PTE May Prediction file

PTE May Prediction

 PTE May Prediction for PTE-A Exam.




  1. The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour “in the presence of the enemy” to members of the Australia Armed Forces. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service, and to civilians under military command. Being the highest award in the Australian Honours Order of Wearing, the Victoria Cross takes precedence over all other post nominals and Australian orders and decorations.


  1. The Prime Minister’s formal letter of notification was delivered in Brussels on 29 March 2017. It included withdrawal from the European Atomic Energy Community. The letter recognised that consequences for the UK of leaving the EU included loss of influence over the rules that affect the European economy, and UK companies trading within the EU aligning with rules agreed by institutions of which the UK would no longer be part. It proposed agreeing to seven principles for the conduct of the withdrawal negotiation.


  1. In the common law tradition, only a person could sue or be sued. This was not a problem in the era before the Industrial Revolution, when the typical business venture was either a sole proprietorship or partnership— the owners were simply liable for the debts of the business. A feature of the corporation, however, is that the shareholders enjoyed limited liability—the owners were not liable for the debts of the company.


  1. The Australian War Memorial consists of three parts: the Commemorative Area including the Hall of Memory with the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier, the Memorial’s galleries and Research Centre. The Memorial also has an outdoor Sculpture Garden. The Memorial is currently open daily from 10am until 5pm, except on Christmas Day.


  1. Much of the country experiences a Mediterranean climate with warm or hot, dry summers and the rainfall falling in winter. A semi-arid climate occurs in the south-eastern part of Spain, but is also found elsewhere in the country such as the Ebro basin. Here the summers are hot and the winters cool, but there is limited precipitation at any time of year. The northern part of the country experiences an oceanic climate, with both winter and summer temperatures influenced by the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and rainfall spread throughout the year.


  1. Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research purposes.


  1. Pluto was one of the nine planets recognized to our solar system. But in 2006, it was relegated to the official status of dwarf planet by the international astronomical union (IAU). It will bring into clear focus once more what is, and what isn’t, meant by the term planet.


  1. Moods may also have an effect on how information is processed, by influencing the extent to which judges rely on pre-existing, internal information, or focus on new, external information. Positive moods recruit more stimulus-driven and bottom-up processing.


  1. This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability.


  1. Market research is vital part of the planning of any business. However, experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field, if you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area, it is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.


  1. The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things – so he began to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.


  1. Researchers gathered 160 uncaffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you’d get from two cups of coffee.


  1. Studies funded by the soft drink industry are more likely to mask links to obesity and type two diabetes, according to a new report. He added that biases in industry funded studies were not usually due to poor methodology, but due to inherent problems in their design, including poor choice of comparators and problems with the way data is analysed and reported.


  1. There are three main interpretations of the English Revolution. The longest lasting interpretation was that the Revolution was the almost inevitable outcome of an age-old struggle between parliament and crown. The second sees it as a class struggle, and a lead up to the French and other revolutions. Finally, the third interpretation sees the other two as too fixed, not allowing for unpredictability, and that the outcome could have gone either way.


  1. The tsunamis could provide crucial information about the habitability of ancient Mars. The first one occurred when the planet must have been relatively warm and amenable for life, because it carved out backwash channels as it returned to the sea. By contrast, the planet had become much cooler by the time the second tsunami hit the waters apparently flash froze after flowing the surface.


  1. The elaborate and refined Japanese tea ceremony is meant to demonstrate respect through grace and good etiquette as demonstrated here by Genshitsu Sen, 15th Grand Master of the Urasenke Tea School. Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride.” writes Judith A. Adams in The American Amusement Park Industry. “His coasters combined an appearance of danger with annual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights.”


  1. There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don’t bother themselves with aesthetics; others see it as essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room – in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art.


  1. Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats travelled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes and objects made by hand.


  1. As a historian, if you really want to understand the sensibilities of those who lived in the past, you must be like a novelist and get into the skin of your characters and think and feel as they do. You are asked to imagine what it’s like to be a peasant in medieval times, asking the sort of questions a peasant might ask. What the writer is saying is that a historian needs imaginative sympathy with ordinary people in the past.


  1. umans needs to use energy in order to exist. So it is unsurprising that the way people have been producing energy is largely responsible for current environmental problems. Pollution comes in many forms, but those that are more concerning, because of their impact on health, result from the combustion of fuels in power stations and cars.


  1. In the past naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practices intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction, however, all this has changed. Unknown items of grammar and vocabulary appear in texts which attempt to explain new and often difficult information.


  1. IT may well change the way you live, yet again. Welcome to the world mobile commerce, where your hand held device, be it a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or any other wireless application will soon be used for commercial transactions. Sce ptical? Consider these facts – In Japan, mobile phone are used for location based services where the mobile service provider ties up with a host of other players such as restaurants, car rental companies etc.


  1. In a genuine republic the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States on the will of the society.


  1. The physical location of a restaurant in the competitive landscape of the city has long been known as a major factor in its likely success or failure. Once restaurants are established in such environments they can do little about their location. All they can do is work to improve customer access to their premises. Restaurateurs often do this by engaging in battles with local authorities about car parking.






  1. We support the research on tropical dynamics and forecasting.


  1. There was no correlation between drug use and cure rates.


  1. Experts believe that industry development will help economy.


  1. There are varying plagiarisms across different university departments.


  1. 100 years ago Albert Einstein first published his theory of general relativity.


  1. The program will be shown on the television during the weekend.


  1. There is absolutely no archaeological evidence to prove that Alexander the Great existed.


  1. University students pay a lot of money for their education.                                                                                        You will be less stressed if you are well prepared for the exam.


  1. Would you pass me the book on the left-hand side?


  1. We would like a first draft of the assignment by Monday.


  1. We’ve decided to ask you to write four short pieces of written coursework this semester.


  1. This year we are applying to use a different type of assessment on this module.


  1. Students services provide help with housing and transport.


  1. Most of the assignments should be submitted on the same day.


  1. On this project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.


  1. Modern poetry often tests the conventions of language and the rhythm.


  1. It’s the words of common occurrence that have different referential value.


  1. 19. She is an expert of the 18th-century French literature.


  1. More females than males graduated from students last year.


  1. Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.


  1. The current compliance evidence indicates the need for further research.


  1. Students are held accountable for adhering to establish community standards.


  1. The inherent tension between these two features remains to be addressed.


  1. The library will be closed for 3 days over the bank holiday weekend.


  1. There are lots of people competing for the places in computer courses.


  1. It’s important to take gender into account when discussing the figures.


  1. Journalism is the collection and publication or transmission of news.


  1. I will check again but I am pretty sure we are assumed to read chapter two.


  1. The air pollution exceeds most acceptable levels by 10 times or more.


  1. An agency, however, typically has much wider substantive policymaking authority than a court.


  1. Adolescent suicide is rarely an impulsive reaction to immediate distress.


  1. The seminar will be on the last week of the quarter.


  1. The student welfare officer can help with questions about exam techniques.


  1. The visiting professor is going to give a lecture for geology.


  1. There are hundreds of clubs and societies to choose from.


  1. There is a position available for a junior lecture in media studies.


  1. Every year students pass biology class easily.


  1. Applicants for the course preferably have a preference for English or journalism.


  1. You can find a lot more information on the university website.


  1. Many health workers think that the pensioners are too old to understand.


  1. You need to finish the reporting of the chapter before going to the field trip.


  1. Tutorials are held for two hours every Thursday during the semester.


  1. The lecture on child psychology has been postponed until Friday.


  1. The medical center is located near the supermarket on North street.


  1. You can find the student’s service desk located on the ground floor of the whole building.


  1. Education and training provide important skills for the labour force.


  1. Inflation affects the demand, pricing and consumption of most products.


  1. The prosperity of the United States can be described as the consequence of its open exports.


  1. An introduction is an essential element of presentation.


  1. Before submitting your assignment, your advisor must approve your application.


  1. Native speakers’ language test is examined in their own language.


  1. Climate change is a fierce phenomenon concentrated by scientists.


  1. Despite their differences, all forms of lives share some/the same characteristics.


  1. Graphs are often useful for geographical research.


  1. The north campus car park could be closed on Sunday.


  1. A good theory delivers practical benefits for real people.


  1. Books for children often contain many bits of illustration.


  1. When workers ask for higher wages, the company raises its prices.


  1. Unlike short sleep, overlong sleep increases the risk of illness.


  1. He landed his job in a prestigious law firm.


  1. Those who seek for a formal extension should talk to their faculty for information.


  1. If you need additional help, visit the student resolve center.


  1. Global connections increased in academic communities thanks to social media.


  1. This camera can identify eyes and focus on them.


  1. Some people regarded this as eyewash whereas some other people asked for the status of their complaints and actions taken.


  1. Timetables about new term will be available next week.


  1. The new technician dropped the microscope in the biology lab.


  1. It may not mean that it is possible to solve the problem easily.


  1. The new technician dropped the microscope in the biology lab.




  1. Why not burn coal/soot emission?
  •  Soot is black, and is second to CO2 in terms of warming.
  • Its lifetime is shorter, so if we reduce soot, we can make changes in months.
  • The amount of warming from soot is about one quarter from CO2
  • There will be immediate effects in reducing warming in areas where soot emissions were large.
  1. Urbanisation:


  • The lecture accentuates the dynamic associated with urbanization as development. The progress of cities demands more people which is only attainable when the productivity of the countryside increases dramatically. The decreased need for labouring in the countryside as a result of increased productivity compels people to move to cities, search jobs and provide the labour force to the market


  1. Decline of species:


  • There are various conclusions. The decline of bees is well-documented by scientific evidence
  • The drivers are many and dependent on species. The pollinator loss is catastrophic
  • However, the positive side is that people are aware of this issue and are taking actions.
  • The apparent conclusion of the decline of bees is well-documented by strong scientific evidence, the cause of which is various and dependent on individual species. Although the pollinator loss is huge and catastrophic as predicted, the positive side is that people are aware of this issue and are taking actions firmly.


  1. Political Word:


  • The Socialism was born in 1880s and the Communism was originated in 1840s, which became as ideologies after the French Revolution.
  • The words political left and political right were originated from the French Revolution.
  • Political left is more aggressive while political right tends to be more conservative to the old regime.


  1. Food and income in Africa:


  • Wildlife is important for people’s livelihood, especially fish.
  • Billions of people in the world rely on fish as their main food source, the source of _protein, and source of income.


  • As food source, fish is beneficial to health. as a source of income, it alleviates poverty.


  • It is expected that fish industry will become the prime source of foreign income because it attracts tourists


  1. Faults and earthquakes:


  • The lecture is described as the relationship between faults and earthquake.


  • Faults are breaks in the earth crust.
  • Earthquake occurs on the faults, starts at the particular point on the faults plane and we call that the focus of the earthquake.


  • The epicentre is just the surface projection of the focus of the earthquake, which is just a point vertically above the focus at the surface of the earth.


  1. Prevention of epidemic transmitting:


  • In the developed world, like the United States, it uses various methods to prevent epidemic transmission with a wide range of resources such as invention of antiviral drugs and vaccines and health management.
  • However, epidemic prevention can be a big challenge for some less developed countries since they do not have the same level of resources as rich countries do.


  1. Using science to solve problems:


  • At CBAN, it addresses water purification and human health issues across the globe via individual and collaborative research. The key focus of the lecture is water problem, such as lack of access to clean water in the developing world and potential problems in getting tap water with rising energy cost. It is advised that nanotechnology could be a promising technology to tackle these challenges.


  1. Productivity and cost:


  • Productivity is the number of output per unit.
  • Cost per item is the unit cost.
  • Prices dropped dramatically during the manufacturing process.
  • In particular, for computers, the average prices dropped so dramatically because of the revolution we have.


  1. Bilingual in raising children:


  • Lots of people are concerned about raising children bilingually because they think brain is monolingual
  • They also think that children will be confused if they hear two languages
  • So my advice is one parent speak one language so that children can easily associate with that language.
  • Theory also told us that speaking two languages at the same time. child will be not being able to separate the languages.


  1. Wilson in American Literature:


  • This lecture talks about Wilson.
  • He comes from a very different world and is the focal point a American culture.


  • He is a major player in his generation to equate innovative culture to great culture of Europe.


  • He believes that literature is a part of life for everyone as for conversation.


  • He is a various man. In over 50 years, he is a dedicated literary journalist, investigative reporter.


  1. Myth between economic growth and human welfare:


  • The rich countries have reached a turning point in last few decades,
  • we can call it the great transformation in past 200 years.
  • In the early stages, they are good for human welfare. The economic growth is good for human welfare.
  • However, the Western countries are in the late stages. The increase in the economic growth does not necessarily increases human welfare.


  1. What forms clouds:


  • Every cloud drop is a particle
  • At sea, sea-spray, sea-salt are forming clouds
  • But when you go inland, different sources form clouds more effective than others
  • They reflect the light back to space, so keeping things much cooler
  • Also when more pollution is putting into the cloud, it affects weather pattern


  1. Biology:


  • Biology provides profound insights into the world around us, and all creatures on earth are similar and exceptionally related to each other. All life forms rely on DNA and RNA to store, transmit and use their genetic inherited information, and they are based on cells which are fundamental building blocks of all organisms. These organisms conduct metabolism and their basic chemistry is all very similar as well.



  1. Genes in 500 years:


  • The DNA in the picture has two lines, and genes provide protein
  • Each cell has two million proteins. but we cannot conclude which cells perform what type of functions.
  • Development of genes shows genetic difference on cognitive ability between present and ancestor. It also highlighted only a small number of genes are different between present and people from 5000 years ago.
  • The way of modern people 92 is no difference with our ancestors in half million years ago because the genes didn’t change much.


  1. HTML:


  • When90’s comes around, more and more people could get online.
  • Thanks to UK, the invention of HTML allowed people to create a wide variety of works.
  • During the first decade, people created things like web pages and lessons without fears, religion, motivation or profitability
  • Because people can feel a sense of enjoyment through their creation



  1. Green-Amory Lovins (SST):


  • Amory Lovins is an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge. but he is not an academic person. He has a consulting company and lives in a house which is built in the mountain. He has thought and used a lot of ways to save energy and solve problems with existing technologies for 30 years. People tend to regard him as genius and crazy Mr. Green.





  1. Hemingway and his vision:



  • The lecture is about the Hemingway and his global vision as shown in his literature. Hemingway love to travel and ride about various countries but they especially loved the Spanish language. He wrote “So For Whom The Bell Tolls’ a book on Spanish civil war. He was a part of this civil war as a journalist but got involved in it much more than that just like Hemingway ridings Spanish civil war was also a global event as it involved Russia, Germany and Italy as well.


  1. Exoplanets:


  • The lecture is about exoplanets which is one of the three our topics that the class is structured into. Exoplanets have become known in the last ten years only, they are quite hard to find and the lecturer explains this by giving the example of Sirius which is the brightest star in the sky and actually closes to us but even that is ten light years away.


  1. Winston Churchill:


  • According to the speaker, Winston Churchill was famous British leader during the World War 2. He won Noble Prize for Literature in 1953 and became an honorary citizen of the US. He was born in 1874 in England. His father was a conservative politician. Churchill lived in Dublin until the age of 6. He then studied in many schools in England, where his academic performance was poor. Then he enrolled in the army and went to Cuba to witness a fight between Spanish and Cubans. His political campaigns remained unsuccessful. He was also imprisoned once but escaped and continued fighting again.


  1. Asia’s demand for Australian exports:


  • Asia is becoming quite important for Australia’s economy day by day. Asia’s demand for Australian exports has helped Australia to survive the global financial crisis in a far better way than any other country in the world. Investment from Asia has added to the overall productivity of Australia. In 2013, 7 out of the 10 exports were in Asia, which contributed to 65% of the total exports. Asian markets and Australian geographic region are important for the trade ties between both countries.



  1. Automation:




  • Video questions, a male professor tells a lot of data, and there is a lot of data on the slide.


  • Mainly because of the development of technology, many will not be done in the future, and there will be data as a support.


  • However, the professional staff will always be stable.


  1. Morton Prince:


  • Morton Prince was an American physician and psychologist, his book. “Dissociation of Personality” was the best-seller at that time. It tells a story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, who was suffering from MPD (Multiple Personality Disorder). Miss Beauchamp has several personalities, namely B1, B2 and B3. There was hidden memory in these 3 personalities. Miss Beauchamp was B2. B2 knows about B1, B3 knows both B1 & B2, but B1 knows nothing about B2 or B3. The strongest personality account for most of the time and it will take over the others and become the main personality at the end. This case and theory give great help to crime investigation.


  1. Overweight Problems:


  • There are 20% of children in USA today have overweight problems. As a result, heart diseases have become more and more common among children. The smallest is 5 years old. Cases of heart attack and other health problems are happening earlier. This has to be solved because overweight will lead to more serious situations, such as Type 2 Diabetes, kidney failure and strokes.


  1. Traffic light colours:


  • Traffic light colours (red, amber and green) are used to represent food healthy standard. Different colours represent different information and categorize food types, so that people would know what to eat when they need some certain type of nutrients. It is the retailer’s responsibility to label food properly so that consumers can choose exactly what type of food they need. In this way, consumers can be aware of food with less salt or less fat



  1. Mars:


  • The research conducted on the Mars the indicates the prior existence of liquid water. The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and per chlorate. Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars in liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.








  • In 1943, what became known as the Green Revolution began when Mexico, unable to feed its growing population, shouted for help. Within a few years, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations founded the International Rice Research Institute in Asia, and by 1962, a new strain of rice called IR8 was feeding people all over the world. IR8 was the first really big modified crop to make a real impact on world hunger. In 1962 the technology did not yet exist to directly manipulate the genes of plants, and so IR8 was created by carefully crossing existing varieties: selecting the best from each generation, further modifying them, and finally finding the best. Here is the power of modified crops: IR8, with no fertilizer, straight out of the box, produced five times the yield of traditional rice varieties.


  1. Practice and Achievement:


  • Labour practice is crucial to improve performance in whatever area. Take violin learning as an example. Practice is what the experts do. Labour practice can also help with experience because through practice you can identify the weakness so that you can put most of your effort on that weakness. For example, if you are learning mathematics, you may find your weakness in geometry, and then you can just focus on geometry. Even for those talents with international recognition, they have practiced repeatedly for years before they have any achievement.



  1. Poverty in Rural and Urban Areas:


  • Environmental problems including water pollution and the sanitation of drinking water, indoor smoke and gas emission. Poor people are especially affected especially regarding their health. The rising demand for energy consumption is likely to sustain until 2030, which will affect a range of environmental problem



  1. Wages, Consumption and Household Debt


  • According to the speaker, the wage increase is 5%, which is very weak. The fluctuation of use is about 15%, which seems decent. The housing debt is about 40%, which is unusual. But can be understandable alter the wage and consumption increase.




  1. Visual Description:



  • The lecture talks about forms of description. We use different methods to describe a situation, and sometimes we have to use visual description, particularly when we do not witness the scenario. The speaker introduces his own experience that when he asked his mother about the Second World War, he would like his mother to describe vividly. On describing the shelter, he asked her what the shelter looked like and when she went to the shelter. From her response the speaker could get more visual evidence to write his book.


  1. Population in the UK:


  • This lecture is mainly about the population in some major areas of the UK. According to the lecture, the population in London is about 7 million, which equals that of Scotland and Wales in total. Unlike other countries where the population is scattered, most of the English people live in London, and this high population density makes it difficult to govern the city, which is also a problem caused by the lack of a national party. If the country has a national party, it can be easier for England to achieve better city management.



  1. Dissociation of Personality:


  • The powerful influence of Stevenson’s text on the discourse of dissociation is strikingly apparent in the work of American physician and psychologist Morton Prince. Rieber credits Prince with pioneering “the phenomenon of popularizing MPD as embodied in a spectacular case”. Prince’s Dissociation of a Personality (1905) tells the story of Miss Christine Beauchamp, a pseudonym for Clara Norton Fowler, who, according to Prince, “is a person in whom several personalities have become developed”.


  1. Children Obesity:


  • There are 20% of children in USA today have overweight problems. As a result, heart diseases have become more and more common among children. The smallest is 5 years old. Cases of heart attack and other health problems are happening earlier. This has to be solved because overweight will lead to more serious situations, such as Type 2 Diabetes, kidney failure and strokes.




