover’ called Sojourner on the surface to explore a region where there may once have been life.


  • Sojourner has now been effectively switched off, but lasted almost twelve times its expected lifetime.


  • Similarly, the lander, which imaged several areas around the landing site (dubbed the Carl Sagan Memorial site) and took atmospheric measurements, lasted a good deal longer than expected.
  • The only unfortunate thing to have arisen from the mission is the naming of the rocks at the landing site (including everything from Scooby Doo to Darth Vader)











  1. Fight-or-flight response


The Fight or Flight response can be understood through the role of emotions in our lives. Basic emotions like fear or anger have evolved as signals to help meet our need for self-preservation. Upon encountering a survival threat, the brain runs information from our senses through primitive parts of our brain. These areas communicate with the rest of our brain and our body to create signals we can’t ignore easily.



  1. Prevention of pandemic Transmitting


The impact of the pandemic would be catastrophic if it is similar to what we had in 1918. There has been unprecedented amount of preparation in the US with efforts for treatment, better prevention and clinical management. However, the real challenge lies with developing countries who do not have the level of resources found in more developed countries.


  1. Industrialization


Notions of pragmatism and democracy have succeeded in tempering the market economy. The Industrial Revolution had a negative effect on people, particularly on the working class. But eventually, a legislation about working conditions circumscribed some of the worst behavior. In the 20th century, we put regulations that composed better environmental conditions. Some of the damage was reversed and we have made the market economy work.


  1. Management and leadership


According to the Education Leadership Initiative, education leaders need to be dynamic and entrepreneurial people who can create change. Force are combining from Stanford’s School of Business and School of Education to support the development of central office leaders’ management and leadership skills. The program incorporates case-studies, research-based presentation, and group collaboration. However, they must also realize that it is their own responsibility to achieve and accomplish.


  1. Talent war V1


There is an intense competition to hire the most talented workers due to a talent shortage. Although we have this sense that countries are battling to keep immigrants out, countries are really trying to lure bright young people in. The talent shortage means that organizations are competing to hire the best and the brightest. Talent is a premium because of an aging baby-boom population and an increasingly sophisticated economy.






  1. Talent war V2


There was a war for talents in the 1990s due to talent shortage. In this war, immigrants competed with local students. The collapse of loyalty also meant that employees were willing to change their workplace for higher incomes. Some reasons were the changing economy and the shrinking labour force. There was also a mismatch between what schools were producing and what companies needed.


  1. Children literature



Although Britain has perhaps the longest and distinguished tradition of creating books for children, these books are often taken for granted. Children’s books do cultural work by being a place where children learn vocabularies and get vicarious experiences. They are also a source of information about the views and opinions of a particular period in time.


  1. Smile of mother and baby


Researchers have found that when babies smile, they want the person they’re interacting with to smile back. In the study, interactions between mothers and their infants were quantified. The researchers found that for mothers, the goal 70% of the time was to be smiling simultaneously. For babies however, 80% of the time they just wanted their mother smiling at them.


  1. Indian peasants’ debt V1


Farmers in India have committed suicide due to debt created by the high cost of replacing destroyed seeds. Community seed banks have been established to collect, save and multiply seeds, and then distribute them according to farmers’ needs. These seed banks allow us to respond to the new crises of globalization ad climate change.


  1. Vitamin D V2


Understanding what Vitamin D does requires understanding the central concept. Although Vitamin D also maintains strong bones and teeth, its real function is to maintain blood calcium levels. Blood calcium is important for muscle contraction and nerve transmission. Without enough blood calcium, you can’t contract muscles normally and there can’t be normal nerve impulses. This results in tetany, where you get uncontrolled convulsions followed by rapid death.


  1. Children’s depression 10-Points Answer


Research from the 16th century found that a dramatic increase in children’s depression can increase risk of life. For example, long-term illnesses like heart disease are caused by depression. Since children with depression respond differently to medical treatment, specialists have struggled to find a perfect




medicine. Thus, even the number of children suffering from depression has increased, it remains a mystery for scientists and needs to be resolved soon.