  1. Politics and Happiness:


  • Only one country, tiny little Bhutan, wedged between China and India, has adopted the Gross National Happiness as the central index of government policy, and actually has a good deal of success in education and in health and in economic growth and in environmental preservation. They have a rather sophisticated way of measuring the effects of different policies on people’s happiness.


  • Science and Scientists:


  • In this dialog, the male is discussing about a science fiction. Science is all about evidence. He is talking about the difference between science and scientists, and he has said that he likes scientists rather than science. Because scientists can do research and propose questions to find out what is true.



  1. Overfishing:


  • Agriculture and fishing in history. Fish, shrimp, and seaweed were the major sources of food, especially in Asia. One thirds of human’s food supply was from the ocean and rivers. But now the food source from the ocean is decreasing, due to overfishing.





  1. Designation of the person who write for newspaper – A journalist or a reporter


  1. A government where power is concentrated in the hands of one person- Autocracy


  1. A person who wishes to throw his establishment- Anarchist


  1. Where can students who feel sick can get medical attention on campus- In the infirmary


  1. What do we use to launch space shuttle- Rocket boosters


  1. Which of the following is a type of classical music: chamber music or folk music – Chamber music


  1. How do you call a student that has finished his first year– Sophomore


  1. Are spider’s insects or arachnids– Arachnids (a class of eight-legged arthropods)


  1. Notice of death in newspaper– Obituary


  1. What is the name of fish– Puffer



  1. What is this book about? Cookery book




  1. People who eat Vegetable-Vegan


  1. What do we call a period of 1000 years– Millennium


  1. What do you need if you want to see things far Away-Binoculars


  1. What we call a person who studies ancient bones, rocks and plants




  1. What does a sundial measure– Time


  1. If you want to buy a ring, who do you approach, a jeweller or a pharmacist– Jeweller


  1. Collection of photographs – album


  1. Percentage of three quarters – 75%


  1. Frozen water – ice


  1. Not transportation– model car


  1. What is the opposite to “predecessor”? – Successor


  1. The name of the building where you can borrow books– Library


  1. Who is a physician who performs surgical operations– Surgeon




  1. How did people travel long distance before advent of airplane– By ship


  1. What do you call equipment we use to look at stars– Telescope


  1. When we say a couple of children, how many children we mean– 2


  1. What is the 26th letter of the modern English alphabet– Z


  1. What kind of book is written by a person about their own life




  1. What are the names of two genders– Male and Female


  1. A list of books representing some scholarly work for reference




  1. sc stands for what– Master of science


  1. Father of your cousin– Uncle


  1. Post means– After


  1. Cause and …-Effect


  1. Who seats at the cockpit of an airplane– Pilot


  1. What is the string or lace for fastening the shoes usually called


Shoes Lace


  1. Which device can be used for telling the time by using the sun




  1. Where we can find a Crossword– Newspaper


  1. Which device at home is used for waking up– Alarm clock


  1. What is the antonym for predecessors- Successors


  1. What is a vehicle used for traveling in space- Spacecraft


  1. If you buy a pair of things, how many did you buy- 2




  1. How many days added to February in a leap year- 1 day



  1. Who gives medicine- Pharmacist


  1. Which one is the result of economic growth? High unemployment or low unemployment- Low unemployment


  1. Which is fastest? jumping, jogging, walking- Jogging


  1. What kind of instrument do we use to look at the stars (or far distant objects)- Telescope / Binoculars


  1. Who studies the events (or people) in the past- Archaeologist


  1. If you are satisfied with a work/contract, what are the two things that you put/add under the contract paper at the bottom of the page, in addition to your name- Fingerprint and Signature / Sign / Stamp


  1. Which one of these is the possible subject of biology course genetics, xxx, xxx- Genetics


  1. What is the antonym of predecessor- Successor


  1. Which area has a humid environment (or which environment on earth is covered with humidity), a desert or a rainforest- Rainforest


  1. What is other math calculations- Division


  1. To how many hemispheres does the equator divide the earth- 2


  1. What do we call the animals with white ivory and long trunk




  1. In mathematics there are four basic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and what– Division


  1. What is the name of the planet in our solar system that supports life-




  1. The equator divides the earth into how many hemispheres- Two


  1. If a species is described as venomous, what substance it has– Toxin




  1. Animals with white ivory and long trunk– Elephant



62.How many eggs are there in a dozen- 12.


  1. What is the book with maps– Atlas


  1. What is the mountain with the possibility of explosion-


  1. What do you use to test the body temperature-


  1. Which of the following sports is more dangerous, parachuting, long-distance or running-


  1. What is the big musical instrument that has 88 black and white keys-




  1. How many days are there in February during a leap year- 29 days.


  1. Which part of body do optometrists examine-


  1. What is the day when someone is born-


  1. How would you call people who study ancient bones, rocks and plants- Archaeologist


  1. What is the opposite of ‘positive’-


  1. What is the joint between your shoulder and your forearm– Elbow


  1. If you have a toothache, who would you go to? // A person who studies teeth–


  1. What is the opposite to “predecessor”- Successor.


  1. The instructions that tell you how to cook food-


  1. What is the piece of paper that you receive after you have bought an item– Receipt


  1. What kind of food that vegetarians do not eat-




  1. What is the red liquid that flows from the heart to the rest of the body- Blood


  1. What is the source of solar energy- The Sun.


  1. How many sides does a pentagon have– Five


  1. How many eggs are there in a dozen-


  1. Which part at the end of book can be used for further reading? An index or a bibliography– Bibliography


  1. Computer, telephone and typewriter, which one is first invented–




  1. How do you describe the type of magazine that is published four times a year- Quarterly


  1. What kind of book would you use to look up a word that you don‘t understand- Dictionary


  1. What term is used for the amount of money we owe, asset or debt–




  1. Which one is not a mammal: elephant, kangaroo, butterfly or dolphin-




  1. Which one is not mythological animal? Unicorn, giraffe, dragon or mermaid- Giraffe


  1. What do humans and animals need to inhale for survival– Oxygen


  1. Which one would you use to describe the desert, humidity or aridity-Aridity.


  1. Where does a camel normally live? Desert


  1. What kind of book is written by a person about their own life-




  1. What do we call the frozen water-




  1. How many years does a centennial celebrates- 100 years.



  1. What is the heading at the top of an article or page in a newspaper or magazine-


  1. If you are happy with an agreement, what would you like to put at the bottom of the contract with the date


  1. What do we call the organ in our chest that we need to Breath-




  1. Apart from addition, subtraction, and multiplication, what is the other mathematical calculation method- Division


  1. Which department studies the humans body part of heart-




  1. What do you call a list in front of a book which outlines the structure of a book- Table of Contents


  1. Which one is the quickest to finish 100 m? Running, walking, or jogging- Running


  1. What can bring astronauts to space-


  1. Which one has a low humidity, a desert or a rainforest- A desert.


  1. How would you call someone who likes to drink heavily every day –




  1. When you get lost in city, what item do you need to buy to find out where you are and where to go-


  1. In which direction does the Sun arise from- East


  1. What material is the tire made of-


  1. What natural resource is used by a carpenter-


  1. How much per cent is three quarters- 75%


  1. How many years are there in a decade- 10 years




  1. What is the strings on shoes-



  1. The name of the building where you can borrow books-


  1. How would you describe an animal that no longer exist on the earth-Extinct


  1. What is H2O in chemistry- Water


  1. What attitude would you have when you are in a job interview, enthusiastic or passive- Enthusiastic


  1. What publication reports daily news-


  1. What is paper made from– Wood-Trees.


  1. What century are we living in now- The 21st century.


  1. What electronic device wakes you up in the morning- Alarm clock.


  1. What will snow become after it’s melt–


  1. What is the table that lists chemical elements in order of atomic numbers in rows and columns– Periodic Table (of Elements)


  1. Do unions work for workers or management– Workers


  1. What is paper made from-/Wood.


  1. How many times does a biannual magazine published in one year-




  1. Which part of your leg can make it possible to bend- Knee


  1. Which one is easier to recycle- Plastic or paper


  1. Oral English is different from academic English. Which is the best example for academic English: tolerant or put up with it-


  1. How do you call the tower containing a beacon light to warn or guide ships at sea- Light house




  1. Which one has more interactions between teachers and students, a lecture or a tutorial- A tutorial.


  1. How do you call a public sale in which goods or property are sold to the highest price offered-


  1. What do meter and millimetre measure, height or length-


  1. What is the force happened between the relative motion when objects are rubbed against each other–


  1. What is the opposite to “still”? – / Active. / Dynamic.


  1. What is the book that you cannot borrowed from library- Reserved


  1. Which object can be put into a handbag, a bicycle or a book– A


  1. What is the line between two countries– National Boundaries. /Borders.


  1. Despite all the advances in equality between the sexes, would more men women play professional football– More men


  1. Some calendars begin the week on Sunday, what is the other day which commonly starts a week-


  1. What do we call the alphabetical list, at the end of the book that tells – you where to find specific information- Index


  1. What is the joint between your shoulder and your forearm-


  1. Which sweet food do bees produce– Honey



143.What are the things that you touch with you left hand when you play a guitar– Strings


  1. What is the opposite to convex ( ‘kɒnveks])– Concave ( [‘kɒnkeɪv])




  1. What do we call a festival which is held every four years gathering people together as a sporting event- Olympics (Games).


  1. Which one has more academic articles, magazines or journals–




  1. Who sits in the cockpit of an airplane– Pilot


  1. Which of the following is not a means of transportation: by plane, by public transportation or car model– Car model.


  1. What is the thing that has iron inside and can attract iron–


  1. How would you describe the process in which ice becomes water–




  1. What will snow become after it melt-


  1. Which subject studies human behaviours, physics or psychology-




  1. How many hemisphere does the equator split the earth into-


  1. What do you need to see thing which are far away– Binoculars-telescope


  1. What do you call an equipment we use to look at stars— Telescope


  1. What is a thermometer used to measure–


  1. A document protecting people’s works- Patent/Copyright.


  1. How many years are there in a millennium- 1000 years.


  1. In which subject would you learn gravity, physics or chemistry-




  1. Whose job is to treat people that are ill or have an injury at a hospital– Doctor


  1. What would you call the people who are ill or have an injury and are treated by a doctor in hospital–




  1. What is one half of 100%- 50%



  1. What does ASAP mean– As soon as possible


  1. If there are 8 black balls and 1 white ball, and I randomly pick one, which color is mostly likely to be picked-


  1. How many wheels does a tricycle have–


  1. Under which circumstance would you describe the economy as a good one, the one with high unemployment or low unemployment- Low


  1. What is the doctor who specializes in treating children’s diseases-




  1. Why bees are important to agriculture– Pollination


  1. What’s the verb used to describe two people sharing the same opinion–


  1. What do guitars and violins have in common–


  1. What is the main harmful content in a cigarette–


  1. What do ornithologists study, humans, birds or machines-


  1. What is the job title for someone who makes meals in a restaurant–




  1. Where do you go to send mails, a post office or a coffee house–


Post office.


  1. Where would you hang your clothes, in a closet or a drawer–




  1. What do you call the strap that circulates a person in a car or an airplane-


  1. What kind of movement of the Sun can be seen during dawn–






  1. How do you call the seasonal flying from cold to warmer areas? Mitigation or migration– Migration


  1. When your bone is injured and broken, what would you say you have-


  1. What do we call the thread in the centre of the candle– candle




  1. If someone’s response is simultaneous, is it quick or slow–


  1. Before airplanes were invented, how did people travel from America to Europe- by ship.


  1. How many alphabets are there in English– 26


  1. hat is the shape with four sides- Square


  1. What form [of something] is created when we rub two things Together-Friction






  1. All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has bequeathed them through natural selection. They are not capable of striving towards truth; they simply absorb information, and behave in ways useful for their survival. The kinds of knowledge they require of the world have been largelypre-selected by evolution. No animal is capable of asking questions or generating problems that are irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionarily-designed needs. When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies’ south, it doesn’t wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south. Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally-defined goals such as the need to find food, shelter or a mate and to establish human-created goals. Some contemporary thinkers believe that there are indeed certain questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that “Our minds evolved by natural selection to solve problems that were life-and- death matters to our ancestors, not to commune with correctness or to answer any question we are capable of asking. We cannot hold ten thousand words in our short-term memory. We cannot see ultra-violet light. We cannot mentally rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot solve conundrums like free will and sentience.


  1. I knew it was a good idea because I had been there before. Born and reared on a farm I had been seduced for a few years by the idea of being a big shot that lived and worked in a city rather than only going for the day to wave at the buses. True, I was familiar with some of the minor disadvantages of country living such as an iffy private water supply sometimes infiltrated by a range of flora and fauna (including, on one memorable occasion, a dead lamb), the absence of central heating in farm houses and cottages, and a single track farm road easily blocked by snow, broken down machinery or escaped livestock. But there were many advantages as I told Liz back in the mid Seventies. Town born and bred, eight months pregnant and exchanging a warm, substantial Corstorphine terrace for a windswept farm cottage on a much lower income, persuading her that country had it over town might have been difficult.



3.Water is at the core of sustainable development. Water resources, and the range of services they provide, underpin poverty reduction, economic growth and environmental sustainability. From food and energy security to human and environmental health, water contributes to improvements




in social well-being and inclusive growth, affecting the livelihoods of billions.In a sustainable world that is achievable in the near future, water and related resources are managed in support of human well-being and ecosystem integrity in a robust economy. Sufficient and safe water is made available to meet every person’s basic needs, with healthy lifestyles and behaviors easily upheld through reliable and affordable water supply and sanitation services, in turn supported by equitably extended and efficiently managed infrastructure. Water resources management, infrastructure and service delivery are sustainably financed. Water is duly valued in all its forms, with wastewater treated as a resource that avails energy, nutrients and freshwater for reuse. Human settlements develop in harmony with the natural water cycle and the ecosystems that support it, with measures in place that reduce vulnerability and improve resilience to water-related disasters. Integrated approaches to water resources development, management and use – and to human rights – are the norm. Water is governed in a participatory way that draws on the full potential of women and men as professionals and citizens, guided by a number of able and knowledgeable organizations, within a just and transparent institutional framework.




  1. A tiny tree frog preserved in amber is believed to have lived about 25 million years ago, a Mexican researcher says. The chunk of amber containing the centimetre-long frog was uncovered by a miner in southern Chiapas state in 2005 and bought by a private collector, who lent it to scientists for study.Only a few preserved frogs have been found in chunks of amber — a stone formed by ancient tree sap — mostly in the Dominican Republic. Like those, the frog found in Chiapas was of the genus Craugastor, whose relatives still inhabit the region. Gerardo Carbot, the biologist with the Chiapas Natural History and Ecology Institute who announced the discovery on Wednesday, said it was the first such frog found in amber in Mexico. Carbot said he would like to extract a sample from the frog’s remains to see whether they contain well-preserved DNA, in order to identify the frog’s species. However, he expressed doubt that the stone’s owner would allow researchers to drill a small hole into the chunk of amber.


  1. American English is, without doubt, the most influential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There are many reasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation on earth and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, the distinction between a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference to power. As has been said, a language is a dialect with an army. Second, America’s political influence is extended through American popular culture, in particular through the international reach of American films (movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, The internationally dominant position of a culture results in a forceful




expansion of its language…. the expansion of language contributes… to

the prestige of the culture behind it. Third, the international prominence of American English is closely associated with the extraordinarily quick development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates. This means a computer s default setting for language is American English, although of course this can be changed to suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence of American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion of American culture and media, technological advance and the rapid development of communications technology.



  1. Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or in crevices within the reef, the Nurse sharks seem to prefer specific resting sites and will return to them each day after the nights hunting. By night, the sharks are largely solitary. Nurse sharks spend most of their time foraging through the bottom sediments in search of food. Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, molluscs, tunicates and other fish such as spiny lobsters, crabs, shrimps, sea urchins, octopuses, squid, marine snails and bivalves and in particularly, stingrays.


Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch, although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way, Nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral. Nurse sharks have been observed resting on the bottom with their bodies supported on their fins, possibly providing a false shelter for crustaceans which they then ambush and eat.


  1. What makes teaching online unique is that it uses the Internet, especially the World Wide Web, as the primary means of communication. Thus, when you teach online, you don’t have to be someplace to teach. You don’t have to lug your briefcase full of papers or your laptop to a classroom, stand at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard, or grade papers in a stuffy room while your students take a test. You don’t even have to sit in your office waiting for students to show up for conferences. You can hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner. You can do all this while living in a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok, even if you’re working for a college whose administrative offices are located in Florida or Dubai. You can attend an important conference in Hawaii on the same day that you teach your class in New Jersey, longing on from your laptop via the local cafe’s wireless hot sport or your hotel room’s high speed network.


Online learning offers more freedom for students as well. They can search for courses using the Web, scouring their institution or even the world fro




programs, classes and instructors that fit their needs. Having found an appropriate course, they can enrol and register, shop for their books, read articles, listen to lectures, submit their homework assignments, confer with their instructors, and receive their final grades – all online. They can assemble in virtual classrooms, joining other students from diverse geographical locales, forging bond and friendships not possible in conventional classrooms, which are usually limited to students from a specific geographical area.


  1. According to the United States Constitution, a presidential election is to be held once every fourth year. The process of electing a President and Vice-President begins long before Election Day. Candidates from both major and minor political parties and independent candidates begin to raise money and campaign at least one year in advance of the general presidential election. In order to officially represent a political party, a candidate must be nominated by that party.


This primary nomination process is a contest that often produces factions within political parties. These divisions impact the policy stances and agendas of the candidates running for nomination as they attempt to garner the support of party leaders and activists. The nominating process officially begins with the first state primaries and caucuses, which usually occur in the month of February of the election year. It is at these local events that voters are given their first chance to participate in electing the nation’s next President.


There are many factors that influence who will ultimately become the candidate for a party. The public’s perception of the candidates is influenced by such things as media reports, public opinion polls, candidate preference surveys, and advertising. These factors will help determine the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the candidates in the months leading up to the caucuses and primaries.



9.On a field trip to the Amazon in 1807, 19th-century explorer Alexander von Humboldt witnessed a group of horses lead through a muddy pool filled with electric eels, which he described as dramatically leaping up to attack the intruders. But scientists have doubted the story. An illustration of Alexander Von Humboldt’s story of the battle between the horses and electric eels.


The first time I read von Humboldt’s tale, I thought it was completely bizarre, Catania says. Why would the eels attack the horses instead of swimming away? But then he observed the same behavior by accident as he transferred the eels in his lab from one tank to another using a metal-rimmed net. Instead of swimming away, larger eels attacked the net by leaping out of the water.


Catania tracked the strength of the eels’ electric shock by attaching a voltmeter to an aluminum plate, or conductive metal strips to “predator”




objects such as a crocodile head replica. The zap a submerged eel distributes through the water is relatively weak when it reaches the target.


But when an eel touches it with its electricity-generating chin, the current travels directly to the target and has to travel through its body before it gets back to the water, Catania reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


This allows the eels to deliver shocks with a maximum amount of power to partially submerged land animals that invade their territory, Catania explains. “It also allows them to electrify a much larger portion of the invader’s body.


Catania found the eels leapt to attack, rather than receded, more often when the water in the aquarium was lower. He argues the attack lets electric eels better defend themselves during the Amazonian dry season, when they’re cornered in small pools and make easy prey.


  1. On a field trip to the Amazon in 1807, 19th-century explorer Alexander von Humboldt witnessed a group of horses lead through a muddy pool filled with electric eels, which he described as dramatically leaping up to attack the intruders. But scientists have doubted the story. An illustration of Alexander Von Humboldt’s story of the battle between the horses and electric eels.


The first time I read von Humboldt’s tale, I thought it was completely bizarre, Catania says. Why would the eels attack the horses instead of swimming away? But then he observed the same behavior by accident as he transferred the eels in his lab from one tank to another using a metal-rimmed net. Instead of swimming away, larger eels attacked the net by leaping out of the water.


Catania tracked the strength of the eels’ electric shock by attaching a voltmeter to an aluminum plate, or conductive metal strips to “predator” objects such as a crocodile head replica. The zap a submerged eel distributes through the water is relatively weak when it reaches the target.


But when an eel touches it with its electricity-generating chin, the current travels directly to the target and has to travel through its body before it gets back to the water, Catania reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


This allows the eels to deliver shocks with a maximum amount of power to partially submerged land animals that invade their territory, Catania explains. “It also allows them to electrify a much larger portion of the invader’s body.


Catania found the eels leapt to attack, rather than receded, more often when the water in the aquarium was lower. He argues the attack lets electric eels better defend themselves during the Amazonian dry season, when they’re cornered in small pools and make easy prey.





  1. Malaysia is one of the most pleasant, hassle-free countries to visit in Southeast Asia. Aside from its gleaming 21st century glass towers, it boasts some of the most superb beaches, mountains and national parks in the region.


Malaysia is also launching its biggest-ever tourism campaign in effort to lure 20 million visitors here this year. More than 16 million tourists visited in 2005, the last year for which complete statistics were available. While the majority of them were from Asia, mostly neighboring Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Brunei, China, Japan and India, a growing number of Western travelers are also making their way to this Southeast Asian tropical paradise. Of the 885,000 travelers from the West, 240,000 were from the United Kingdom, 265,000 from Australia and 150,000 from the U.S.

Any tourist itinerary would have to begin in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, where you will find the Petronas Twin Towers, which once comprised the world’s tallest buildings and now hold the title of second-tallest. Both the 88-story towers soar 1,480 feet high and are connected by a sky-bridge on the 41st floor.

Also worth visiting is the Central Market, a pre-war building that was the main wet market for the city, and has now been transformed into an arts and cultural center.


The limestone temple Batu Caves, located 9 miles north of the city, have a 328-foot-high ceiling and feature ornate Hindu shrines, including a 141-foot-tall gold-painted statue of a Hindu deity. To reach the caves, visitors have to climb a steep flight of 272 steps.


In Sabah state on Borneo island — not to be confused with Indonesia’s Borneo — you’ll find the small mushroom-shaped Sipadan island, off the coast of Sabah, rated as one of the top five diving sites in the world. Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising from a 2,300-foot abyss in the Celebes Sea.


You can also climb Mount Kinabalu, the tallest peak in Southeast Asia, visit the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, go white-water rafting and catch a glimpse of the bizarre Proboscis monkey, a primate found only in Borneo with a huge pendulous nose, a characteristic pot belly and strange honking sounds.

While you’re in Malaysia, consider a trip to Malacca. In its heyday, this southern state was a powerful Malay sultanate and a booming trading port in the region. Facing the Straits of Malacca, this historical state is now a place of intriguing Chinese streets, antique shops, old temples and reminders of European colonial powers.

Another interesting destination is Penang, known as the “Pearl of the Orient.” This island off the northwest coast of Malaysia boasts of a rich Chinese cultural heritage, good food and beautiful beaches.




12.When the Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surface were quickly copied. Printer’s ink was applied to the Stone and white paper laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of the text—but in reverse. Since then, many copies or “facsimiles” have been made using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem.

An opportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object was made the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material the stone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed, the different substances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from human handling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printer’s ink from 1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which had been left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cotton swabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the face of the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.




  1. If you’ve been buying sports gels to keep you going during your workout, you might want to try honey instead. According to findings presented today at the annual Experimental Biology conference, honey delivers a significant performance boost to athletes during strenuous exercise.


“Numerous studies have singled out carbohydrates as a critical nutrient in endurance exercise,” says principal investigator Richard Kreider of the University of Memphis Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory. “Most of the studies to date have shown supplementation with glucose to provide the extra staying power. We were pleased to find that honey, a ‘cocktail’ of various natural sugars, performed just as well.”


The team let nine competitive male cyclists cycle for 64 kilometers each week for three weeks, feeding them honey, dextrose gel or a flavored, calorie-free placebo. Participants received 15 grams of that supplement along with 250 millilitres of water before they raced and then every 16 kilometres while cycling. Both the honey and the dextrose gel led to better times and more cycling power among the athletes, as compared with the placebois effects. While the dextrose gel slightly outperformed honey, the difference was negligible, leading the researchers to conclude




that honey can be a natural and effective carbohydrate source for endurance athletes.


  1. New research shows that overqualified workers tend to perform better than other employees, and they don’t quit any sooner. Furthermore, a simple managerial tactic—empowerment—can mitigate any dissatisfaction they may feel.


The prejudice against too-good employees is pervasive. Companies tend to prefer an applicant who is a “perfect fit” over someone who brings more intelligence, education, or experience than needed. On the surface, this bias makes sense: Studies have consistently shown that employees who consider themselves overqualified exhibit higher levels of discontent. For example, overqualification correlated well with job dissatisfaction in a 2008 study of 156 call-center reps by Israeli researchers Saul Fine and Baruch Nevo. And unlike discrimination based on age or gender, declining to hire overqualified workers is perfectly legal, as shown by U.S. federal court rulings upholding the New London, Connecticut, police department’s rejection of a high-IQ candidate on the grounds that he’d probably become dissatisfied and quit.


This kind of thinking has tossed untold numbers of experienced, highly skilled people into the ranks of the long-term unemployed, a group that now constitutes nearly half of all U.S. jobless.


But even before the economic downturn, a surplus of overqualified candidates was a global problem, particularly in developing economies, where rising education levels are giving workers more skills than are needed to supply the growing service sectors. In China, where the number of college graduates has tripled since 1998, more than one-fourth of this year’s 6.3 million college grads are out of work, according to Bloomberg Businessweek.


  1. In the past two centuries there has been a dramatic change in the role of food and eating in Australian public consciousness. Public discussion of food was largely confined to matters of supply, distribution and price. Towards the end of the nineteenth century some newspapers were offering regular columns of advice on housekeeping topics, including menu planning and recipes. However, eating remained essentially a private activity, even when undertaken in company.


By the late twentieth century, food and eating had become prominent public preoccupations. Evidence of this dramatic cultural revaluation abounds. In bookstores, for example cookery and all things related to it are often among the larger displays. There are specialty stores selling all manner of cookware table ware and other paraphernalia associated with food eating and drinking.


Perhaps most telling is the extension of the phenomenon of mass media celebrity to include culinary personalities. Scholars, too, have jumped on




the commodification bandwagon. Now degrees in gastronomy seem set to emulate the MBA phenomenon of the 1980s and food has become a respectable subject for investigation with philosophers, sociologists, historians, cultural theorists, ecologists and many other all having a go at it.


However, surprisingly, the question seems to have held little fascination for most historians. For the best part of two centuries they have managed to write their accounts of colonization and nationhood with only scant reference to how the settlers and their descendants fed themselves.


  1. When Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492, the island had already been settled by Native Americans for about 5,000 years. The occupants in Columbus’s time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos who lived by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around half a million (the estimates range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus initially found them peaceful and friendly, until he and his Spaniards began mistreating them.


Unfortunately for the Tainos, they had gold, which the Spanish coveted but didn’t want to go to the work of mining themselves. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and its Indian population among individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus’s arrival, that original population of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000, most of whom died that year of smallpox to bring the population down to 3,000.


  1. Scientists believe they may have found a way to prevent complications that can arise following cataract surgery, the world’s leading cause of blindness.

Detailing why complications can occur after surgery, researchers from the University of East Anglia (UEA) explained that while cataract surgery works well to restore vision, a few natural lens cells always remain after the procedure. Over time, the eye’s wound-healing response leads these cells to spread across the underside of the artificial lens, which interferes with vision, causing what’s known as ‘posterior capsule opacification’ or secondary cataract.


UEA’s School of Biological Sciences academic, Dr Michael Wormstone, who led the study, said: “Secondary visual loss responds well to treatment with laser surgery. But as life expectancy increases, the problems of cataract and posterior capsule opacification will become even greater in terms of both patient well being and economic burden. It’s essential that we find better ways to manage the condition in future.”


As a result, researchers are designing new artificial lenses that can be placed into a capsular bag that stays open, instead of shrink-wrapping




closed, which currently occurs. It is believed that, through the new approach, fluid in the eye can flow around the artificial lens, therefore diluting and washing away the cell-signalling molecules that encourage cell re-growth.


  1. Autism is a disorder characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Over the past 40 years, the measured prevalence of autism has multiplied roughly 10-fold. While progress has been made in understanding some of the factors associated with increased risk and rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty what causes autism or what caused autism prevalence to rise so precipitously. There is, however, a growing awareness among scholars that focusing solely on individual risk factors such as exposure toxicants, prenatal complications, or parental education is insufficient to explain why autism prevalence rates have increased so stunningly. Social and institutional processes likely play an important role. For example, changes in diagnostic criteria and an influx of resources dedicated to autism diagnosis may be critical to understanding why prevalence rates have risen. Increased awareness and social influence have been implicated in the rise of autism and a variety of comparable disorders, where social processes mimic the effects of contagion. Studies have examined the contribution of changes in diagnostic criteria and diagnostic substitution to rising autism prevalence rates, but the importance of institutional factors, resources for diagnosis, and greater awareness have not been systematically assessed. The sociological literature on health and inequality, however, provides substantial motivation for exploring how individual- and community-level effects operate to shape the likelihood of an autism diagnosis.


  1. To understand the final reason why the news marketplace of ideas dominated by television is so different form the one that emerged in the world dominated by the printing press, it is important to distinguish the quality of vividness experienced by television viewers from the “vividness” experienced by readers. I believe that the vividness experienced in the reading of words is automatically modulated by the constant activation of the reasoning centres of the brain that are used in the process of cocreating the representation of reality the author has intended. By contrast, the visceral vividness portrayed on television has the capacity to trigger instinctual responses similar to those triggered by reality itself – and without being modulated by logic, reason, and reflective thought. The simulation of reality accomplished in the television medium is so astonishingly vivid and compelling compared with the representations of reality conveyed by printed words that it signifies much more than an incremental change in the way people consume information. Books also convey compelling and vivid representation of reality, of course. But the




reader actively participates in the conjuring of the reality the book’s author is attempting to depict. Moreover, the parts of the human brain that are central to the reasoning process are continually activated by the very act of reading printed words: Words are composed of abstract symbols – letters – that have no intrinsic meaning themselves until they are strung together into recognisable sequences.


Television, by contrast, present to its viewers a much more fully formed representation of reality – without requiring the creative collaboration that words have always demanded.


  1. As warmer winter temperatures become more common, one way for some animals to adjust is to shift their ranges northward. But a new study of 59 North American bird species indicates that doing so is not easy or quick — it took about 35 years for many birds to move far enough north for winter temperatures to match where they historically lived.

For example, black vultures have spread northward in the last 35 years and now winter as far north as Massachusetts, where the minimum winter temperature is similar to what it was in Maryland in 1975. On the other hand, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker did not alter its range at all despite the warming trend, possibly because its very specific habitat requirements precluded a range shift.


Both of these scenarios could represent problems for birds, La Sorte said. Species that do not track changes in climate may wind up at the limits of their physiological tolerance, or they may lose important habitat qualities, such as favored food types, as those species pass them by. But they also can’t move their ranges too fast if the habitat conditions they depend on also tend to lag behind climate.


  1. UCLA neurology professor Paul Thompson and his colleagues scanned the brains of 23 sets of identical twins and 23 sets of fraternal twins. Since identical twins share the same genes while fraternal twins share about half their genes, the researchers were able to compare each group to show that myelin integrity was determined genetically in many parts of the brain that are key for intelligence. These include the parietal lobes, which are responsible for spatial reasoning, visual processing and logic, and the corpus callosum, which pulls together information from both sides of the body.


The researchers used a faster version of a type of scanner called a HARDI (high-angular resolution diffusion imaging) — think of an MRI machine on steroids — that takes scans of the brain at a much higher resolution than a standard MRI. While an MRI scan shows the volume of different tissues in the brain by measuring the amount of water present, HARDI tracks how water diffuses through the brain’s white matter — a way to measure the quality of its myelin.




“HARDI measures water diffusion,” said Thompson, who is also a member of the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro-Imaging. “If the water diffuses rapidly in a specific direction, it tells us that the brain has very fast connections. If it diffuses more broadly, that’s an indication of slower signaling, and lower intelligence.”


  1. Life expectancies have been rising by up to three months a year since 1840, and there is no sign of that flattening. Gratton and Scott draw on a 2009 study to show that if the trend continues, more than half the babies born in wealthier countries since 2000 may reach their 100th birthdays.


With a few simple, devastating strokes, Gratton and Scott show that under the current system it is almost certain you won’t be able to save enough to fund several decades of decent retirement. For example, if your life expectancy is 100, you want a pension that is 50 per cent of your final salary, and you save 10 per cent of your earnings each year, they calculate that you won’t be able to retire till your 80s. People with 100-year life expectancies must recognise they are in for the long haul, and make an early start arranging their lives accordingly.


But how to go about this? Gratton and Scott advance the idea of a multistage life, with repeated changes of direction and attention. Material and intangible assets will need upkeep, renewal or replacement. Skills will need updating, augmenting or discarding, as will networks of friends and acquaintances. Earning will be interspersed with learning or self-reflection. As the authors warn, recreation will have to become “re-creation”.


  1. How can we design great cities from scratch if we cannot agree on what makes them great? None of the cities where people most want to live — such as London, New York, Paris and Hong Kong — comes near to being at the top of surveys asking which are best to live in.


The top three in the most recent Economist Intelligence Unit’s liveability ranking, for example, were Melbourne, Vancouver and Vienna. They are all perfectly pleasant, but great? The first question to tackle is the difference between liveability and greatness. Perhaps we cannot aspire to make a great city, but if we attempt to make a liveable one, can it in time become great?


There are some fundamental elements that you need. The first is public space. Whether it is Vienna’s Ringstrasse and Prater park, or the beaches of Melbourne and Vancouver, these are places that allow the city to pause and the citizens to mingle and to breathe, regardless of class or wealth. Good cities also seem to be close to nature, and all three have easy access to varied, wonderful landscapes and topographies.


A second crucial factor, says Ricky Burdett, a professor of urban studies at the London School of Economics, is a good transport system. “Affordable




public transport is the one thing which cuts across all successful cities,” he says.


  1. What do great managers actually do?

In my research, beginning with a survey of 80,000 managers conducted by the Gallup Organization and continuing during the past two years with in-depth studies of a few top performers, I’ve found that while there are as many styles of management as there are managers, there is one quality that sets truly great managers apart from the rest: They discover what is unique about each person and then capitalize on it. Average managers play checkers, while great managers play chess. The difference? In checkers, all the pieces are uniform and move in the same way; they are interchangeable. You need to plan and coordinate their movements, certainly, but they all move at the same pace, on parallel paths. In chess, each type of piece moves in a different way, and you can’t play if you don’t know how each piece moves. More important, you won’t win if you don’t think carefully about how you move the pieces. Great managers know and value the unique abilities and even the eccentricities of their employees, and they learn how best to integrate them into a coordinated plan of attack.


This is the exact opposite of what great leaders do. Great leaders discover what is universal and capitalize on it. Their job is to rally people toward a better future. Leaders can succeed in this only when they can cut through differences of race, sex, age, nationality, and personality and, using stories and celebrating heroes, tap into those very few needs we all share. The job of a manager, meanwhile, is to turn one person’s particular talent into performance. Managers will succeed only when they can identify and deploy the differences among people, challenging each employee to excel in his or her own way. This doesn’t mean a leader can’t be a manager or vice versa. But to excel at one or both, you must be aware of the very different skills each role requires.


  1. Here’s a term you’re going to hear much more often: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It’s what you and many other people will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, before you drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car – your plug-in vehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight, with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometres through city traffic.


When you arrive at work you’ll plug in your car once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form your car’s batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when you bought your car was to sign a contract with your favourite electricity supplier, allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car’s batteries should they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spot power prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys form your car would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal




for them too, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If, driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat, a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, even biofuel, would automatically cut in, driving a generator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.


Concerns over ‘peak oil’, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this century there could be five times as many motor vehicles registered world-wide as there are now, mean that the world’s almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels for transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.



  1. An international team of scientists, including a physiologist from The University of Manchester, will head to the largest island in the world later this month to investigate the Greenland shark – believed to be the longest-lived vertebrate animal. Dr Holly Shiels, who is also a trustee of the Physiological Society, will be the only UK-based scientist on the expedition aboard the research vessel Sanna commissioned by the Greenland government. The purpose of the mission is to understand more about the Greenland shark, a top predator in the Arctic, which lives for more than 272 years – possibly more than 400. This extreme age was only revealed by scientists from Copenhagen last year and published in the journal Science. Little else is known about how the shark survives in the deep seas around the Arctic Circle. It is both a hunter and a scavenger and has been seen to feed on seals and been found with the remains of polar bears and whales in its stomach. It is also one of the largest species of shark – growing to about five-and-a-half metres, just a bit smaller than the great white. However, more information is required to ensure the species is adequately protected, as Dr Shiels explained: “Greenland sharks are classified as data deficient,” she said. “This means that we don’t know enough to put measures in place to protect them from over-fishing, pollution or climate change. This expedition has a broad range of expertise which means that we’ll be able to take full advantage of any sharks that we discover.”








  1. Fair trade coffee is seen as a way of compensating farmers fairly for their produce. But a section of people believe that the premium price of Fair trade coffee is not justified as most of it is spent on Fair trade marketing and advertising campaigns. What is your opinion? Do you support Fair trade coffee and believe it is beneficial for farmers?


  1. Financial problems in a major economy like the USA effects the economies of countries all over the world. Some economists believe that the way to prevent these problems is by reducing the trade with large economies like the USA and China. Do you think this is a viable solution the problem?


  1. Early childhood is seen as a period in which most of the intellectual development of a child happens. Parents send their children to several classes and activities to make the most of this period? Do you think engaging the child in so many activities, has more advantages or disadvantages?


  1. Companies like Apple come up with new version of their products every few months. Is it good to adapt the new technology and products as soon as they are released, or shall we wait for them to become more common and mainstream?


  1. “A person can achieve success only if he spends each and every moment of his day working towards his goal”. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?


  1. Whether design of buildings will have a positive or negative impact on people’s life and work.


  1. Medical technology can increase the human’s life expectancy. Is it blessing or curse?


  1. Should government build more road to allow more vehicle owner or improve the network of public transport?


  1. Effective learning requires time, comfort and peace so it is impossible to combine study and employment. Study and employment distract one from another. To what extent do you think the statements are realistic? Support your opinion with examples.




  1. In a cashless society, people use more credit cards. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon?


  1. University only requires applying digital media rather than continuously upgrading textbook. Agree or disagree.


  1. Some people think digital age make them lazier while some people think it gives them more knowledge. What’s your idea?


  1. There are more negative impacts than benefits of people using mobile devices. Do you agree?


  1. Students extra classes after school and parents’ opinion.


  1. People should get retire to made a way for young people. Give opinion.


  1. Soon retirement of workers to create job opportunities for young people. Give opinion.


  1. Students should be banned from computer and online gaming at school as they have no educational values. Do you agree or disagree?


  1. Governments are continuously promising for Economic progress. It should be abandoned or not.


  1. “Continuous economic growth promises by countries’ governments is an illusion that need to be abandoned” what is your idea about this phrase?


  1. Business whether is small or large, is not to change society or save planet. Do you agree or disagree?


  1. Technology allows us to have a useful and interesting life than in the past. Do you agree or disagree?


  1. A university degree is necessary for a successful career in today’s world. Do you agree with this opinion? Use your own experience to support.


More Essay Practise visit here : All Essays








  1. The average individual is of less value to himself, to his family and to society than he could be.


  1. We are losing every year a vast army of individuals who are in their productive prime.


  1. Of course, most people are well enough to attend to their work, but nearly all are suffering from some ill, mental or physical, acute or chronic. D. There is too much illness, too much suffering.


  1. It is natural to be healthy, but we have wandered so far astray that disease is the rule and good health the exception.






  1. “It’s about how we’re all so affected by the harbour and its surrounds, how special it is to all of us and how it moves us,” said the Welcome to Country’s creative director, Rhoda Roberts.


  1. Fireworks and special effects, including a red” waterfall” from the bridge base, will turn the structure built in 1932 into a giant Aboriginal flag shortly after the sun sets for the last time in 2015.


  1. From 8:40pm, the bridge will be turned into a canvas showing the Welcome to Country ceremony.


  1. D. Fireworks and special effects will also turn the bridge into a giant Aboriginal flag before the 9pm fireworks display.


Answer: F, D, E, B, A, C



  1. It is evident, therefore, that the ants of each community all recognize one another, which is very remarkable.


  1. However, they are in hostility not only with most other insects, including ants of different species, but even with those of the same species if belonging to different communities.