  1. Global Warming


The increasingly apparent effects of global climate change have raised concerned among commercial interests, individuals and national governments. Many think that Ehrlich’s Malthusian “Population Bomb” of 1968 involving a three-part crisis scenario bears resemblance to today’s climate change crisis. Although Ehrlich’s work has been criticized and much of what he predicted did not occur, it is in everyone’s interest to apply the Precautionary Principle now rather than later.


  1. Translator and interpreter



It’s a common misconception that translators and interpreters do the same thing. However, translation refers to written communication whereas interpreting refers to verbal communication. Further, both jobs require different skills. For instance, translating requires the ability to write well and comprehensively, while interpretors needs to be able to speak both languages proficiently Finally, although both roles acquire years of training, what they can learn from training will be completely different.


  1. Fossil fuels


The developed world’s dependence on fossil fuels as a source of energy is unsustainable as it is a finite resource. Further, setting fire to fossil fuels has climate change implications. And even if you don’t find the first two motivations compelling, you might depend on other places for fossil fuels in the future. So you have a security of supply motivation for taking fossil fuel dependence seriously.


  1. Citizenship curriculum


The speaker’s subject report celebrates schools with substantial developments in the citizenship curriculum. It is also critical of schools who have not taken citizenship seriously. Citizenship is marginalized in the curriculum in one-fifth of schools. For instance, it is less-established than other subjects. However, the progress made by more committed schools shows that introducing citizenship is worthwhile. It can address core skills, attitudes and values needed by young people.


  1. The colors of flowers


A flower’s color can be a reason why bumble bees pick some flowers over others. New findings also show that bees use color to get clues about a flower’s temperature. Bees can’t fly when they are too cold, and they can use up a lot of energy to stay warm. As such, bumble bees consistently choose warmer flowers, even when cooler ones offer the same quantity and quality of nectar.




  1. Cocoa



Although cocoa was mainly used as a beverage during the time of the Aztecs, it also had other uses. Cocoa beans were used as currency and as tribute tax. Cocoa butter, which was the oily layer floating in the chocolate drink, was used to protect skin against the sun. Cocoa also had a religious significance for the Aztecs, believed to be a bridge between earth and heaven.


  1. Talent war


The war for talent refers to an increasingly competitive landscape for recruiting and retaining talented employees. It is intensified by increasing demand with decreasing supply demographically. There is an underlying assumption that knowledge workers are the key competitive resource in knowledge- intensive industries. Although the book never explicitly defines talent, it describes managerial talent as some combination of a sharp strategic mind, leadership ability, emotional maturity, and communication skills.



  1. Benefit of laughter


Laughter is one of the greatest therapies in combatting adversity. For example, for nearly thirty years until the Berlin wall was dismantled, wall jokes proliferated because laughter was all that was left. Jokes about the ruling class are also a form of folklore that existed in societies such as Czarist Russia, 12th century Persia and modern-day Iran. Humor can also be subversive as it can protect self-resect and identity.


  1. A mother’s loan


The speaker is 43 years old, but still owes tens of thousands in student loans. Fifteen years after college, she still worries extensively about her family’s financial situation. Her loans have been accruing at a rate of 10% and she doubts they will ever get paid off. Her kids will also have to rely on parents for college support. She wishes she had chosen another educational route.


  1. Globalization


Globalisation is a process embodying the transformation of the spatial organization of social relations and transactions. It involves four changes. First, it involves the stretching of social, political and economic activities. Second, it suggests the intensification of interconnectedness. Third, this interconnectedness can be linked to a speeding up of global interactions and processes. Finally, the growing extensity, intensity and velocity of global interactions can be associated with their deepening impact.


  1. Vitamin D (Most Repeated)


Vitamin D is involved in increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and magnesium. Very few foods contain Vitamin D, and its major source is synthesis through the skin. Although Vitamin D from sunlight contributes to preventing toxicity, there are no recommendations regarding the amount of sun exposure




needed due to cancer risks. Thus, the Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin D assumes no synthesis occurs, even though this is rarely true.