  1. I have over and over again introduced ants from one my nets into another nest of the same species, and they were invariably attacked, seized by a leg or an antenna, and dragged out.


  1. The communities of ants are sometimes very large, numbering even to 500,000 individuals.


  1. And it is a lesson to us that no one has ever yet seen quarrel between any two ants belonging to the same community.


Answer: D, E, B, C, A







  1. Leave to cook for five years and you have a feast of profits.
  2. Take an underperforming company.
  3. That has been the recipe for private-equity groups during the past 200 years.


  1. D. Add some generous helpings of debt, a few spoonful’s of management incentives and trim all the fat.


Answer: B, D, A, C




  1. But even the Evil American Corporate Magnate is a pretty likable guy. B. Unlike Barnes’s previous books, Mother of Storms has a fairly large cast of viewpoint characters.


  1. They’re not all necessarily good guys, either, although with the hurricanes wrecking wholesale destruction upon the world’s coastal areas, ethical categories tend to become irrelevant.


  1. This usually irritates me, but I didn’t mind it here, and their interaction are well handled and informative, although occasionally in moving them about the author’s manipulations are a bit blatant.


Answer: B, D, C, A



  1. They pointed to what they called an “Asian paradox,” which refers to lower rates of heart disease and cancer in Asia despite high rates of cigarette smoking.


  1. They theorized that the 1.2 litres of green tea hat is consumed by many Asians each day provides high levels of polyphenols and other antioxidants.


  1. These compounds may work in several ways to improve cardiovascular health, including preventing blood platelets from sticking together and improving cholesterol levels.


  1. Specifically (to be more specific), green tea may prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol (the “bad” type), which, in turn, can reduce the build-up of plaque in arteries, the researchers wrote.


  1. In May 2006, researchers at Yale University School of Medicine weighed in on the issue with a review article that looked at more than 100 studies on the health benefits of green tea.


Answer: E, A, B, C, D







  1. Innovation in India is as much due to entrepreneurialism as it is to IT skills, says Arun Maria, chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India. B. He suggests the country’s computer services industry can simply outsource research to foreign universities if the capability is not available locally.


  1. “This way, I will have access to the best scientists in the world without having to produce them myself,” says Mr Maria.


  1. Indian businessmen have used IT to create new business models that enable them to provide services in a more cost-effective way. This is not something that necessarily requires expensive technical research.



Answer: A, D, B, C



  1. logical candidate for such a species is the chimpanzee, which shares 98,4% of the human genetic code.


  1. It does not follow from their lack of speech, however, that chimpanzees are incapable of language, that is, a human-like grammar. C. Chimpanzees cannot speak because, unlike humans, their vocal cord is located higher in their throat and cannot be controlled as well as human vocal cords.


  1. A simple way to disprove this Innateness Hypothesis, as linguists call it, is to demonstrate that other species have the capacity to speak but for some reason simply have not developed speech.


  1. Perhaps they can acquire grammar and speak if they could use grammar some way other than with a voice.


Answer: D, A, C, B, E




  1. Julia Bocking’s Literacy and Dads (LADS) project aims to increase the number of fathers participating as literacy helpers in K-2 school reading programs at Queanbeyan Primary Schools.


  1. “There’s no program like this in Australia,” Ms Bocking said, who devised the project as the final component of her community education degree at the University.


  1. A university of Canberra student has launched the nation’s first father-led literacy project, to encourage father to become more involved in their children’s literacy.


  1. Having worked as a literacy tutor with teenagers, Ms Bock saw the need for good attitudes towards reading to be formed early on – with the help of more male role models.


Answer: C, A, B, D





  1. After finishing first in his pilot training class, Lindbergh took his first job as the chief pilot of an airmail route operated by Robertson Aircraft Co. of Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri.


  1. He flew the mail in a de Havilland DH04 biplane to Springfield Illinois, Peoria and Chicago.


  1. During his tenure on the mail route, he was renowned for delivering the mail under any circumstances.


  1. After a crash, he even salvaged bags of mail from his burning aircraft and immediately phoned Alexander Varney, Peoria’s airport manager, to advise him to send a truck.



Answer: A, B, C, D




  1. A disastrous capital hike, an expensive foray into truck business and uncertainly about the reason for a share buyback has in recent years left investors bewildered.


  1. Many investors have been disappointed and frightened away. C. Despite posting healthy profits, Volkswagen shares trade at a discount to peer due to bad reputation among investors.
  2. The main problem with Volkswagen is the past.
  3. Volkswagen share trades at about nine times the 2002 estimated earnings, compared to BMW’s 19 and are the second cheapest in the sector.


Answer: C, A, D, B, E








  1. Instead of moving along a straight line, the jet stream flows in a wavelike fashion; the waves propagate eastward (in the Northern Hemisphere) at speeds considerably slower than the wind speed itself. B. Jet stream, narrow, swift currents or tubes of air found at heights ranging from 7 to 8 mi (11.3-12.9 km) above the surface of the earth. C. Since the progress of an airplane is aided or impeded depending on whether tail winds or head winds are encountered, in the Northern Hemisphere the jet stream is sought by eastbound aircraft, in order to gain speed and save fuel, and avoided by westbound aircraft.


  1. They are caused by great temperature differences between adjacent air masses.


Answer: B, D, A, C







  1. But the issues themselves are not new and have historical root that go much deeper than have been acknowledged.


  1. It is also a recurrent theme in the press, from the highbrow pages of Prospect to the populism to the Daily Mail.


  1. In the early years of the twenty-first century the impact of immigrants on well fare state has become a staple of discussion among policy makers and politicians.


  1. Inevitably, these discussions focus on present-day dilemmas.






  1. He proposes that instead of arguing for sacrifice. environmentalists should show where the rewards might lie


  1. In his fascinating book Carbon Detox, George Marshall argues that people are not persuaded by information.


  1. Our views are formed by the views of the people with whom we mix. Of the narratives that might penetrate these circles, we are more likely to listen to those which offer us some reward.


  1. We should emphasise the old-fashioned virtues of uniting in the face of a crisis. of resourcefulness and community action.








  1. But since ivory-yielding species are now endangered and protected by treaty, plastics are now almost exclusively used.


  1. Traditionally, the sharps (black keys) were made from ebony and the flats (white keys) were covered with strips of ivory


  1. Spruce is normally used in high-quality pianos


  1. Piano keys are generally made of spruce or basswood.






  1. Dietary supplements can appear to be a healthful option for treating certain health conditions.


  1. The drug sibutramine is one of these substances
  2. Their labels list herbs or other natural ingredients that consumers assume are safe to take




  1. It was once approved for weight loss but was withdrawn after concerns arose that medication could increase the risk of heart attacks.


  1. But over the past several years, regulators have detected prohibited substances in some of these products that aren’t included on the labels.






  1. Stephen Stanley, chief economist at RBS Greenwich Capital, said: “Builders will probably have to continue to work off bloated stocks of finished homes for most of 2007.”


  1. Americans bought far fewer new homes last month, according to government data released on Wednesday that showed sales fell at the fastest rate in 13 years.


  1. However, the Federal Reserve views the overhang of unsold homes as cause for concern but remains cautiously optimistic the sector is stabilising and will not derail the economy


  1. The biggest drop was in the west, where sales fell 37 per cent to an annual rate of 166,000.


  1. House prices also eased as the median cost of a new home fell 2.1 per cent from a year ago to $239,800.


  1. The pace of sales fell to 937,000 from a rate of 1.1m the previous month, while inventories of unsold homes stood at 537,000.


ANSWER: B, E, F, D, A, C



  1. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process.


  1. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish not what you are going to do.


  1. A review is a survey of what you have covered.


  1. Rereading is an important part of the review process.





  1. They would walk a while and then stop and look around to see where she was.


  1. Sometimes the matriarch even fed Babyl.
  2. While watching elephants in the Samburu National Reserve in northern Kenya, I noticed one that walked very slowly.


  1. Depending on how she was doing, they would either wait or go on.




  1. Elephant expert lain Douglas-Hamilton told me that this female elephant, Babyl, had been crippled for years, but the other members of the herd never left her.





  1. Practically speaking, however, it is about as easy to present all sides of an issue as it is to invite candidates from all political parties to a presidential debate.


  1. Some perspectives ultimately are not included.


  1. Journalists try to be fair and objective by presenting all sides of a particular issue.


  1. Although experts like journalists are expected to be unbiased they invariably share the system biases of the disciplines and cultures in which they work.


Answer: D, C, A, B



  1. Ultimately, the scientist say, this approach could enable the design and construction of new buildings that would not be feasible with traditional building methods.


  1. Researchers have developed a system that can 3-D print the basic structure of an entire incorporated as the process goes along.


  1. Even the internal structure could be modified in new ways; different materials could be incorporated as the process goes along.


  1. Structure built with this system could be produced faster and less expensively than traditional construction methods allow.


Answer: B, D, C, A



  1. But Polish forces could not defend a long border.


  1. German invasion of Poland officially triggered the Second World War. C. Meanwhile, the world had woken up to the potential of atomic energy and countries were conducting tests to exploit the same.


  1. They lacked compact defence lines and additionally their supply lines were also poorly protected.


  1. In the beginning, Britain and France were hopeful that Poland should be able to defend her borders.








  1. Closely spaced soundings show that many parts of the oceanic floors are as rugged as mountainous regions.


  1. A broad, week-defined ridge-the Mid- Atlantic ridge- runs north and south between Africa and the two Americas.


  1. However, the floor at the Atlantic is becoming fairly well known as a result of special surveys since 1920.


  1. Numerous other major irregularities diversify the Atlantic floor.


  1. The topography of the ocean floors in none too well known, since in great areas the available sounding are hundreds of even thousands of miles apart.







  1. Instead, it auctioned 40 -year concessions to areas ruled off on a map, with the right to log 5% of the area each year. The aim was encouraging strict management plants and sustainable extraction.


  1. It abolished the previous system of annual contracts.


  1. In 2001 the government, egged on by WWF, a green group, tried to regulate logging in the relatively small part of the Peruvian Amazon where this is allowed.


  1. That pocket denotes a tiny patch of legally luggable land sandwiched between four natural reserves, all rich in mahogany and accessible from the town. ―Boundaries are on maps, ‖ says a local logger, ―maps are only in Lima, ‖ the capital.


  1. SEPAHUA a ramshackle town of the edge of Peru’s Amazon jungle, nestles in a pocket on the map where a river of the same name flows into the Urubamba.





  1. In language learning, there is a distinction between ―competence‖ and ―performance‖. Competence is a state of the speaker’s mind – what he or she knows.


  1. An analogy can be made to the Highway Code for driving. Drivers know the Code and have indeed been tested on it to obtain a driving license.
  2. Knowing the Highway Code is not the same as driving.
  3. Separate from actual performance – what he or she does while producing or comprehending language. In other words, competence is put to use through performance.


  1. In actual driving, however, the driver has to relate the Code to a continuous flow of changing circumstances, and may even break it from time to time.










  1. The site lists not only his published books and articles but also manuscripts and oral communications, in a variety of media and including reprints and translations.


  1. This site contains a comprehensive listing of the works of Norbert Elias, a German sociologist.


  1. The material has been catalogued, cross-referenced and organized by date.


  1. There is, however, no search facility. ANSWER: B, A, C, D 27.


  1. But in Scotland three banks are still allowed to issue banknotes. B. When this bank was founded in 1695, Scots coinage was in short supply and of uncertain value, compared with English, Dutch, Flemish or French coin.


  1. The first Scottish bank to do this was the Bank of Scotland.


  1. To face growth of trade it was deemed necessary to remedy this lack of an adequate currency


  1. In most countries it is only the government, through their central banks, who are permitted to issue currency.





  1. Others, however, believe that the fossil evidence suggests that, at various stages in the history of life, evolution progressed rapidly, in spurts, and that major changes occurred at these points.


  1. An evolving group may have reached a stage at which it had an advantage over other groups and was able to exploit new niches in nature. Climate change may also have produced a “spurt”, as might the extinction of other groups or species, leaving many niches vacant.


  1. Today, many years later, many believe that evolution has progressed at the same steady rate and that the absence of transitional forms can be explained by Darwin’s argument that there are huge gaps in the fossil record and that transition usually occurred in one restricted locality.


  1. Palaeontologists still argue about the origins of major groups, though new fossil finds since Darwin’s time have cleared up many of the disparities in the fossil record. Even during Darwin’s lifetime, some transitional forms were found.








  1. Although there is a huge shift in the quality of ads that we come across on a daily basis—thanks essentially to improvement in technology–I somehow can’t help but feel that the quality of communication of the message has become diluted.


  1. Over the years, I have had the opportunities to observe and understand the thought processes behind the ads that have been flooding both the print and the TV media.


  1. There is an increasing attempt by most companies to be seen as cool and funky.


  1. Proportionally, the number of ads that lack in quality, have gone up exponentially as well.


  1. Another reason could be the burgeoning number of companies, which means an exponential increase in the number of ads that are being made.





  1. In the United States, Lake Erie was dead; in Japan, people were dying of mercury poisoning.


  1. The environmental revolution has been almost three decades in the making, and it has changed forever how companies do business


  1. In the 1960s and 1970s, corporations were in a state of denial regarding their impact on the environment.


  1. Then a series of highly visible ecological problems created a groundswell of support for strict government regulation.


  1. Today many companies have accepted their responsibility to do no harm to the environment.






  1. This is somewhat surprising, given the London Underground’s historic difficulty in grasping the concept of punctuality.


  1. But the map has always fascinated me, and still does, even though it now seems very primitive.


  1. For as long as I can remember, there has been a map in the ticket hall of Piccadilly Circus tube station, supposedly showing night and day across the time zones of the world.


  1. This is because it chops the world up equally by longitude, without regard to the reality of either political divisions or the changing seasons.









  1. By contrast, not everyone becomes proficient at complex mathematical reasoning, few people learn to paint well, and many people cannot carry a tune.


  1. Because everyone is capable of learning to speak and understand language, it may seem to be simple.


  1. But just the opposite is true—language is one of the most complex of all human cognitive abilities.


  1. It is wrong, however, to exaggerate the similarity between language and other cognitive skills, because language stands apart in several ways. E. For one thing, the use of language is universal—all normally developing children learn to speak at least one language, and many learn more than one.






  1. It also will give him something worthwhile to live for.


  1. If he fails, it may have been due to troubles in his home, his school or unsympathetic and hostile relative.


  1. The finest asset any child can have is a happy home.
  2. If he exhibits good judgement in later years, much of the credit must go to those who trained him.


  1. Such environment will enable him to develop strength and stability of character thereby teaching him to face the future without fear or undue anxiety.





  1. During this time, I succeeded in learning to read and write.
  2. I lived in Master Hugh’s family for seven years.
  3. I had no regular teacher.


  1. Mrs. Hugh, who had kindly consented to instruct me, had, in compliance with the advice and direction of her husband, not only ceased to instruct, but had set her face against my being instructed by anyone else.


  1. In accomplishing this, I was compelled to resort to various stratagems.






  1. Thus begins the search for relief: painkillers, ice, yoga, herbs, even surgery




  1. Most computer users develop disorders because they ignore warnings like tingling fingers, a numb hand or a sore shoulder.


  1. They keep pointing and dragging until tendons chafe and scar tissue forms, along with bad habits that are almost impossible to change.


  1. But cures are elusive, because repetitive stress injuries present a bag of pills that often defy easy diagnosis.





  1. The general impressions that skilled negotiators seem to convey is they are people who keep their cards close to their chest and do not reveal their feelings.


  1. Hence, they used a surrogate method- they countered the number of times that the negotiators talked about their feelings or motives.


  1. This contrasts sharply with the amount of information given about external events such as facts, clarifications and general expressions of opinion.


  1. The results showed that contrary to the general impressions, skilled negotiators are more likely to give information about internal events than are average negotiators.


  1. Feelings are in themselves not observable and Huthwaite’s researchers could not measure them directly.





  1. The potential exchanges between the officials of IBBF and the Maharashtra Body-Building Association has all the trappings of a drama we are accustomed to.


  1. In the case of sports persons, there is room for some sympathy, but the apathy of the administrators, which has even led to sanctions from international bodies, is unpardonable.


  1. A case in the point is the hefty penalty of US $10,000 slapped on the Indian Body-Building Federation for not fulfilling its commitment for holding the Asian Championships in Mumbai in October.


  1. It is a matter of deep regret and concern that the sports administrators often cause more harm to the image of the country than sportsmen and sportswomen do through their dismal performances.






  1. As manufacturing continues to shrink in an economy, overall growth will increasingly depend on boosting productivity in services.




  1. Policy should therefore focus on removing obstacles (such as trade barriers and regulation), to such productivity growth, and creating a labour market in which workers can move freely from factory employment to services.


  1. Protection and subsidies push just the wrong way.
  2. But those who would tackle this by subsidies or trade barriers are missing the point.


  1. De-industrialisation causes problems in economies unable to absorb the workers released by manufacturing.






  1. You have to let people think and act outside their corporate ―boxes‖.


You have to create an atmosphere of innovation.

  1. Innovation is about doing what delights the customer, not just satisfying the customer.


  1. But you can’t invent revolutionary products in a conservative environment.


  1. It’s giving the customer something they didn’t expect. They can’t ask for it because they can’t know what it is before it is created.


  1. Once it has been invented, customers can’t imagine ever having lived without it.





  1. The extinct animal has been described through re-examination of a specimen that’s been in a museum collection since 1951.


  1. It then spent decades in the collection of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington DC.


  1. Researchers think it is a relative of the endangered South Asian river dolphin, offering clues to the evolutionary history of modern species. D. The findings have been published in the journal open access Peer J. E. The fossil, a partial skull about 22cm (9ins) long, was discovered in southeastern Alaska by geologist Donald J Miller in 1961.





  1. Timber harvesting is a major reason for the destruction of the forests. B. The timbers are used for building houses, making furniture, and providing pulp for paper products, such as newspapers and magazines.




  1. The earth is losing its forests. Presently, trees cover about 30 percent of the earth’s surface, but they are being destroyed at an alarming rate, especially in the tropics.


  1. At least 40 hectares of rainforest are being felled every minute, mostly in order to extract the valuable timber.


  1. Another way that man is destroying the world’s forests is by burning them down. In the Amazon, for example, rainforests are being burnt down at a rate of 20 hectares a minutes.






  1. The top executives of the large, mature, publicly held companies hold the conventional view when they stop to think of the equity owners’ welfare.


  1. They assume that they’re using their shareholders’ resources efficiently if the company’s performance—especially ROE and earnings per share—is good and if the shareholders don’t rebel.


  1. They assume that the stock market automatically penalizes any corporation that invests its resources poorly.


  1. So companies investing well grow, enriching themselves and shareholders alike, and ensure competitiveness; companies investing poorly shrink, resulting, perhaps, in the replacement of management. E. In short, stock market performance and the company’s financial performance are inexorably linked.





  1. Unless they are licensed or authorised to do so under the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Regulation 2002, no one may supply these Schedule 2 substances.


  1. Any breach of these regulations will result in immediate termination employment


  1. Additionally, wholesales have an obligation to ensure that the persons or companies they supply are licensed or authorised, to obtain, use, supply or possess the substance.


  1. A person or company located in New South Wales may not supply by wholesales any substance which is for their therapeutic use and included in Schedule 2 of the Poisons List.







  1. Yet whenever he was hungry he got up and propelled himself straight to the kitchen to get something to eat.


  1. Every day he was asked where the kitchen was in his house, and every day he didn’t have the foggiest idea.


  1. Studies of this man led scientists to a breakthrough: the part of our brains where habits are stored has nothing to do with memory or reason. D. In 1992 a retired engineer in San Diego contracted a rare brain disease that wiped out his memory.


  1. It offered proof of what the US psychologist William James noticed more than a century ago – that humans ―are mere walking bundles of habits.






  1. There had already been some legislation to prevent such abuses such as various Factory Acts to prevent the exploitation of child workers, or Acts designed to prevent manufacturers from adulterating bread.


  1. Markets may be good at encouraging innovation, and following trends, but there were no good at ensuring social inequality.


  1. He was able to argue that the State was the only organ that was genuinely capable of responding to social needs and social interests, unlike markets.


  1. They had become rapidly dominated by powerful enterprises who were unable to act in their own interests, against the interests of both workers and consumers.


  1. Mill was able to see an expanded role for the State in such legislation to protect us against powerful interests.





  1. Using observations gathered by NASA’s Kepler Mission, the team, led by William Borucki of the NASA Ames Research Center, found five planets orbiting a Sun-like star called Kepler-62.


  1. Four of these planets are so-called super-Earths, larger than our own planet, but smaller than even the smallest ice giant planet in our Solar System.


  1. A team of scientists, including Carnegie’s Alan Boss, has discovered two Earth-like planets in the habitable orbit of a Sun-like star.


  1. These new super-Earths have radii of 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.9 times that of Earth.









  1. Electronic transactions are happening in closed group network and Internet. Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of Internet to emerge.


  1. Cash transactions offer both privacy and anonymity as it does not contain information that can be used to identify the parties nor the transaction history.


  1. To support e-commerce, we need effective payment systems and secure communication channels and data integrity.


  1. The whole structure of traditional money is built on faith and so will electronic money help to be.


  1. Moreover, money is worth what it is because we have come to accept it






  1. The town had flourished, nearing 400 residents, since its establishment more than a decade earlier in 1566 by Pedro Menendez de Aviles who had founded La Florida and St. Augustine the year before.


  1. He erected fort San Marcos in six days in defense against a Native American attack such as the one that forced the abandonment of the town a year earlier.


  1. Marquez arrived in October 1577 at the abandoned town of Santa Elena with two ships carrying prefabricated posts and heavy planking. D. In 1571, it became the capital of La Florida.






  1. Not only are there some good career in engineering, but there’s a lot of money going into the research side, too.


  1. With the pressure of climate change, funding from the research council has probably doubled.


  1. Engineers, in particular, are much needed to develop greener technologies.


  1. The energy sector has a fantastic skills shortage at all levels.





  1. For example, tree rings, Dendrochronology (literally, ―tree time‖) dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.




  1. The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.


  1. However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.


  1. Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help – if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records – written in nature’s hand.






  1. Fruit and vegetable intake is important for the prevention of future chronic disease. So it’s important to know whether intakes of teens are approaching national objectives for fruit and vegetable consumption.
  2. Larson and colleagues from the University of Minnesota undertook the study to examine whether or not teens in the state were increasing their intake of fruits and vegetables


  1. The study gathered information about fruit and vegetable intake among 944 boys and 1.161 girls in 1999 and again in 2004.


  1. Teens in middle adolescence are eating fewer fruits and vegetables than in 1999. Larson and colleagues found.


  1. This is giving us the message that we need new and enhanced efforts to increase fruit and vegetable intake that we haven’t been doing in the past.






  1. Over the past year, a series of privacy gaffes and government attempts to gain access to internet users’ online histories have, along with consolidation among online search and advertising groups, thrust the issue of internet privacy into the spotlight.


  1. In the lobby of Google’s headquarters in Mountain View, California, computer screens display lists of the words being entered into the company’s search engine.


  1. Although Google says the system is designed to filter out any scandalous or potentially compromising queries, the fact that even a fraction of searches can be seen by visitors to the world’s biggest search company is likely to come as a shock to internet users who think of web browsing as a private affair.


  1. This presents a challenge to Google and other internet search companies, which have built a multi-billion-dollar industry out of targeted advertising based on the information users reveal about themselves online.


  1. That may be changing.










  1. They might thus be used as treatments for diseases that require the replacement of a particular, lost cell type.


  1. Some example cited for a possible treatment using these cells are diabetes, motor neuron disease and Parkinson’s disease.


  1. Embryonic stem cells are valued by scientists because the cells’ descendant can turn into any other sort of body cell.


  1. These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver.






  1. We took even more than our share of refugees on a population-weighted basic.


  1. Australia used to have a generous immigration policy for refugees fleeing violence and conflict.


  1. At the same time, a raft of changes was introduced to alter Australia’s migration law and policy.


  1. The rate of refugee arrivals has indeed slowed; but, as some argue, at the expense of our human rights reputation.


  1. With the election of a new administration, all refugees were subject to detention while waiting for a decision on their application.






  1. Anyone wanting to get to the top of international business, medicine or academia (but possibly not sport) needs to be able to speak English to a pretty high level.


  1. Because so many English-speakers today are monoglots, they have little idea how difficult it is to master another language.


  1. Many think the best way to make foreigners understand is to be chatty and informal.


  1. This may seem friendly but, as it probably involves using colloquial expressions, it makes comprehension harder.


  1. Equally, any native English speaker wanting to deal with these new high achievers needs to know how to talk without baffling them.







  1. It is held annually near Essakane, an oasis some 40 miles north-west of Timbuktu, the ancient city on the Niger River.


  1. The reward of navigating this rough terrain comes in the form of a three-day feast of music and dance.


  1. Reaching it tests endurance, with miles of impermanent sand tracks to negotiate.


  1. The ―Festival in The Desert‖ is a celebration of the musical heritage of the Touareg, a fiercely independent nomadic people.







  1. The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fuelled rockets.


  1. Great progress was made in the field of aviation during the 1920s and 1930s, such as Charles Lindbergh’s transatlantic flight in 1927 and Charles Kingsford Smith’s transpacific flight the following year.


  1. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities has built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available.


  1. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner that was profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service.









  1. All approaches aim to increase blood flow to areas of tension and to release painful knots OF muscle known as “trigger points”. ‘Trigger points are tense areas of muscle that are almost constantly contracting,” says Kippen. “The contraction causes pain, which in turn causes contraction, so you have a vicious circle. This is what deep tissue massage aims to break.” The way to do this, as I found out under Ogedengbe elbow, is to apply pressure TO the point, stopping the blood flow, and then to release, which causes the brain to flood the affected area WITH blood, encouraging the muscle to relax. At the same time, says Kippen, you can fool the tensed muscle INTO relaxing by applying pressure to a complementary one nearby.


  1. Students are increasingly finding it necessary to obtain employment in order to subsidize their income during their time in higher education. The EXTRA income helps to pay for necessities, to maintain a social life and to buy clothes, and holding a part-time job helps students to GAIN skills for life after university or college. Using a part-time job to cut down on borrowing is a sound investment, as it reduces the DEBT that will be waiting to be paid off after graduation. How many hours’ students are currently working each week during tern-time is not really certain? Some institutions advise that students should not work more than ten hours a week, and there we others that set a higher recommend LIMIT of fifteen hours a week. There is no doubt that some students EXCEED even fifteen hours a week.




3.To one extent or another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only implicitly. I certainly find myself THINKING this way in day -to -day life; it’s easy to be SEDUCED by the face nature reveals directly to our senses. Yet, in the decades since first ENCOUNTERING Camus’ text, I’ve learned that modern science TELLS a very different story.



  1. I am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets “donors on wheels”. But John Adams in the department of geography has made me do something rather awful. He has made me re-examine my deeply held CONVICTIONS. Adams has completely




UNDERMINED my confidence in these apparently, sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is IN SPITE of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. There is remarkable data on the years 1970 to 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is COMPULSORY had on average about 5 per cent more road accident deaths following introduction of the law.




  1. [Version 1]


A dog may be man’s best friend. But man is not always a dog’s. Over the centuries SELECTIVE breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as




[Version 1]


Dog breeding does, though, offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The ANCESTRY of pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their LITTER size reasonably large, so there is plenty of material to work with. MOREOVER, breeds are, by definition, inbred, and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, of America’s National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify the genetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an IDEAL EXPERIMENTAL animal.



  1. No one in Parliament would know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyright can confer so it may seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5 per cent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to their families for as much as


  • But that ignores the truth that copyright law Is a scandal,


recently EXACERBATED by the Free Trade Agreement with the US which required extension of copyright to 70 years after death.


Is it scandalous that really valuable copyrights end up in the ownership of corporations (although Agatha Christie’s no-doubt worthy great-grandchildren are still REAPING the benefits of West End success for her whodunnits and members of the Garrick Club enjoy the continuing fruits of A.A. Milne’s Christopher Robin books)? No. The SCANDAL is that bien




pennants politicians have attempted to appear cultured by creating private assets which depend on an act of Parliament for their existence and by giving away much more in value than any public benefit could JUSTIFY. In doing so they have betrayed our trust.



  1. Want to know what will make you happy? Then ask a total stranger — or so says a new study from Harvard University, which shows that another person’s experience is often more INFORMATIVE than your own best guess.



The study, which appears in the current issue of Science, was led by Daniel Gilbert, professor of psychology at Harvard and author of the 2007 bestseller “Stumbling on Happiness,” along with Matthew Killingsworth and Rebecca Eyre, also of Harvard, and Timothy Wilson of the University of Virginia.


“If you want to know how much you will enjoy an experience, you are better off knowing how much someone else enjoyed it than knowing anything about the experience itself,” says Gilbert. “Rather than closing our eyes and IMAGINING the future, we should examine the experience of those who have been there.”


Previous research in psychology, neuroscience, and behavioural economics has shown that people have difficulty predicting what they will like and how much they will like it, which LEADS them to make a wide variety of poor decisions. Interventions aimed at IMPROVING the accuracy with which people imagine future events have been generally unsuccessful.



  1. [MTRA: M (most), T (transcription), R (Reality), A (not sure)]


The precise relationship between fiction and life has been debated extensively. MOST modern critics agree that, whatever its apparent factual content or verisimilitude, fiction is finally to be regarded as a structured imitation of life and should not be confused with a literal TRANSCRIPTION of life itself. While fiction is a work of the imagination rather than REALITY, it can also be based closely on real events, sometimes experienced by the author. In a work of fiction, the author is not the same AS the narrator, the voice that tells the story. Authors maintain a distance from their characters. Sometimes that distance is obvious for instance, if a male writer tells a story from the point of view of a female character. Other times it is not so obvious, especially if we know




something of the author’s life and there are clear connections between the story and the author s life. The writer of fiction Is free to choose his or her subject matter and is free to invent, select, and ARRANGE fictional elements to ACHIEVE his or her purpose. The elements of fiction are the different components that make up a work of fiction. ALL literature explores a theme or significant truth expressed in various elements such as character, plot, setting, point of view, style, and tone that are essential and specific to each work of fiction. ALL of these elements bind a literary work into a consistent whole and give it unity. Understanding these elements can help the reader gain insight ABOUT life, human motives, and experience. Such insight is one of the principal AIMS of an effective work of fiction; when readers are ABLE to perceive it, they develop a sense of literary judgment that is capable of enriching their lives. The following sections describe elements that should be considered in the ANALYSIS of fiction.




  1. The few people who live in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed to shipwrecks. They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran AGROUND near the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic ARCHIPELAGO in 1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship’s infestation SCURRIED ashore and made itself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.




  1. Higher education qualifications provide a substantial ADVANTAGE in the labour market. Higher education graduates are less likely to be UNEMPLOYED and tend to have HIGHER Incomes than those without such qualifications. Having a highly educated workforce can also lead to Increased productivity and innovation and make Australia more COMPETITIVE in the global market.




  1. DNA barcoding w. invented by Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph. in Ontario. Canada. in 2003. His Idea was to GENERATE a unique identification tag for each species based on a short STRETCH of DNA. Separating species would then. A simple task of sequencing this tiny bit of DNA. Dr. Heben proposed pan of a gene called cytochrome c oxidase I (C01) as suitable to the task. All animals have it. It seems to vary enough, but not too muds, to act as a reliable marker. And it is




easily EXTRACTED because It is one of a handful of genes found outside the cell nucleus in structures called mitochondria.


Barcoding has taken off rapidly since Dr Hebert invented it. When the idea was proposed, it was expected to be a BOON to taxonomists trying to name Me world’s millions of specks. It has, however, proved to have a far wider range of uses than the merely aradernic—most promisingly in the REALM of public health.


One health-related project is the Mosquito Barcoding Initiative being run by Yvonne-Marie Linton of the Natural History Museum in London. This aims to barcode 80% of the world’s mosquitoes within the next two years, to help control mosquito -borne diseases. Mosquitoes are RESPONSIBLE for half a billion malarial infections and 1M death every year. They also TRANSMIT devastating diseases such as yellow fever, West Nile fever and dengue. However, efforts to control them are consistently UNDERMINED by the difficulty and expense of identifying mosquitoes— of which there are at least 3,500 species, many of them hard to tell apart.




  1. From the wolves’ perspective, this is clearly good news. But it also had beneficial effects on the ecology of the park, according to a study published in 2004 by William Ripple and Robert Beschta from Oregon State University. In their paper in BioScience, the two researchers showed that reintroducing the wolves was CORRELATED with increased growth of willow and cottonwood in the park. Why? Because grazing animals such as elk were AVOIDING sites from which they couldn’t easily escape, the scientists MIMEO. And as the woody plants and trees grew taller and thicker, beaver COLONIES



  1. By the Bronze Age, drinking VESSELS were being made of sheet metal, primarily bronze or gold. However, the peak of feasting-and in particular, of the ‘political’ type of feast- came in the late Hallstatt period (about 600- 450 BC), soon after the foundation of the Greek COLONY of Massalia (Marseille) at the mouth of the Mine. From that date on, the blood of the grape began to make its way north and east along with major river systems together with imported metal and ceramic drinking vessels from the Greek world.


WINE was thus added to the list of mood- altering beverages such as mead and ale (see coloured text below) – available to establish social networks in Iron Age Europe. Attic pottery fragments found at Hillforts




such as Heuneburg in Germany and luxury goods such as the monumental 5th century Greek bronze krater (or wine -mixing vessel) found at Vix in Burgundy supply archaeological evidence of this interaction. Organic CONTAINERS such as leather or wooden wine barrels may also have travelled north into Europe but have not survived. It is unknown what goods were TRADED in return, but they may have Included salted meat, hides, timber, amber and slaves.



13.Leonard Lauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she ‘was growing a nice little business.” And that it is. A little business that CONTROLS 45% of the cosmetics market in the U.S department stores. A little business that sells in 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauder family’s shares are worth more than $6 billion.



But early on, there wasn’t burgeoning business, there weren’t houses in New York, Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one person to answer the telephones who CHANGED her voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed. You more or less know the Estee Lauder story because it’s a chapter from the book of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, lived above her father’s hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New York City. She started her ENETERPRISE by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts.


No doubt the potions were good – Estee Lauder was a quality fantastic-but the sales lady better. Much better and she simple outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry. She STALKED the bosses of New York City department until she got some counter space at Saks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal selling approach that proved as POTENT as the promise of her skin regimens and perfumes.



14.The most VITAL ingredient in Indian cooking, the BASIC element with which all dishes begin and, normally, the cheapest vegetable available, the pink onion is an essential item in the shopping basket of families of all classes. A popular saying holds that you will never starve because you can always afford a roti (a piece of simple, flat bread) and an onion. But in recent weeks, the onion has started to seem an unaffordable LUXURY for India’s poor. Over the past few days, another sharp SURGE in prices has begun to unsettle the influential urban middle classes. The




sudden spike in prices has been caused by large exports to neighbouring countries and a shortage of SUPPLY. But the INCREASE follows a trend of rising consumer prices across the board — from diesel fuel to cement, from milk to lentils.



  1. During the day, the sun heats up both the ocean surface and the land. WATER Is a good absorber of the energy from the sun. The land absorbs much of the sun’s energy as well. However, water heats up much more slowly than land and so the air above the land will be WARMER compared to the air over the ocean. The warm air over the land will rise throughout the day, causing low pressure at the surface. Over the water, high surface pressure will form because of the colder air. To COMPENSATE, the air will sink over the ocean. The wind will blow from the higher pressure over the water to lower pressure over the land causing the sea breeze. The sea breeze strength will vary depending on the temperature DIFFERENCE between the land and the ocean.




  1. School-to-work transition is a historically PERSISTENT topic of educational policymaking and reform that impacts national systems of vocational education and training. The TRANSITION process refers to a period between completion of general education and the beginning of vocational education or the beginning of gainful employment as well as to training systems, institutions, and programs that prepare young people for careers. The status passage of youth from school-to-work has changed structurally under late modernism, and young people are FORCED to adapt to changing demands of their environment especially when planning for entry into the labour market. Since the transition to a job is seen as a major success in life, youth who manage this step successfully are more OPTIMISTIC about their future; still others are disillusioned and pushed to the margins of society. While some young people have developed successful strategies to cope with these requirements, those undereducated and otherwise disadvantaged in society often face serious problems when trying to prepare for careers. Longer transitions lead to a greater vulnerability and to RISKY




  1. The trigger point causes the rest of the fibre segments to be STRETCHED to capacity. It becomes a tight band. Normally the regular contracting and releasing of these little segments circulates blood in the capillaries that supply them (the segments) with their nutrients. When




they hold this CONTRACTION, blood flow is stopped to that area, there is not an oxygen supply, and waste products are not PUSHED out. The trigger point then sends out pain signals until the trigger point is put in a position of rest again.



  1. Essays are used as an assessment tool to EVALUATE your ability to research a topic and construct an ARGUMENT, as well as your understanding of subject content. This does not mean that essays are a ‘regurgitation’ of everything your lecturer has said THROUGHOUT the course. Essays are your opportunity to explore in greater DEPTH aspects of the course – theories, Issues, texts, etc. – and in some cases relate these aspects to a PARTICULAR It is your opportunity to articulate your ideas, but in a CERTAIN way: using formal academic style.




  1. By 2025, government experts say, America’s skies will swarm with three TIMES as many planes, and not just the kind of traffic flying today. There will be THOUSANDS of tiny JETS, seating six or fewer, at airliner ALTITUDES, competing for space with remotely operated drones that need help avoiding mid-air COLUSIONS, and with commercially operated rockets carrying SATELLITES and tourists into space.



  1. Thomas Alva Edison was BOTH a scientist and an inventor. When he was born in 1847, Edison would see TREMENDOUS change take place in his lifetime. He was also to be responsible for making many of those changes occur. When Edison was born, society still thought of electricity as a NOVELTY, a fad.



By the time he died, entire cities were lit by electricity. Much of the credit for that progress goes to Edison. In his lifetime, Edison patented 1,093 inventions, earning him the nickname “The Wizard of Menlo Park. ” The most famous of his inventions was the incandescent light bulb. Besides the light bulb, Edison DEVELOPED the phonograph and the “kinescope, “a small box for viewing moving films.


Thomas Edison is also the first person in the US to make his own filmstrip. He also IMPROVED upon the original design of the stock ticker, the telegraph, and Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. He believed in hard work, sometimes working twenty hours a day or more, depending upon the situation. He has been known to spend several days working on a




project without sleep until it worked. Edison was quoted as saying, “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. ” In TRIBUTE to this important American, electric lights in the United States were dimmed for one minute on October 21, 1931, a few days after his death.




  1. Twelve hundred miles east of Australia lie the islands of New Zealand…


[Lie, Discovered, Notable, System, Estimated]




  1. The most common reasons for carrying out a detailed medical examination…


[Reasons, Establish, Knowledge, Involves]




23.Learning is a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of experience. Learning from experience plays a major role IN enabling us to do many things that we clearly were not born to do, from the simplest tasks, such as flipping a light switch, to the more complex, such as playing a musical Instrument. To many people, the term steaming’ signifies the ACTIVITIES that students do reading, listening, and taking tests, in order to acquit new Information. This process, which Is known as cognitive learning, is just ONE type of learning, however, another way that we learn Is by associative learning, which IS the focus of this module. You probably ASSOCIATE CERTAIN holidays with specific sights, sounds, and smells, or foods with specific flavours and textures. We are not the only SPECIES with this skill even the simplest animals such as the earthworm can learn by association.




  1. Progressive enhancement is a design practice based on the idea that instead OF DESIGNING for the least capable browser, or mangling our code to make a site look the same in every browser, we should provide a core set of functionality and information to all users, and THEN PROGRESSIVELY enhance the appearance and behaviour of the site for users of more capable browsers. It’s a very productive development practice. INSTEAD OF SPENDING bows working out how to add drop shadows to the borders of an element in every browser, we simply use the standards-based approach for browsers that support it and don’t even




attempt to Implement it in browsers that don’t. After all, the users of older and less capable browsers won’t know what they are missing. THE BIGGEST CHALLENGE to progressive enhancement is the belief among developers and clients that websites should look the same in every browser. As a developer, you can simplify your life and dedicate your time to more interesting challenges if you let go of this outdated notion and embrace progressive enhancement.