  1. Universities’ competition


LSE is not only in competition for the best students, it’s also in competition for staff. The academic market is highly global, and due to the widespread use of English, universities in English-speaking countries are exposed to even more intensive competition. LSE is in competition for government funding, research contracts, and philanthropic pounds. Further, many donors think of the LSE’s request alongside other charities to which they are committed.


  1. Animal survive



There are some factors that species and animals need to survive and reproduce. These include environmental conditions, tolerance range and altitude. Animals migrate to find a new habitat because of changes in the environment. Humans are the only organism that extensively uses technology to extend the limits of its natural tolerance range.


  1. Biology


Although butterflies, flowers and dolphins look different, they are interconnected as all creatures are based on genetic and inherited information. Cells are the foundation of building organs, and they contain the same chemicals. All cells have DNA and RNA, used for storing and transmitting genetic and inherited material. All organs have metabolism systems, which convert energy through chemical reaction.


  1. Welsh language (Most Repeated)


Welsh is spoken in Wales and the Welsh colony of Patagonia, Argentina. In the early 20th century, about half the population of Wales spoke Welsh as an everyday language. However, this fell to around 20% towards the end of the century. The 2001 census revealed that 582, 369 people can speak Welsh and 659, 301 people can either speak, read or write it.


  1. ATM (Most Repeated)


People forget to their cards from the ATM, commonly because they take their money and walk away. However, this is becoming less common in the UK where the ATM has been restructured so that people now have to take their cards before they get their money. Although it is undesirable to forget your money, it is more catastrophic to lose your cards as this can access your bank account.


  1. Kid museum


The speaker and her children were once thrown out of a museum for being too noisy. She wrote a big piece about it on The Guardian that garnered readers’ attention. As such, the Guardian set up a campaign called ‘Kids in Museums’. The speaker also began touring and speaking about how to make museums




family- friendly. The National Gallery director even contacted her, saying that he wanted to work together.


  1. Hans Krebs


Hans Kreb published a paper showing the sequence of chemical reactions by which energy is released in individual cells. This is now called the Krebs cycle. Krebs shows how determination can overcome many obstacles. His father constantly discouraged him and told him he had mediocre intelligence. The great biochemist Otto Warburg similarly told him that he only had mediocre ability and would never be a great scientist.


  1. Endangered language (Most Repeated)



Language death isn’t in the mainstream of anything. Most people have difficulty appreciating what the crisis is all about because they aren’t used to thinking about language as an issue itself. We need to change these mindsets and get people thinking about language more explicitly and intimately. Although people are interested in topics such as where words come from, a willingness to focus that interest on general issues is rare.


  1. Living things


Too many people make statements that assume we are not animals. However, if we are not animals what are we? We are not plants, trees, flowers, or microorganisms. Then the natural conclusion must be that we are not living things, which is not true. Thus, we are animals. To understand human nature, we can look into animal behavior to find out about what made us who we are.


  1. Light bulb


This 40-watt lightbulb uses one kilowatt everyday if left on all the time. It’s possible to express all forms of power consumption using the unit of a lightbulb. Plugging in a phone charger uses one hundredth of a lightbulb of power. However, taking one bath everyday uses the same energy as five lightbulbs on non-stop. Today, the average British person is using 125 light bulbs of power.


  1. Different spectacles


In fashion terms, spectacles are classes of accessories, along with shoes, jewelry and handbags. In healthcare terms, they are a medical device often described as prosthesis or an artificial part of the body. Lifestyle dispensing refers to people owning two or more pairs for different occasions or times of day. This idea that you wear different types of spectacles in the workplace and the beach dates back to the 1950s.


  1. Safe drinking water


Water is a critical part of our environment and our bodies- in fact, your body is almost 70% water. Although you can go for weeks without food, you can only go




four or five minutes without air. And you can only go four or five days without water. Problematically, however, water is a largely neglected area of environmental law, given our increasing knowledge about chemical threats to water quality.


  1. Voynich manuscript


There are many different theories about the Voynich transcript. Although it’s now been carbon dated from the 15th century, some think that somebody just made this invention to fool people and make money. Others also believe that someone encoded lots of secrets in it, hoping no one would find out. However, the speaker believes it’s a human-devised script masking a genuine human language.