  1. Crime prevention has a long history in Australia, and in other parts of the world. In all societies, people have tried to PROTECT themselves and those close to them from assaults and other abuses. Every time someone locks the door to their house or their car, they practise A FORM OF Most parents want their children to learn to be law abiding and not spend extended Periods of their lives in prison. In this country, at least, most succeed. Only a small minority of young people become recidivist offenders. In a functioning society crime prevention is part of everyday life. While prevention can be all-pervasive at the grassroots. It is oddly neglected in mass media and political discourses. When politicians, talkback radio hosts and newspaper editorialists pontificate about crime and POSSIBLE remedies, it is comparatively rare for THEM TO mention prevention. Overwhelmingly, emphasis is on policing, sentencing and other ‘law and order’ responses.




  1. As the economic depression deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in their town, barks began to fail at ALARMING During the 20s, there was an average of 70 banks failing each year nationally. After the crash during the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed — 10 times as many. In all, 9,000 banks failed during the DECADE of the 30$. It’s estimated that 4,000 banks FAILED during the one the year of 1933. By 1933, depositors saw $140 Dillon DISAPPEAR through bank failures.




  1. The Classic era of Mayan CIVILISATION camp to an end around 900 AD. Why this happened is unclear; the cities were probably over-farming the land so that a PERIOD of drought led to famine. Recent geological RESEARCH supports this, as there appears to have been a 200-year drought around this time.




  1. Although for centuries preparations derived from living MATTER were applied to wounds to destroy INFECTION, the fact that a microorganism is CAPABLE of destroying one of another species was not ESTABLISHED until the latter half of the 19th cent. When Pasteur noted the antagonistic effect of other bacteria on the anthrax organism and pointed out that this action might be put to THERAPEUTIC



  1. The UW course descriptions are UPDATED regularly during the academic year’. All announcements in the General Catalog and Course Catalog are subject to change without NOTICE and do not constitute an AGREEMENT between the University of Washington and the student. Students should assume the responsibility of CONSULTING the appropriate academic unit or adviser for more current or specific information.




  1. The agreement commits Nasa to offer Space X help with deep space navigation and communications, design of the spacecraft’s TRAJECTORY and help with developing the landing system. The Space X mission will use a version of the Dragon spacecraft that currently flies to the International Space Station under Spacers Resupply CONTRACTS with Nasa. As part of work to develop a version of the capsule that can carry astronauts, Space X has developed and tested motors that allow the craft to make a safe landing on earth in the event of an emergency during take-off. Space X wood adapts that system to allow the craft to touch down on Mars. The craft would be launched on its journey by Spacers New Falcon Heavy rocket, a heavy-lift version of its existing Falcon 9, which it expects to fly for the first time later this year. Because interplanetary missions require spacecraft to be launched from earth’s surface faster than orbital flights such as missions to the space station, they depend on heavy rockets, usually, three standard rockets strapped together.




  1. Snails are rot traditionally known for quick thinking, but new research shows they can make complex decisions using just two brain cells in FINDINGS that could help engineers design more efficient robots. Scientists at the University of Sussex attached electrodes to the HEADS of freshwater snails as they searched for lettuce. They found that Just one cell was used by the mollusc to tell if it was HUNGRY or not, while another let it know when food was present. Food-searching is an example




of goal-directed behaviour, during which an animal must integrate information about both its external environment and internal state while using as little energy as possible. Lead researcher Professor George Kemenes, said: “This will eventually help us design the ‘brains” of robots based on the principle of using the fewest possible components necessary to perform complex tasks.” What goes on in our brains when we make complex behavioural decisions and carry them out is poorly understood. “Our study reveals for the first time how just two neurons can create a mechanism in an animal’s brain which drives and optimises complex decision-making tasks.”




  1. Language comes so naturally to us that it is easy to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is. All over the world members of Our SPECIES fashion their breath into hisses and hums and squeaks and pops and listen to others do the same. We do this, of course, not only because we like the sounds but because details of the sounds contain information about the INTENTIONS of the person making them. We, humans, are fitted with a means of SHARING our ideas, in all their unfathomable vastness. When we listen to the speech, we can be led to think thoughts that have never been thought before and that never would have OCCURRED to us on our own. Behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush has not concurred. Man is born free, and everywhere he is in Chains. Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence. Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as King without the help and support of the woman I love.




  1. Chemistry is an extremely important topic in physiology. Most physiological processes occur as the RESULT of chemical changes that occur within the body. These changes Include the influx/efflux of ions across a neuron’s membrane, causing a SIGNAL to pass from one end to the other. Other examples include the STORAGE of oxygen in the blood by a protein as it PASSES through the lungs for usage throughout the body.



  1. How is plagiarism detected? It is usually easy for lecturers to identify plagiarism within student’s work. The University also actively investigates plagiarism in students assessed work through electronic detection software called Turnitin. This software COMPARES students work against teat on the Internet, in journal articles and within previously SUBMITTED work (from LSBU and other Institutions) and highlights any matches it




  1. The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945. Due to its unique international character, and the powers vested in its founding Charter, the organization can take ACTION on a wide range of issues and provide a forum for its 193 Member States to EXPRESS their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees. The work of the United Nations reaches every CORNER of the globe. Although best known for peacekeeping, peacebuilding, conflict PREVENTION, and humanitarian assistance, there are many other ways the United Nations and its system (specialized agencies, funds, and programmes) affect our lives and make the world a better place.




  1. Volcanoes blast more than 100 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year but the gas is usually HARMLESS. When a volcano erupts, carbon dioxide spreads out into the atmosphere and isn’t CONCENTRATED in one spot. But sometimes the gas gets trapped UNDERGROUND under enormous pressure. If it escapes to the surface in a dense CLOUD, it can push out oxygen-rich air and become deadly.



  1. English has been changing throughout its lifetime and it’s still changing today. For most of us, these changes are fine as long as they’re well and truly in the past. Paradoxically, we can be CURIOUS about word origins and the stories behind the structures we find in our language, but we experience a queasy distaste for any change that might be happening right under our noses. There are even language critics who are CONVINCED that English is dying, or if not dying at least being progressively CRIPPLED through long years of mistreatment.




  1. Education is generally considered to be a key factor in improving outcomes for Indigenous Australians, with many studies showing that improved HEALTH and socioeconomic status are directly LINKED to educational participation and achievement. There is a range of issues AFFECTING participation in education for Indigenous Australians,




including ACCESS to educational institutions, financial constraints, and community expectations.



  1. You can study anywhere. Obviously, some places are better than others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place you choose to study should not be distracting. Distractions can BUILD up, and the first thing you know. you’re out of time and out of LUCK. Make choosing a good physical environment a part of your study






  1. The Nature Conservation Amendment Act of 1996 enables the Minister of Environment and Tourism to register a conservancy if it has a REPRESENTATIVE committee, a legal constitution, which provides for the sustainable MANAGEMENT and utilisation of game in the conservancy, the ability to manage the funds, an approved method for the EQUITABLE distribution of benefits to members of the community and defined boundaries.




  1. One of Australia’s most remarkable natural gifts, the Great Barrier Reef is blessed with the breath-taking beauty of the world’s largest coral reef. The reef contains an ABUNDANCE of marine life and comprises of over 3000 individual reef systems and coral rays and literally hundreds of PICTURESQUE tropical islands with some of the world’s most beautiful sun-soaked golden beaches, because of its natural beauty, the Great Barrier Reef has become one of the world’s most SOUGHT after tourist destinations. A visitor to the Great Barrier Reef can enjoy many EXPERIENCES including snorkelling, scuba diving, aircraft or helicopter tours, bare boats (self-sail), glass-bottomed boat viewing. semi-submersibles and educational trips, cruise ship tours, whale watching and swimming with dolphins.




  1. In the process of studying these techniques, I learned something REMARKABLE: that there’s far more potential in our MINDS than we often give them credit for. I’m not just talking about the fact that it’s possible to memorize lots of INFORMATION using memory techniques. I’m talking about a lesson that is more GENERAL, and in a way much bigger: that it’s possible with training and hard work, to teach oneself to do something that might seem really DIFFICULT.






  1. The American cabinet, unlike the British, has no connection with the legislature, and this lack of COORDINATION between executive and legislature is one of the DISTINCTIVE features of American federal government. It came as a reaction against George III’s very intimate relations with the House of Commons. The Constitution guarded against executive control through ‘place- men” by DISQUALIFYING federal officials.




  1. An exhibit that brings together for the first time landscapes painted by French Impressionist Pierre-Aguste Renoir COMES to the NATIONAL Gallery of Canada this June. The GALLERY in Ottawa worked with the National Gallery of London and the Philadelphia Museum of Art to PULL together the collection of 60 Renoir paintings from 45 public and private collections.



  1. Pre- Raphaelitism was Britain’s most significant and influential 19th-century art movement. Founded in 1848, it CENTRED on a group of three young artists: William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais. These artists sought to revive English art by radically turning away from the old studio TRADITION and bringing painting into direct CONTACT with nature. With an eye for absolute ACCURACY, every detail was now to have intense realist as well as SYMBOLIC




  1. Symbiosis is a biological RELATIONSHIP in which two species live in CLOSE proximity to each other and interact regularly in such a way as to benefit one or both of the ORGANISMS. When both partners benefit, this variety of symbiosis is known as mutualism.


  1. [VERSION 1]



The supply of a thing, in the phrase supply and demand; is the amount that will be offered for sale at each of a series of prices; the demand is the amount that will be bought at each of a series of prices. The principle that value depends on supply and demand means that in the case of nearly every commodity, more will be bought if the price is lowered, less will be bought if the price is RAISED. Therefore, sellers, if they wish to Induce buyers to take more of a commodity than they are already doing, must REDUCE its price; if they raise its price, they will sell less. If there




Is a general fall in demand — due, say, to trade depression — sellers will either have to reduce prices or put less on the MARKET; they will not be able to sell the same AMOUNT at the same price. Similarly, with supply at a certain price a certain amount will be offered for sale, at a higher price more will be offered, at a lower price less. If consumers want more, they must offer a higher price; if they want less, they will probably be able to force prices down. That is the first result of a change in demand or supply.





The supply of a thing, in the phrase…


[Commodity, Reduce, Market, Amount, Pace]




  1. Australia and New Zealand have many common links. Both countries were recently settled by Europeans are predominantly English speaking and in that sense, share a common cultural HERITAGE. Although in close proximity to one another, both countries are geographically isolated and have small populations by world STANDARDS. They have similar histories and enjoy close relations on many fronts. In terms of population CHARACTERISTICS, Australia and New Zealand have much in common. Both countries have minority Indigenous populations, and during the latter half of the 20th century have seen a steady stream of migrants from a variety of regions throughout the world. Both countries have EXPERIENCED similar declines in fertility since the high levels recorded during the baby boom, and alongside this have enjoyed the benefits of continually improving life expectancy. One consequence of these trends is that both countries are FACED with an ageing population, and the ASSOCIATED challenge of providing appropriate care and support for this growing group within the community.




  1. Language comes so naturally to us that it is easy to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is. All over the world members of our SPECIES fashion their breath into hisses and hums and squeaks and pops and listen to others do the SAME. We do this, of course, not only because we like the sounds but because details of the sounds contain Information about the INTENTIONS of the person making them. We humans are fitted with a means of SHARING our Ideas, in all their unfathomable vastness. When we listen to speech, we can be led to think thoughts that




have never been thought before and that never would have OCCURRED to us on our own.



  1. Academic writing is an expression of logic that is the product of thinking. This MEANS that the writing that you produce is a reflection of your intellectual abilities. It PUTS into words your knowledge and your conceptual understanding and shows evidence of your ability to think critically.



  1. The University of Maryland boasts 78 academic programs RANKED in the top 25 nationally and 29 academic programs in the top 10 according to U.S. News and world report. By drawing top-notch faculty, attracting the brightest students and INVESTING in the quality of our academic programs, we are a force to reckon with on a national BASIS.



  1. The CLOSING decades of an artist’s life do not generally make the biographer’s heart beat faster, but Claude Monet is one of a HANDFUL of painters who bucks the pattern of an irrelevant old age. While it’s true that by the time he was 73 he had ACCUMULATED all the usual dragging baggage.



  1. The Alpine Newt is native to much of central, continental Europe and OCCURS up the coasts of northeast France through to Holland but it does not APPEAR to have been native to the British Isles. As Its name SUGGESTS it can be found in montane habitats up to 2,500 metres in altitude but it can also be abundant in lowlands, and It will use a VARIETY of waterbodies including both shallow and deep ponds and slow flowing streams (Griffiths, 1995).




  1. One of the characteristics of ‘good’ information identified earlier was that it should be ‘balanced’. In an Ideal world, ‘objective’ or ‘balanced’ information would present all the evidence for and against, and leave you to WEIGH this up and draw CONCLUSIONS. In the real world, however, we recognise that all information presents a position of interest, although this may not necessarily be intentional. Objectivity may therefore be an unachievable ideal, this means that the onus is on you as the reader and user of the information to develop a CRITICAL awareness of the




positions represented in what you read, and to take ACCOUNT of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may explicitly express a particular viewpoint – this Is perfectly valid as long as they are open about the perspective they represent. Hidden bias, whether or not it is DEUBERATE, can be misleading.



  1. Chaucer’s Tales quickly SPREAD throughout England in the early fifteenth century. Scholars feel The Canterbury Tales REACHED their instant and continued success because of their accurate and oftentimes VIVID portrayal of human nature, unchanged through 600 years since Chaucer’s time.



  1. Twenty years ago, not so long before B-is broke off from Antarctica, “we didn’t even know that Icebergs made noise,’ says Haru Matsumoto, an ocean engineer at NOM who has studied these sounds. But in the past FEW years, scientists have started to learn to distinguish the eerie, haunting sounds of Iceberg life—ice cracking, icebergs grinding against each other, an iceberg grounding on the seafloor—and measure the extent to WHICH those sounds contribute to the noise of the ocean. While they’re just now learning to listen, the sounds of ice could help them understand the behaviour and breakup of Icebergs and ice shelves as the poles warm UP.




  1. Dr Matthews said demographic characteristics had a substantial Impact on the choices people made about KiwiSaver funds and retirement savings more generally. When it came to fund selection, she found there were significant differences based on gender. Men are more likely to INVEST in aggressive and growth funds, while women we more likely to choose CONSERVATIVE ‘Males are risk takers, WHETHER it’s in their choice of car or their investment fund: she says. ‘But when it comes to long-term savings, risk taking can ACTUALLY be an advantage.”



  1. This course provides students with an in-depth understanding of the exciting disciplines of politics and international relations and commerce. Students will learn about the WORKINGS of political institutions in countries around the world and explore the complex field of relations between nations. Topics in governance, public policy, public administration, national security, border control and commerce ensure




that students receive a BROAD and current education in the range of issues which are covered under the label of politics and International relations and commerce. Bachelor of Commerce students SPEOAUSE in one of the following areas Accounting, Banking & Financial Services, Business Administration, Economics, Financial Planning, Human Resource Management, Information Systems, International Business, Marketing Management, Public Sector Management, or Tourism Management, in addition to acquiring specialist knowledge and competencies in Politics and International Relations and Commerce, students will graduate with a range of generic skills such as critical thinking, enhanced communication abilities, problem solving and STRONG capacities to work with others. They will also develop ethically based and socially RESPONSIBLE attitudes and behaviours.




  1. Throughout the 18th century, mathematicians, scientists and philosophers researched, discussed, and published their investigations into how the world worked, while engineers and inventors developed new and successful machines and processes. The latest theories inspired greater invention, and more technology encouraged theoretical scientists to make further discoveries in medicine, biology, mechanics, physics, and chemistry. By 1800, the new machines HAD brought revolutionary changes to the workplace, transportation and communications, and eventually to the home. Some of these inventions simply made it easier to produce things on a large scale such as textile machines and foundries, WHICH produced large quantities of cloth and metal objects quickly and But some inventions BROUGHT completely new possibilities such as the first batteries, steamboats, and locomotives. It would take decades for some of these inventions to make a big impact on the world. their creation, and the sheer amount of imagination and risk-taking involved, marked the beginning of a modern, global, technologically based economy of the kind that we live in today.




  1. In search of lessons to APPLY in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because MOVES that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, APPROACH is to look at how such leaders think.




  1. Dance has played an important role in many musicals. In some CASES, dance numbers are included as an excuse to add to the colour and spectacle of the show, but dance is more EFFECTIVE when it forms an integral part of the plot. An early example is Richard Rodgers ‘On Your Toes’ (1936) in which the story about classical ballet meeting the world of jazz enabled dance to be Introduced in a way that ENHANCES, rather than interrupts the drama.



  1. The CASUAL observer does not necessarily recognise the SKILL in how a teacher, for instance, responds to a thoughtful question from a normally quiet student and how that may be very different from the ‘standard response’ to a commonly inquisitive or TALKATIVE Expert teachers are aware of what they are doing; they monitor and adjust their teaching behaviours to bring out the BEST in their students.



  1. Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the ‘coffee experience’ has become a staple of our modern life and CULTURE. While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee CONSUMPTION on human hearth has been contradictory, a study in the June issue of Comprehensive Reviews in food Science and Food Safety, which is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), found that the potential BENEFITS of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health OUTCOMES


  1. Researchers in Europe and the US wanted to find out exactly what happens to our brain when we find ourselves stunned with fright in the hope of better understanding how fear interplays with human anxiety disorders.



For the first time, they traced and linked three parts of the brain RESPONSIBLE for freezing behaviours: the amygdala, ventrolateral periaqueductal grey region and magnocellular nucleus.


Mice are excellent lab animals where it comes to anxiety and fear experiments. When a mouse is scared, its defensive behaviours range from freezing, attacking, risk ASSESSMENT or fleeing the scene. How a mouse acts depends on variables such as access to escape routes or the level of threat faced.


So Andreas Luthi at the Friedrich Miescher institute for Biomedical Research in Switzerland and colleagues from Europe and the US observed brain activity in mice placed in frightening situations to TRACE the brain




circuits RESPONSIBLE for freezing behaviours. In particular, the researchers wanted to learn more about a part of the brain called the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey region, which was believed to PLAY some Part flee.


  1. Symbiosis is a general term for INTERSPECIFIC interactions in


which two species live together in a long-term, INTIMATE association. In everyday life, we sometimes use the term symbiosis to mean a relationship that BENEFITS both parties. However, in ecologist-speak, symbiosis is a broader concept and can include close, lasting relationships with a variety of positive or negative effects on the participants.


  1. BLANK 68 [Version 2]



Children who skip school are increasingly on family holidays, government figures revealed today. Fewer children played truant this spring term compared with the spring term last year. Children missed 3m unauthorised days of school last term, compared with 3.7m days of school in the same PERIOD last year. But a HARDCORE group of truants – 6% of the school population – who account for more than three-quarters of all those on unauthorised absence, are more likely to be on a family holiday than they were in the SAME period last year. Some 1.2% of all absence was for family holidays not AGREED by their school last term, compared with 0.9% for the same term last year. More than 60% of all absences were for illness, the same figure as last year.


  1. In geologic terms, a plate Is a large, rigid slab of solid rock. The word tectonics comes from the Greek ROOT “to build.” Putting these two words together, we get the term plate tectonics, which REFERS to how the Earth’s surface is built of plates. The theory of plate tectonics STATES that the Earth’s outermost layer is FRAGMENTED into a dozen or larger and small plates that are moving RELATIVE to one another as they ride atop hotter, more mobile material.



  1. From the time of the very earliest civilisations man has wondered about the world he lives in, about how it was created and about how it will end. In these distant times the sun was seen to make its daily JOURNEY across the sky at night the moon appeared. Every new night the moon waxed or waned a little and on a few nights it did not appear at all. At night the great dome of the heavens was dotted with tiny specks of light. They BECAME known as the stars. It was thought that every star in the heavens had its own purpose and that the SECRETS of the universe could be discovered by making a study of them. It was well known that there




were wandering stars, they appeared in different nightly positions against their neighbours and they became known as planets. It took centuries, in fact it took millennia, for man to DETERMINE the true nature of these wandering stars and to evolve a model of the world to accommodate them and to PREDICT their positions in the sky.




  1. A popular tree grows twice as well in the New York metropolitan sprawl as in rural New York State, according to a new test. Clones of an Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) In the Bronx and other city spots grew to double the biomass of clones PLANTED outside small towns upstate or on Long Island, says Jillian Gregg, now of the Environmental Protection Agency’s western-ecology division in Corvallis, Ore.