  1. Language and music


Music and language have a lot of similarities- for instance, they are both forms of communication. Darwin and Leonard Bernstein have written about the possible evolutionary links between music and language. This topic continues to interest scientists today but there are some obvious similarities. Both music and language have rhythmic systematic patterns of timing, accent and grouping. They also both convey affect, which means emotion though sound.


  1. Contracts (Most Repeated)


A contract is an agreement between two parties. Proponents of the social contract theory argue that people benefit from living together in society under government oversight. Since living together requires rules and laws, social contracts provide the framework for how people and governments interact. In exchange for gaining protection from outsiders, individuals must give up certain freedoms and contribute to making the society stable, wealthy and happy.







  1. The winter sun is lower but high enough to produce enough warm.


  1. The course dates are available on the college website.


  1. Library plays an important role in student’s life. (Most Repeated)


  1. There is a significant difference between theory and practice in education.


  1. Continuing students will be sent for application forms.


  1. Ladies have the popular forms of entertainments throughout the world.


  1. A balanced diet and regular exercise are necessary for good health.


  1. A number of assignments will be gathered to the conference.


  1. Science library is currently located on the ground of the library.


  1. Take the first step to apply your university scholarship.



11.Growing population has posed a challenge to many governments.


  1. Consumer confidence tends to increase as the economy expands.


  1. Global connections increased in academic communities, thanks to social media. (Most Repeated)


  1. Today’s history lecture has been moved to lecture theater.


  1. Distance learning can develop your career around the world. (Most




  1. Student advisor was aware that lecture today has been canceled.


  1. We are achieving common prosperity throughout the department.


  1. The new art gallery can only be visited on Fridays. (Most Repeated)


  1. Industrial experts will discuss job opportunities in an automatic labor force.


  1. Manufacturing now brings more people in than agriculture and fishing combined. (Most Repeated)


  1. A rising population means more trees are cut down.


  1. It would be extremely beneficial to work together. (Most Repeated)


  1. A lack of sleep can increase the chance of some illnesses. (Most Repeated)


  1. The invention of the printing press increases the demand for paper.


  1. There are opportunities to receive the grants from most artistic fields.


  1. Art students often exhibit their works in the university buildings. (Most






  1. The office hours will be changed from next term. (Most Repeated)


  1. In this book, the author discussed the role of cultural differences.


  1. Strangely, people are impacted by spontaneously using statistics.


  1. The teacher training is an observation of the classes. (Most Repeated)


  1. The university should introduce technology to support learning.


  1. Universities invest new technology designed for learning. (Most Repeated)


  1. An undergraduate is required to do many projects. (Most Repeated)


  1. It was four more years before the theory was fully developed.


  1. Reading list will be available before the course begins.


  1. The temperature in summer is lower when comparing to the hall.


  1. Students who study overseas can significantly improve work chances.


  1. Without doubt, this theory has a number of limitations.


  1. There will be a meeting for the first-year students on Friday. (Most




  1. Key business partners are often entertained in expensive accounts.


  1. They develop a unique approach to train their employees.


  1. A good way to improve vocabulary is repetition.


  1. Our courses help improve critical thinking and independent learning skills.


  1. Universities need to secure the grants for research subjects. (Most




  1. Please ensure you do not go above word limitation.


  1. Check the website if you are looking for discounted textbooks.


  1. These leaflets can be really useful when you are revising. (Most Repeated)


  1. You must figure out the mathematical problems and apply what you learned.


  1. You can ask your tutor for a further assistance. (Most Repeated)


  1. One of the functions of the internal organ is to keep the body warm.


  1. Please write the name of author and the year of publication. (Most




  1. Farming methods across the world have greatly developed recently.


  1. Both staff and students can purchase car parking permits online. (Most






  1. There is an important difference between mass production and batch



production. (Most Repeated)


  1. Managing the increasing population is the challenge for most governments.


  1. A good research assistant is not afraid to ask questions. (Most Repeated)


  1. Today we will look at how to play the data visually.


  1. The studies showed the Hong Kong people are the most active in Asia.


  1. Unemployment rate has fallen to its lowest level in years.


  1. Please provide the reports to support your idea of these arguments.


  1. Get enough sleep the night before the test. (Most Repeated)


  1. Every student has a regular meeting with his or her personal tutor.


  1. More research is needed before any definitive conclusion is drawn.


  1. Rising in temperature is changing the wildlife population. (Most Repeated)


  1. Doing nothing is not always better than taking risks. (Most Repeated)


  1. All lectures and learning materials can be found on the Internet.


  1. The poster of this play is hung in the large lecture theater. (Most Repeated)


  1. Students who attempt to go to the conference must register now.


  1. Although sustainable development is not easy, it is our responsibility.


  1. There have been many changes recently in the mathematics department.


  1. This course puts great emphasis on critical thinking skills. (Most Repeated)


  1. Our food supply now contains too much sugar that our metabolic system cannot handle it. (Most Repeated)


  1. Several candidates will be qualified as the greatest scientists in all time.


  1. The visiting speaker used to be a lecturer in this department.


  1. Research shows the exercising makes us feel better.


  1. There are not many interconnections between philosophy and psychology.


  1. Unlike short sleep, overlong sleep increases the risk of illness. (Most




  1. The seminar provided an opportunity to exchange ideas with other students.


  1. New credit cards will soon use the finger press technology. (Most Repeated)


  1. Theater study courses encourage students to exercise creativity.


  1. Your application for research grant has been received. (Most Repeated)




  1. The Industrial Revolution in Europe was driven by steam technology.


  1. Our laboratory equipment is provided free of charge. (Most Repeated)


  1. There are many good reasons to grow trees in more cities.


  1. Unusual weather patterns are making farming more difficult today. (Most




  1. The cooperator operates a continuous assessment.


  1. The body fat keeps internal organs warm. (Most Repeated)


  1. Mature students usually adapt to university life extremely well.


  1. Governments need to make solar energy more affordable to everyone.


(Most Repeated)


  1. All the course stages are on the website.


  1. Protective clothing must always be worn in the laboratory. (Most Repeated)


  1. Peer review is a central part of scientific method.


  1. Even if you have used cosmetics for years without problems, one or more ingredients can still trigger an allergic reaction. (Most Repeated)


  1. Economic development needs to be supported by the government.


  1. Tutors should set a clear goal at the start of the class.


  1. In his lifetime, he composed most of the works. (Most Repeated)


  1. Students should take advantage of the online resources before attending the lecture. (Most Repeated)


  1. Novelists write things about things they know about.


  1. An architect requires of problem-solving skills and an eye of design.


  1. Calculations may not be needed in this examination. (Most Repeated)


  1. The theater courses are encouraging students to access creativity.


  1. There are many branches of medical studies. (Most Repeated)


  1. Students will focus on reporting news on changing media world.


  1. Read the student safety instructions before using any equipment in the workshops. (Most Repeated)


  1. Students who are successful have a good strategy for learning.


  1. Accounting students should have a good understanding of profit and loss statement. (Most Repeated)




  1. Lectures are the oldest and the most formal teaching method at



universities. (Most Repeated)