The growth gap comes from ozone damage, she and her New York colleagues report. Ozone chemists have known that concentrations may spike skyscraper high in city air, but during a full 24 hours, rural trees actually get a higher cumulative ozone exposure from urban pollution that BLOWS in and lingers. A series of new experiments now shows that this hang-around ozone is the OVERWHELMING factor in tree growth, the researchers say in the July 10 Nature. ‘This study has profound importance in showing us most vividly that rural areas PAY the price for [urban] pollution,” says Stephen P. Long of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “This work should be a wake-up call.” he adds.


  1. Space X Falcon 9 rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on Friday at 1845 GMT (1445 EDT), reaching orbit 9 minutes later.


The rocket lofted an uncrewed MOCKUP of Space X Dragon capsule, which is designed to one-day carry both crew and cargo to orbit. This has been a good day for Space% and a PROMISING development for the US human space flight programme,’ said Robyn Ringuette of Space X in a webcast of the launch. In a teleconference with the media on Thursday, Space X CEO, PayPal co-founder Elon Musk, said he would consider the flight 100 per cent successful if it reached ORBIT. “Even if we prove out just that the first stage functions correctly, I’d still say that’s a good day for a test,’ he said. ‘It’s a great day If both stages work correctly.” Space X hopes to win a NASA CONTRACT to launch astronauts to the International Space Station using the Falcon 9. The U.S government space shuttles, which currently make these trips, are scheduled to RETIRE for safety reasons at the end of 2010.




  1. Affordable early years education and childcare potentially enables parents, particularly mothers, to be in paid employment. International studies HAVE FOUND that countries with greater enrolment rates in publicly funded or provided childcare also have higher maternal employment rates, although untangling causal relationships is complex. From the point of view of the household, additional income, especially for the less well-off, is itself associated with better outcomes for children, as child poverty HAS BEEN SHOWN to be a key independent determinant of children’s outcomes. From the point of view of the public purse, as mothers ENTER employment they are likely to claim fewer benefits and to generate extra revenues THROUGH income tax.




  1. Number and form are the essence of our world: from the patterns of the stars to the pulses of the MARKET, from the beats of our hearts to catching a ball or TYING our shoelaces. Drawing on science, literature, history and philosophy, this book makes the rich PATTERNS of maths brilliantly clear.



  1. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine energy expenditure (EE) during a range of active video games (AVGs) and (2) determine whether EE during AVGs is influenced by gaming EXPERIENCE or fitness. Twenty-six boys (11.416.8 years) participated and performed a range of sedentary ACTIVITIES (resting, watching television and sedentary gaming), playing AVGs (Nintendo• Wii Bowling, Boxing, Tennis, and Wii Fit Skiing and Step), walking and running including a MAXIMAL fitness test. During all activities, oxygen uptake, heart rate and EE were determined. The AVGs resulted in a significantly higher EE compared to rest (63-190%, p50.001) and sedentary screen-time activities (56-184%, 00.001). No significant differences in EE were found between the most ACTIVE video games and walking. There was no evidence to suggest that gaming experience or aerobic fitness influenced EE when playing AVGs. In conclusion, boys expended more energy during active gaming compared to sedentary activities. Whilst EE during AVG is game-specific, AVGs are not intense enough to contribute towards the 60min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that is currently recommended for children.



  1. He has published over 110 research papers, has co-edited a major TREATISE on phototrophic bacteria, and has served as chief editor of the JOURNAL Archives of Microbiology. He currently serves on the editorial




board of the journal Environmental Microbiology. His non-scientific INTERESTS include tree planting and CARING for his dogs and horses. He lives BESIDE a quiet lake about five miles from the MC campus with his wife, Nancy, four shelter dogs (Gain, Snuffy. Pepto, and Merry), and three horses (Springer, Feivel, and Festus).




  1. Barrie Finnin, a professor at Monash University’s college of pharmacy in Melbourne, and PhD student Anita Schneider, RECENTLY tested a new wrinkle cure. Twice daily, 20 male and female volunteers applied a liquid containing Myoxinol, a patented EXTRACT of okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed, to one side of their FACES. On the other side they applied a similar LIQUID without Myoxinol. Every week for a month their wrinkles were tested by self-assessment, photography and the size of depressions made in silicon moulds. The results were impressive. After a month the DEPTH and number of wrinkles on the Myoxinol-treated side were reduced by approximately 27 per cent.




  1. Most students commencing legal studies will have some experience of crime, whether directly, as a victim of crime or indirectly through exposure to media coverage. This means that most offences COVERED on the syllabus, such as murder, theft and rape will be familiar terms. This tends to give students the impression that they know more about criminal law than they do about other subjects on the syllabus. This can be a real disadvantage in TERMS of the academic study of criminal law because it tends to lead students to rely on preconceived NOTIONS of the nature and scope of the offences and to reach instinctive, but often legally inaccurate, conclusions. It is absolutely ESSENTIAL to success in criminal law that you put aside any prior knowledge of the offences and focus on the principles of law derived from statutes and cases. BY DOING THIS, you will soon appreciate just how much difference there is between everyday conceptions of crime and its actuality.




  1. What can computer science tell us about what biological systems do and how they do it? Can these chemical information-processing functions be REPLICATED in digital computing systems? What are the IMPUCATIONS of developments in computer science in understanding the nature of causality? Aaron Sloman, author of Computer Revolution in Philosophy DELVES into the world of connections between ideas developed in computer science, biology and philosophy, providing new




INSIGHTS into some fundamental questions about the nature of consciousness and free will.



  1. Since biological systems with signs of COMPLEX engineering are unlikely to have arisen from accidents or coincidences, their ORGANIZATION must come from natural selection, and hence should have FUNCTIONS useful for survival and reproduction in the environments in which humans evolved.




  1. Professor David Phoenix, the dean of the faculty of science and technology, the return of single-honours chemistry is a matter of CREDIBIUTY and pride. “If you say you’re a science faculty, you have to have all the core sciences, and this course will mean we attract a new supply of potential masters and PhD students in chemistry.”



Phoenix is adamant that the new course will teach “solid chemistry, but he thinks that an ATTRACTION for students will be a teaching approach that differs significantly from HIS DAYS as an undergraduate. This takes real-life issues as the starting point of lectures and modules, such as how drugs are made or the science behind green issues. Out of this study, he says, students will be exposed to exactly the same core chemistry, unchanged over decades, but they will be doing it in a way that is MORE ENGAGING and more likely to lead to more fundamental learning.


  1. An exhibit that brings together for the first TIME landscapes painted by French impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir COMES to the National Gallery of Canada this June. The GALLERY in Ottawa worked with the National Gallery of London and the Philadelphia Museum of Art to PULL together the collection of 60 Renoir PAINTINGS from 45 public and private collections.




  1. Protestors see globalization in a different light than the Treasury Secretary of the United States. The differences in VIEWS are so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the policy makers talking about the same PHENOMENA. Are the visions of those in POWER clouded by special and particular INTERESTS?




  1. Because of the instructional methods, expected class participation and the nature of the courses vary, no fixed number of absences is applicable




to all SITUATIONS. Each INSTRUCTOR is responsible for making clear to the class at the beginning of the SEMESTER his or her policies and procedures in regard to class ATTENDANCE and the reasons for them.



  1. For a long time, people have been FASCINATED with heroes who’ve somehow survived great danger and brutal hardship. Back in 800 B.C.E., the Greek Poet Homer composed “The Odyssey,” one of the great adventure tales of all time. In which his protagonist Odysseus survives SHIPWRECKS, encounters with myriad monsters and a wily sorcerer before finally returning to his family. While some of Odysseus’ adventures were FANCIFUL it now turns out that he may well have been a real person. In 2010, ARCHAEOLOGISTS announced they had uncovered a palace in ancient Ithaca that fit Homer’s description of the place where his hero lived.




  1. Critical thinking involves looking at something you may have seen many times and examining it from many different ANGLES and perspectives. It involves going beyond the OBVIOUS or beyond “easy” to seek new understanding and rare SOLUTIONS. It involves looking at common issues with uncommon eyes, known problems with new scepticism, everyday conflicts with probing CURIOSITY, and daily challenges with greater attention to detail.



  1. Americans approached a record level of generosity last year of the



$260.28bn given to charity in 2005, 76.5 percent of it came from INDIVIDUAL donors. These people gave across the range of non-profit bodies, from museums to hospitals to religious ORGANIZATIONS, with a heavy emphasis on disaster relief after the Asian tsunami and US hurricanes. In total, Americans gave away 2.2 per cent of their household income in 2005, slightly above the 40-year.



  1. Chemicals used to control weeds in crops such as corn and soybeans may sometimes run off farm land and enter surface water bodies such as lakes and streams. If a surface water body that is used as a DRINKING water supply receives excess amounts of these herbicides, then the municipal water treatment plant must FILTER them out in order for the water to be safe to drink. This added filtration process can be expensive. Farmers can help control excess herbicides in runoff by choosing




chemicals that bind with SOIL more readily, are less toxic, or degrade more quickly. Additionally, selecting the best tillage practice can help minimize herbicide POLLUTION.



  1. To UNDERSTAND how a coffee nap might work, we need to look at how the body PROCESSES When you drink a coffee, the caffeine stays in the stomach for a while before moving to the small intestine. It is from here that caffeine is ABSORBED and distributed throughout the body. This process, from drinking to absorption, takes 45 minutes. Although caffeine is broken down in the liver, half of it remains in the blood for 4-5 hours after drinking a moderate amount (equivalent to two large cups of brewed coffee). It TAKES more time to eliminate greater amounts of caffeine from the body.




  1. Talking is not just an activity of the vocal chords, it is a way of connecting with ourselves and OTHERS that creates a culture of health and WELLBEING. Specifically, speaking with healthcare PRACTITIONERS about health worries, and more generally opening up to create more and stronger social TIES, can have many positive benefits.



  1. What is music? In one sense, this is an easy QUESTION. Even the least musical among us can recognize pieces of music when we hear them and name a few canonical EXAMPLES. We know there are different kinds of music and, even if our KNOWLEDGE of music is restricted, we know which kinds we like and which kinds we do not.



  1. Since the beginning of the financial crisis, there have been two principal EXPLANATIONS for why so many banks made such disastrous decisions the first is structural regulators did not regulate. Institutions failed to function as they should. Rules and guidelines were either INADEQUATE or ignored. The second explanation is that Wall Street was INCOMPETENT, that the traders and investors didn’t know enough, that they made extravagant bets without UNDERSTANDING the consequences.




  1. To qualify, communities applying had to define the conservancy’s boundary, elect a REPRESENTATIVE conservancy committee, negotiate a legal constitution, prove the committee’s ability to MANAGE funds, and produce an acceptable plan for EQUITABLE distribution of wildlife-related benefits (Long 2004:33). Once approved, registered conservancies acquire the RIGHTS to a sustainable wildlife QUOTA set by the ministry. The animals can either be sold to trophy hunting companies or hunted and consumed by the community. As legal entities, conservancies can also enter into contracts with private-sector tourism operators.



  1. One distinguishing feature of business is its economic character. In the world of business, we interact with each other not as family members, friends, or neighbours, but as BUYERS and sellers, employers and employees, and the like. Trading, for example, is often accompanied by HARD bargaining, in which both sides conceal their full hand and perhaps engage in some bluffing and a skilled salesperson is WELL VERSED in the art of arousing a customer’s attention (sometimes by a bit of puffery) to CLINCH the sale. Still, there is an “ethics of trading’ that prohibits the use of false or deceptive claims and tricks such as “bait-and-switch” advertising.




  1. In the literary world, it was an accepted assumption that the 1970s was a time of unprecedented growth in home-grown Australian fiction and everybody was reading and talking about books by young Australian women, but it was NOT UNTIL recently that a researcher was able to measure just how many novels were published in that decade, and she found that there HAD BEEN a decline in novels by Australian writers overall, but confirmed an increase in women’s novels. It Is this sort of research testing ideas about literary history that IS BECOMING possible with the spread of ‘Digital Humanities. ‘The intersection of Humanities and digital technologies is opening up opportunities in the fields of literature, linguistics, history and language that were not possible without computational methods and digitised resources to BRING information together in an accessible way. Transcription software is being developed for turning scans of books and documents into text, as the field of digital humanities really takes OFF.




  1. A crime is generally a deliberate act that results in harm, physical or otherwise, toward one or more people, in a manner PROHIBITED by law.




The determination of which acts are to be considered criminal has varied HISTORICALLY , and continues to do so among cultures and nations. When a crime Is committed, a process of DISCOVERY, trial by judge or jury, conviction, and punishment occurs lust as what is considered criminal varies between jurisdictions, so does the punishment, but elements of restitution and DETERRENCE are common.



  1. Spending too much time in the concrete jungle is bad for city DWELLERS’ health and could have potentially catastrophic CONSEQUENCES for the environment, conservation biologist Richard Fuller will argue during a seminar at the University of Canberra TODAY. Dr Fuller, lecturer in biodiversity and conservation at the University of Queensland and CSIRO, will explore the fact that although there’s evidence that the well-being of humans Increases with EXPOSURE to our surrounding biodiversity, the OPPORTUNITIES for people to experience nature are declining rapidly in the modern world.



  1. Our active learning classroom



  1. Circular


  1. Engagement


  1. Signal


  1. Entire


  1. Lecture




  1. Some of the most basic organisms are smarter than we thought. Rather than moving about randomly, amoebas and plankton employ sophisticated STRATEGIES to look for food and might travel in a way that optimises their foraging. Biophysicists have long tried to explain how creatures of all silts search for food. However, single-celled organisms such as bacteria seem to move in no particular direction in their search. To Investigate, Liang Li and Edward Cox at Princeton University studied the movements of amoebas (Dictyostelium) in a Petri dish, recording the paths travelled by 12 amoebas, including every turn and movement straight ahead, for 8 to 10 hours per amoeba. Immediately after an amoeba turned right, it was twice as likely to turn left as right again, and vice versa, they told a meeting of the American Physical Society meeting




in Denver, Colorado, last week. This suggests that the cells have a rudimentary MEMORY, being able to remember the last direction they had Just turned in, says Robert Austin, a biophysicist at Princeton who was not involved in the study.



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The environmental impact of the global textile industry is hard to overstate. One-third of the water used worldwide is spent fashioning fabrics. For every ton of cloth PRODUCED. 200 tons of water is polluted with chemicals and heavy metals. An estimated 1 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity powers the factories that card and comb, spin and weave, and cut and stitch materials into everything from T-shirts to towels, LEAVING behind mountains of solid waste and a massive carbon footprint.



“Where the industry is today Is not really sustainable for the long term,” says Shreyaskar Chaudhary, chief executive of Pratibha Syntex, a textile manufacturer based outside Indore, India. With something of an “if you build It, they will come` attitude, Mr. Chaudhary has steered Pratibha TOWARD the leading edge of eco-friendly textile production. Under his direction, Pratibha BEGAN making clothes with organic cotton in 1999. Initially, the company couldn’t find enough organic farms growing cotton in central India TO SUPPLY its factories. To meet production demands, Chaudhary’s team had to convince conventional cotton farmers to change their growing methods. Pratibha provided seeds, cultivation instruction, and a guarantee of fair-trade prices for THEIR crops. Today, Pratibha has a network of 28,000 organic cotton growers across the central states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Orissa.






  1. One distinguishing feature of business is its economic character which can be summarized as the conduct of buyers and SELLER and employers and employees. A second distinguishing feature of business is that it typically takes place in organizations which is a hierarchical system of functionally defined positions designed to ACHIEVE some goal or set of goals. Because business involves economic relations and transactions that take place in markets and also in ORGANIZATIONS, it raises ethical issues for which the ethics of everyday life has not prepared us. Decisions making occurs on several distinct levels: the level of the Individual, the organization, and the business system. The level of the individual




represents SITUATIONS that confront them in the workplace and require them to make a decision about their own well-being.



  1. Managing performance is about getting people into action so that they achieve planned and agreed results. It focusses on what has to be done, how It should be done and what IS to be achieved. But It is equally concerned with DEVELOPING people – helping them to learn and providing them with the support they need to do well, now and in the future. The framework for performance management is provided by the performance agreement, WHICH is the outcome of performance planning. The agreement provides the basis for managing performance throughout the year and for GUIDING improvement and development activities. It Is used as a reference point when reviewing performance and the achievement of improvement and development plans.




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This course provides students with an in-depth understanding of the exciting disciplines of politics and international relations. Students will learn about the WORKINGS of political institutions in countries around the world and explore the complex field of relations between nations. Topics in governance, public policy, public administration, national security and border control ensure that students receive a BROAD and current education in the range of issues which are covered under the label of politics and international relations. Students will undertake four compulsory units and two majors, one in politics and international relations and the other in governance and policy. They will also choose an elective major from a wide choice of options INCLUDING political communication, international studies, international business and national security studies. In addition to acquiring specialist knowledge and competencies in Politics and International Relations and Commerce, students will graduate with a range of generic skills such as critical thinking, enhanced communication abilities, problem solving and STRONG capacities to work with others. They will also develop ethically based and socially RESPONSIBLE attitudes and behaviours.




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The stock of Australia’s dwellings is EVOLVING, with current homes having more bedrooms on average than homes ten years ago. At the




same time, households are getting smaller on average with DECREASING proportions of couple families with children and INCREASING couple only and lone person households. This article EXAMINES the changes in household size and number of bedrooms from 1994-95 to 2003-04.




  1. It is difficult to tell precisely when the Breton language was born. As early as the VIth century the new country was ESTABLISHED and known as ‘Lesser Britain’, but for many centuries its language REMAINED close to the one of Great Britain – very close to the dialect spoken in the South West. The VIIIth century is the milestone where Breton, Cornish and Weish is CONSIDERED as different languages.



  1. Absence from work is a costly and DISRUPTIVE problem for any organisation. The cost of absenteeism in Australia has been put at 1.8 million hours per day or $1400 million annually. The study reported here was CONDUCTED in the Prince William Hospital in Brisbane, Australia, where, prior to this time, few active steps HAD been taken to measure, understand or manage the OCCURRENCE of absenteeism.




  1. Upholding the motto of ‘Integrity, Vision and Academic Excellence”, Shanghai International Studies University (SISU) is an internationally recognized, PRESTIGIOUS academic institution distinctive for its multidisciplinary and multicultural nature, committed to preparing innovative professionals and future global leaders for a wide range of international expertise to address the critical challenges of our times.



Drawing on our strengths in multi-language programs and multi-disciplinary resources, while responding to national and regional strategies, we operate more than 70 research msatues and centres serving as academic think tanks to provide advisory services on language policies, diplomatic strategies and global public OPINION of China. These academic entitles have contributed landmark research and are also dedicated to promoting the development of social sciences in China.


We have now ESTABLISHED partnerships with more than 370 universities and institutions from 56 countries and regions, and have MAINTAINED close connection with international organizations, including the United Nations and the European Union.






  1. In reality, however, the causes of truancy and NON-ATTENDANCE are diverse and multi-faceted. There are as many causes of non-attendance as there are non-attendee. Each child has his/her own unique story, and whilst there may often be certain identifiable factors in common, each non-attending child demands and DESERVES an Individual response, tailored to meet his/her individual needs. This applies EQUALLY to the 14-year-old who fails to attend school because a parent is terminally ill, the overweight 11-year-old who falls to attend because he is EMBARRASSED about changing for PE in front of peers, the 15-year-old who is ‘bored’ by lessons, and to the seven-year-old who is teased in the playground because she does not wear the latest designer-label clothes.




  1. One of the most important things to remember is that “classic” does not necessarily translate to ‘favourite” or “bestselling”. Literature is Instead considered classic when it has stood the test of time; and it stands the test of time when the artistic quality it expresses-be it an EXPRESSION of life, truth, beauty, or anything about the UNIVERSAL human condition – continues to be relevant, and continues to inspire emotional responses, no matter the period in which the work was written. Indeed, classic literature is considered as such REGARDLESS of book sales or public popularity. That said, classic literature usually merits lasting recognition – from critics and other people in a position to INFLUENCE such decisions- and has a universal appeal. And, while effective use of language – as well as technical excellence – is a must, not everything that is well-written or is characterized by technical achievement or critical acclaim will automatically be considered a classic. Conversely, works that have not been ACKNOWLEDGED or received positively by the writer’s contemporaries or critics can still be considered as classics.