  1. The economy now is showing the first sign of recovery.


  1. I will now demonstrate how the reaction can be arrested by adding a dilute acid. (Most Repeated)


  1. The rising temperature is changing the wildlife population.


  1. Accountancy students probably have a good understanding of economics, statistics and psychology. (Most Repeated)


  1. The designers will complete the plan today.


  1. The course has been updated to reflect the current situation.


  1. Sydney is Australia’s largest city, chief port and cultural center.


  1. Some young people find city life rather stressful. (Most Repeated)


  1. Practicing time-restricted eating a few times a week can be both feasible and healthy.


  1. Popular culture is a serious subject of academic inquiry. (Most Repeated)


  1. Hundreds of scientific papers have been published on global warming.


  1. He started his tutorial presentation right on time. (Most Repeated)


  1. Essential textbooks can be purchased from the campus bookshop.


  1. Coursework and exams will form part of the annual assessment. (Most




  1. NASA has been at the forefront of deep space exploration.


  1. Atmosphere is composed of several layers. (Most Repeated)


  1. Several organizations work to prevent animal cruelty. (Most Repeated)


  1. Cinema and music are as important as science and mathematics.


  1. Organic food is considered to be free of chemicals. (Most Repeated)


  1. Majority of our decisions are not rational.


  1. Exercise reduces the risk of morbid obesity. (Most Repeated)


  1. Bad policy decisions led to the financial crisis.


  1. The economy is showing signs of revival. (Most Repeated)


  1. The office will be closed during the Christmas break.


  1. Click the logo above to enter the site.




  1. You should draw your graph on a separate page.


  1. The new theory takes all the latest research results into account. (Most




  1. The period was a golden age of English literature.


  1. The scientists use the web to explore the problems. (Most Repeated)


  1. There are new innovations in the field of digital architecture. (Most




  1. Weather patterns have changed significantly over the past two hundred years.


  1. You can request library books by using the electronic catalogue.


  1. This camera can identify eyes and focus on them. (Most Repeated)


  1. Our medical school students must attend the talk about optional courses.


  1. The courses cover the several aspects of the subject.


  1. The bar chart provides useful means of data comparison.


  1. The course will help students to improve their pronunciation skills.


  1. Building trust is not something that can be achieved overnight.


  1. Every student has the right and ability to succeed.


  1. The architectural numbers vary in that experiment. (Most Repeated)


  1. This course provides the opportunity to get valuable industry experience.


(Most Repeated)


  1. Some people believe that education should be free for all.


  1. Art is an expression of creative skill and imagination.


  1. Find out how to get your resources before your research.


  1. Those who are considering a career of marketing should attend the talk.


  1. Enrolling a second major will increase the career option. (Most Repeated)


  1. The undergraduates need some specific sources to analyze a program.


(Most Repeated)


  1. The two variables in the study were very closely correlated.


  1. We support to do research in the field of archaeology such as forecasting and estimation.


  1. The assessment of this course will begin next week.


  1. Sea levels are expected to rise during the next century.




  1. Create a playlist of your favorite music to help you relax in difficult situations.


  1. Studies show there is a positive correlation between two variables. (Most




  1. The introduction is an important component of a good presentation.


  1. A good scientific paper should have clear arguments.


  1. Science is found in society all around the world.


  1. You can use a laptop during the lecture.


  1. The business class can hold with local students.


  1. Please confirm that you have received the textbook. (Most Repeated)


  1. There is clearly a need for further research in this field. (Most Repeated)


  1. The artists and conservative politicians earn their rules of politics.


  1. Some people argue that education is not that important. (Most Repeated)


  1. All of the assignments should be submitted in person to the faculty office.


  1. The development in the information technology has greatly changed the way people work.


  1. There are still many people struggling in the lab.


  1. The teaching group will perform in the concert hall.


  1. Most scientists believe that climate change threatens lives on the earth.


(Most Repeated)


  1. The scientists found most of the studies today.


  1. The dance department stages elaborated performances each semester.


  1. I will come back to this in a moment.


  1. The article illustrates a number of interesting experiments. (Most




  1. We were able to contact a number of researchers.


  1. Efforts are being made to reduce harmful emissions.


  1. The other book is not thorough but it’s more insightful. (Most Repeated)


  1. Let me give you an example to explain what I mean.


  1. Recession triggers creativity and high rates of entrepreneurship due to a past experience. (Most Repeated)


  1. The article covers interesting experience.




  1. Students must pass all the qualifying examinations.


  1. The director of the gallery was grateful for the anonymous donation. (Most




  1. Read the first section before the next meeting.


  1. Theory and training are required to become a medical specialist.


  1. You were able to contact a number of research subjects. (Most Repeated)


  1. The most popular courses still have a few places left.


  1. Members should make concentrated contributions to operating funds.


  1. You need to hand in the essay next semester. (Most Repeated)


  1. You are trained to be a special journalist.


  1. No more than four people can be in the lab at once.


  1. That brief outline takes us to the beginning of the twentieth century.


  1. The key difference between courses is the kind of assessment. (Most




  1. The theme of the issue was the estimation of the problem.


  1. Doctoral writings have the structure in place as well as scientific papers.


  1. The meeting has some struggling overlaps. (Most Repeated)


  1. Listening is the key skill to succeed in this course.


  1. All answers must be examined and supported by relevant theory.


  1. This course is very integrated because it has several parts. (Most




  1. The properties should be appropriately distributed.


  1. The curriculum needed to be adjusted for development.


  1. The lecture will cover the reason of climate change.


  1. When launching a product, researching and marketing are very vital. (Most




  1. We can have a lecture on the morning of Thursday.


  1. Organizational failure is considered in various perspectives in academic literature. (Most Repeated)


  1. The extent of advertising for children is open to much debate. (Most




  1. The early works of this research are more experimental. (Most Repeated)




  1. It is a slash to debate about the value of the knowledge.


  1. The report contains the most important information. (Most Repeated)


  1. Rising sales figures mean a rise in demand.


  1. Behind the group, there is a flat cart drawn by the mules.


  1. When met with high potential risks, companies will raise their prices.


  1. It is absolutely vital to allocate your resources.


  1. Software companies design and create new products. (Most Repeated)


  1. The commissioner will collect fines for the sovereignty.


  1. Identity theft happens to thousands of people every year. (Most Repeated)


  1. And in that regard, as well as in other regards, it stands as an important contribution. (Most Repeated)


  1. Climate change is a fierce phenomenon concentrated by scientists.


  1. They have struggled since last year to make their services paid. (Most




  1. The glimpse of something is an enormously rewarding experience.


  1. A party is thrown in the small meeting room.


  1. Higher numbers of patients were infected than previous during outbreaks of illness. (Most Repeated)


  1. Students were instructed to stand in a straight line outside the classroom.


  1. Your agents will collect the commission for each house they sell. (Most




  1. Article numbers are collected through interesting experiments.


  1. The elective course introduces engineering students to construct practices and concepts. (Most Repeated)


  1. The coffee house has special student discounts throughout the week.


  1. Our group is going to meet tomorrow in the library conference room. (Most




  1. Interim grades will be posted on the board outside the student lounge.


  1. The time of the math lecture has been changed to ten thirty. (Most




  1. In spite of the differences, all the species of life share certain characteristics. (Most Repeated)




  1. It is hard to observe the reaction of the character.


  1. Try to work with each other to build up a sense of cooperation and team spirit. (Most Repeated)


  1. There is a strict eligibility criterion to undertake background speaker studies. (Most Repeated)


  1. If it helps to take notes in order to concentrate, please do so.


  1. Materials and resources are on hold at the library’s front desk. (Most




  1. Lectures’ outlines are available on the college internal website.


  1. You are required to submit your assignment by Friday. (Most Repeated)


  1. Climate change is being acknowledged by many scientists.


  1. The toughest part of the research for postgraduate students is the funding.


  1. The importance of this event was not yet fully understood. (Most




  1. I thought we would meet in the small meeting room. (Most Repeated)


  1. You can contact all your tutors by email.


  1. Our class is divided into two groups, you come with me, others stay here.


  1. The results of the experiment are reported in the table below. (Most




  1. Sales figures for last year were better than expected.


  1. Avoid confusing the cause and effect of these changes. (Most Repeated)


  1. They were struggling last year to make their service payments. (Most




  1. Please note that the college laboratory will be closed for cleaning next week.


  1. A number of students have volunteer jobs. (Most Repeated)


  1. If you are not sure, phone student services for help. (Most Repeated)


  1. The celebrated theory has a great degree of controversy.


  1. The morning’s lecture on economic policy has been cancelled. (Most




  1. Successful applicants will work with a large team of researchers.


  1. Presidential elections are held once every four years. (Most Repeated)




  1. Preparation is important to avoid mishaps in the lab.


  1. Your task is to create demand for the product.


  1. The decision was made with the support of several faculty members. (Most




  1. All staff must leave from the fire hydrant exit.


  1. The cart carries a single object.


  1. The company needs to polish its image.



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