  1. With about one and a half billion non-native speakers, English has become the world’s own language. Such DOMINANCE has its downside, of course. There are now about 6,800 languages left in the world, compared with perhaps TWICE that number back at the dawn of agriculture. Thanks in PART to the rise of Ober-languages, most importantly English, the remaining languages are now dying at the RATE of about one a fortnight. Want to learn Busuu, anyone? Then you’d better head to Cameroon fast, before one of the languages last eight speakers kicks the bucket (as the Busuu-nese presumably don’t say).






  1. Down the road, the study authors write, a better understanding of sharks’ PERSONALITIES may help scientists learn more about what drives their choice of things like prey and HABITAT. Some sharks are shy, and some are outgoing; some are ADVENTUROUS, and some prefer to stick close to what they know, information that could prove useful in making sense of larger species-wide behaviour patterns. But unfortunately for misadventure-prone clown fish everywhere, all of them, save for a handful of animated Disney exceptions, still see fish as food, not friends.



  1. The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remained far from desert. Instead of the TRANQUILITY that usually descends on the area in the evening it was a hive of activity. TV crews trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled and photographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first time since Howard Carter DISCOVERED the tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for public display.



Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt’s archaeology supremo Zahi Hawass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen, were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has been rested mostly undisturbed for more than 3,000 years. The body was then placed on a wooden stretcher and TRANSPORTED to its new home, a high- tech, climate-controlled plexiglass showcase located in the outer chamber of the tomb where, covered in linen, with only the face and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.


  1. Daniel Harris, a scholar of consumption and style, has observed that until photography finally SUPPLANTED illustration as the “primary means of advertising clothing” In the 1950s, glamour INHERED less in the face of the drawing, which was by necessity schematic and generalized, than in the sketch’s altitude, posture, and gestures, especially in the strangely dainty positions of the hands. Glamour once resided so emphatically in the stance of the model that the faces in the illustrations cannot really be said to have EXPRESSIONS at all, but angles or tilts. Facial expression was not the focus; tilting the head at Just the right glamorous angle was. In the 1960s, as attention shifted away from the body, the size of the face is fashion images grew.




  1. At the height of summer the Antarctic, tourist ships move gently around the coast. Even 30 years ago such sights would have been unthinkable, but today people are willing to pay large sums of money to see the last real wilderness in the world. In the Arctic, careless human exploitation IN THE PAST has damaged the fragile ecosystem. Today concerned governments are trying to find ways to develop the region WHILE caring for the very special natural environment. BECAUSE the Antarctic is less accessible than the Arctic, it is still largely undamaged by humans, although holes in the ozone layer above the Antarctic HAVE ALREADY BEEN Many people believe that one way to preserve the area is to make the whole region into a world park, with every form of exploitation internationally BANNED.




  1. Since nutrition scientists are constantly making new discoveries, we need to revise our RECOMMENDATIONS for healthy eating from time to time. However, nutrition is an art as well as a SCIENCE. It’s an art because it requires creativity to develop a healthy eating plan for people who differ in their food preferences beliefs and culture, let alone in their nutritional needs according to their genes and life stage. As we discover more about how our genes and our environment INTERACT, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to provide a single set of dietary recommendations that will be SUITABLE for everyone.




  1. A Massey ecologist has teamed up with a leading wildlife photographer to produce the definitive book on New Zealand’s national bird, the kiwi.



Kiwi: A Natural History was written by Dr Isabel Castro and FEATURES photographs by Rod Morris. Dr Castro has been working with kiwi SINCE 1999, with a focus on their behaviour. “I’ve specifically been looking at the sense of smell that kiwi uses when foraging, BUT ALSO in their interactions with their environment and other kiwi,” she says. The book covers all aspects of kiwi, from their evolution, prehistory and closest relatives to their feeding and breeding behaviour and current conservation issues, making this the perfect INTRODUCTION for anyone with an interest in these fascinating birds. The book is the second title in a new SERIES on New Zealand’s wildlife, targeted at a family readership.




  1. At the end of the last ice age, the melting Ice disrupted the ocean currents in the North Atlantic and CAUSED a drop in temperature of almost 5 degrees. Even THOUGH the rest of the planet was warming UP, the North Atlantic region remained in a cold period for 1300 years. The same thing happened AROUND 8000 years ago, when the cooling lasted about a hundred years, and it COULD happen again today. Even a short period of cooling in the North Atlantic could have a dramatic effect on the wildlife, and the human populations, living there.




  1. Hippocrates allowed observation, rationality and his own genuine respect for his patients to GUIDE his practice (Garrison 94). Using the scientific method, he carefully RECORDED his patients’ symptoms and RESPONSES for treatments, and used the data GATHERED to evaluate and prescribe the most successful regimens. His prestige as a great medical PRACTITIONER, educator, and author helped spread these Ideals of RATIONAL medicine throughout the ancient world.




  1. So some of the time an intellectual challenge is to assimilate how similar we can be to others species. In other cases, the challenge is to appreciate how, though human physiology RESEMBLES that of other species, we use the physiology in novel ways. We activate the classical physiology of vigilance while watching a scary movie. We activate a STRESS RESPONSE when thinking about mortality. We secrete hormones related to nurturing and social bonding, but in response to an adorable baby panda. And this CERTAINLY APPLIES to aggression – we use the same muscles as does a male chimp attacking a sexual competitor, but we use them to harm someone because of their ideology.



  1. Men and women are making different choices about their retirement savings, which could lead to very different investment outcomes, according to Dr Claire Matthews, Director of Financial Planning at Massey University’s Centre for Banking Studies. Speaking at the 2012 New Zealand Finance Colloquium, held at Massey University’s Albany campus last week, Dr Matthews said demographic characteristics had a substantial impact on the choices people made about Kiwi Saver funds and retirement savings more generally. When it came to fund selection, she found there were significant differences based on gender. Men are more likely to Invest in aggressive and GROWTH funds, while women are more likely to choose CONSERVATIVE ‘Males are risk takers, WHETHER it’s in




their choice of car or their investment fund,” she says. “But when It comes to long-term savings, risk taking can actually be an advantage.’ Dr Matthews also found that men are more likely than women to have prior savings when joining kiwi Saver. Just over half of male respondents said they had savings already, while only 38% of women did. ‘These figures reflect and confirm, quite disappointingly, the difference between males and females and the level of interest they take in financial planning,” Dr Matthews says. “it’s important for all New Zealanders to be better educated about their personal finances, but this is particularly so for women.’ Other demographic factors, including age, ethnicity, education, and income, can also influence the choices BEING made about retirement savings. Dr Matthews found that those with bachelor and higher degrees, and those in households with a pre-tax Income of $100,000 or more, were more likely to choose aggressive and growth funds.



On the other hand, both the youngest and oldest age groups were more likely to be invested in conservative funds. While this might be appropriate for the life-cycle stage of older Investors, it might not be so appropriate for younger, longer-term investors.



  1. While accounting focuses on the day-to-day management of financial REPORTS and records across the business world, finance uses this same information to project future growth and to ANALYZE expenditure in order to strategize company finances. By studying this major you get to have a better insight on the market, with the right KNOWLEDGE and skills acquired you should be able then when you graduate to advise others in making strong investments. This major will help you gain responsibility of predicting and ANALYZING the potential for profit and growth, assessing monetary resources, utilizing accounting statistics and reports, and also looking externally for future funding options




  1. Well in 2004 we integrated ticketing in South East Queensland, so we INTRODUCED a paper ticket that allowed you to travel across all the three MODES in South East Queensland, so bus, train and ferry and the second stage of integrated ticketing is the introduction of a Smart Card, and the Smart Card will enable people to STORE value so to put value on the card, and then to use the card for TRAVELLING around the SYSTEM.




  1. One of the most popular forms of theatre is the musical. Combining drama, dance and music, the musical has been around for over a century, and in that time has kept pace with changing TASTES and socials conditions, as well as ADVANCES in theatre technology. Many modern musicals are known for their spectacular SETS, lighting and other effects.



  1. E-learning is the new way forward. We believe PASSIONATELY in e-learning. Our innovative approach opens up new OPPORTUNITIES for busy professionals that simply did not previously exist the CHANCE to combine a prestigious Masters programme with a demanding professional and personal LIFE. Our small virtual classrooms facilitate intensive INTERACTION and collaboration among professionals from all over the




  1. Capital has often been thought of narrowly as physical capital – the machines, tools, and equipment used in the production of other goods, but our wealth and well-being also RELIES on natural capital. If we forget this, we risk degrading the services that natural ecosystems provide, which SUPPORT our economies and sustain our lives. These services include purifying our water, REGULATING our climate, reducing flood risk, and pollinating our crops. One reason why our natural resources continue to be degraded is that decision makers do not have a RELIABLE way to assess the true value of the services that ecosystems provide.



  1. Event management is particularly challenging from an operational viewpoint. In many cases, events are staged on sites where everything has been set up over a 24-hour period, with all elements carefully SYNCHRONISED. In contrast, many events are years in the planning: large convention bids are often won five years before the event is held. For the very COMPETITIVE bidding process, budgets need to be developed and prices quoted, requiring a good understanding of market, economic and political trends, as well as consumer chokes. This long-term view is the basis of strategic management, which is covered in Part 1, and focuses on the event concept feasibility of the event, legal compliance and financial management. Marketing is a critical SUCCESS factor and other important topic of this first section, many events (sporting, cultural and arts) involving long- term sponsorship ARRANGEMENTS with key industry players. Relationship building is particularly CHALLENGING since there are so many stakeholders involved in events, including




government agencies at many levels. Part 1 will look at all these aspects, including strategic risk, before moving on to the second part where operational planning and implementation will be covered in detail.






  1. There are many different ways to help other people. Perhaps the most common of these Involves giving others PRACTICAL In our society, there are many individuals who spontaneously help others in this way, additionally, there are others who belong to organisations which have been set up to provide help to specific groups, such as the elderly, the disabled, and those with serious physical or MENTAL health problems. Most importantly, there are many OCCUPATIONS, such as nursing, occupational therapy and social work, which involve professionals who are trained to provide or organise practical help for other WHILE helping other people in a practical way, many volunteer and professional helpers also make use of some counselling. These skills can be very useful in enabling people to feel better as described in this book and our book, counselling skills in everyday life. However, it needs to be RECOGNIZED that just being able to make use of some counselling skills does not qualify a person as counsellor.




  1. Giant exoplanets, like the so-called ‘hot Jupiter’s’ that are similar in CHARACTERISTICS to the solar system’s biggest planet and orbit very close to their host stars, are excellent targets for ASTRONOMERS in the search for extrasolar worlds. The size and proximity of these planets Is easy to DETECT as they create a large decrease in brightness when passing in front of their parent stars.



After all, we’ve explored the whole PLANET, we have international travel, satellite navigation and plenty of global organizations like the United Nations, SO we should really know how many countries there are. However, the answer to the question varies according to whom you ask MOST people say there are 192 countries, but others point out that there could be more like 260 of them. So why isn’t there a straight forward answer? The problem arises because there isn’t a universally agreed definition of ‘country’ and because, for political reasons, SOME countries find it convenient to recognize or not recognize other countries.




  1. London’s National Portrait Gallery is currently celebrating the fifty-year CAREER of photographer Sandra lousada. The twenty-one portraits on display depict key FIGURES in literature, film and fashion from the early 1960s. Subsequent to the acquisition of forty portraits by Lousada, the display at The National Portrait Gallery highlights shots taken between 1960 and 1964, many of which feature in Lousada’s book Public Faces Private Places (2008).


  1. The differences in VIEWS are so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the policy makers talking about the same PHENOMENON? Are they looking at the same data? Are the visions of those IN power so clouded by special and particular INTERESTS? What is this phenomenon of globalisation that has been subject, at the same time, to such vilification and such praise? Fundamentally, it is the closer integration of the countries and the peoples of the world which has been BROUGHT about by the enormous reduction in the costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of the artificial barriers to the flow of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and. (to a lesser extent), people across borders.




  1. 130. Traditionally, mass-communications research has conceptualized the process of communication in terms of a circulation circuit or loop. This MODEL has been criticized for its linearity – sender/message/receiver – for its concentration on the level of massage exchange and for the absence of a structured conception of the different moments as a complex structure of relations. But it Is also possible (and USEFUL) to think of this process in terms of a structure produced and sustained through the articulation of linked BUT distinctive moments – production, circulation, distribution/consumption, reproduction. This would be to think of the PROCESS as a ‘complex structure in dominance’, sustained through the articulation of connected practices, each of which, however, retains its distinctiveness and has its own SPECIFIC modality, its own forms and conditions of existence.




  1. The Roman people had at first been Inclined to regard the French Revolution with either Indifference or DERISION but as the months went by and the EMIGRES who remained in the city were less and less hopeful of an early return home, the mood of the Romans became increasingly antagonistic towards the ‘assassins of Paris’. The nationalization of Church Property in France, the confiscation of papal territories, the DWINDLING




of contributions and the PAUCITY of tourists and pilgrims all contributed to an exacerbation of this antagonism.



  1. Clones of an Eastern cottonwood (Populous Delfoides) in the Bronx and other city spots grew to double the biomass of clones PLANTED outside small towns upstate or on Long Island, says Lillian Gregg, now of the Environmental Protection Agency’s western. Ecology division in Corvallis, Ore.


The growth gap comes from ozone damage, she and her New York colleagues report. Ozone chemists have known that CONCENTRATIONS may spike skyscraper high in city air, but during a full 24 hours, rural trees actually get a higher cumulative ozone exposure from urban pollution that BLOWS in and lingers. A series of new experiments now shows that this hang-around ozone is the OVERWHELMING factor in tree growth, the researchers say in the July 10 Nature. turban) pollution: says study has profound importance in showing us most vividly that rural areas PAY the price for Stephen P. Long of the University of! Ninon at Urban-Champaign. ‘This work should be a wake -up call; he adds. Earlier studies had fingered car fumes, heavy metals in soils, and other cityscape menaces to plant life. Yet some urban quirks, such as extra warmth and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, may BOOST plant growth.




  1. Good sense appears to have PREVAILED at last with a fresh set of draft rules to replace last yes poorly conceived ones, the centre has sought to withdraw the ban on sale of cattle for slaughter in animal markets. The draft rules are now open for comments and suggestions.


  1. When the Union Ministry for Environment, Forests and Oimate Change notified the rules under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act on May 23, 2017, there was CONCERN that in the name of preventing cruelty 10 animals and regulating livestock markets the government was surreptitiously throttling the cattle trade and furthering the airs cow protection agenda. The rules were criticised for restricting legitimate animal trade and Interfering with DIETARY



  1. Edible insects are on the menu for an estimated 80% of the world’s population. More than 1000 specks of insects ate served up round the world. For example, ‘kungu cakes’ – made from midges-are a IMUCACY in parts of Africa. Mexico is an Insect-eating hotspot, where more than




200 insect Species are consumed. DEMAND is so high that 40 species are now under threat. These caterpillars of the tequila giant-skipper butterfly FETCH around S2S0/14. Eating insects makes nutritional sense. Some contain more protein than meat or fish. Insects can be a good SOURCE of vitamins and minerals too.




  1. A big rise in state schools rated among the best institutions in the country is revealed in the latest edition of the Good Schools Guide. Middle-class parents facing financial pressures in the DOWNTURN Ire increasingly looking beyond the private sector to educate their children. The 23-year-old Good Schools Guide – a POPULAR reference book for fee-paying families set on the best private school – has increased the number of state schools in this year’s edition to 251, pushing the figure to more than a quartet of its 1,003 entries for the first time. EXPLAINING why the guide has more than doubled the number of schools it features outside the private sector. In only five years, Sue Fieldman, regional editor, told the Financial Times: “The parents we speak to want more Information on the state SECTOR and the best It has to offer.’




  1. That Sigmund Freud became a major Intellectual presence in twentieth-century culture is not in doubt. NOR is that at all times there was both fervent enthusiasm over and bitter hostility to his ideas and influence. But the exact means BY WHICH Freud became, despite his hostility, a master of intellectual life, on a par, already in the 1920s, with Karl Marx. Albert Einstein, Marie Curie and Bertrand Russell, has not been sufficiently explored. Strikingly, Freud emerged as a twentieth-century icon without the endorsement and support OF an Institution or a presslon fin contrast to Einstein, Curie and Russell. Where are we to look for the details of this story of an emergent – and new – figure of immense cultural authority? One of the principal aims of this book Is to show how this happened in one local, parochial yet privileged, site -Cambridge, then as now a university town stranded in the English Fens with a relatively SMALL




  1. When people worry about a glut of liquidity, they are thinking of the first of these concepts if money is too abundant or too cheap, inflationary PRESSURES may build up or bubbles may appear in financial markets – until central banks tighten policy or market opinion suddenly changes. A slackening of ECONOMIC activity or a drop in asset peeks can leave




households, businesses and financial Institutions in trouble if their balance sheets arc not liquid enough (the second concept) or if they cannot find a buyer for ASSETS.



  1. Education and well-being have often been ASSOCIATED. The idea that education can promote individual well-being indirectly, by IMPROVING earnings and promoting SOCIAL mobility, is an old one; so are notions of education helping to promote the good society by CONTRIBUTING to economic growth and equality of opportunity.



  1. Finding challenging or REWARDING employment may mean retraining in mid-Life and moving from a stale or boring job in order to find your PASSION and pursue It. The idea is to think long range and expect to have an active lifestyle into later years. Being personally productive may now mean anticipating retiring in stages. This might necessitate going for an alternate PLAN should a current career end by choice or for economic reasons.




  1. 141. The Australian Maritime College at the university of Tasmania, in PARTNERSHIP with CSIRO and University of Queensland, have been awarded $2.48 Million funding SUPPORT from Australian Renewable Energy Agency.






  1. What can science tell us about human nature?


Modern developments in areas such as neuroscience, artificial intelligence and evolutionary psychology have resulted in new ways of THINKING-about human nature. Can we explain the mind and consciousness in TERMS of brain function? Can we understand modern human behaviour in terms of our evolutionary heritage? is science even the right place to start if we want to UNDERSTAND human nature?



  1. The Roman people had at first been inclined to regard the French Revolution with either indifference or But as the months went by and the emigres who remained in the city were less and less




HOPEFUL of an early return home, the mood of the Romans became increasingly ANTAGONISTIC towards the ‘assassins of Paris’.



144.Researchers suggest the following tips as you begin to network, seek common ground, ENGAGE with your network regularity (rather than only when you have crisis), and consistently APPLY yourself to making your network work or it will wither. It is a skill that you need to PRACTISE not a talent.




  1. Research is a process of investigation leading to new insights effectively shared and is central to the purpose of any university. Students have the right to be taught by acknowledged EXPERTS in their field, which requires that staff members operate at the most advanced level appropriate to their DISCIPLINE and level. Research is, therefore, crucial to a POSITIVE student experience from further education to doctoral development.



  1. Education and well-being have often been ASSOCIATED. The idea that education can promote individual well-being indirectly, by IMPROVING earnings and promoting SOCIAL mobility, is an old one; so are notions of education helping to promote the good society by CONTRIBUTING TO economic growth and equality of opportunity.






  1. When humans began farming some 12,000 years ago, they altered the future of our SPECIES Our ancestors were ecological PIONEERS, discovering and cultivating the most VALUABLE crops, scaling them up to feed entire communities and transforming wild crops so fundamentally that they became dependent on humans for their survival. Farming, in the words of National Geographic’s Genographic Project, ”sowed the seeds for the modern age.”



  1. When that happens, staff will help the person – STRUNG out and now a little stressed – fish their drugs out of the rubbish. On their way out, they might have a blood test, their first DENTAL check-up in years, or just a hot cup of Milo. ‘We enable people to inject in the centre because




that’s what they do- the medical director, Nico Clark, tells Guardian Australia during a recent visit to the North Richmond Community Health Centre. ‘The majority are dependent on their SUBSTANCES . The purpose is not to be a place that FACILITATES injection per se, the PURPOSE is to keep people alive.”



  1. REFER TO 130


For too long we have held preconceived notions of ‘the’ market and ‘the’ state that were seemingly independent of local societies and cultures. The debate about civil society ultimately is about how culture, market and state RELATE TO each other. Concern about civil society, however, is not only relevant to central and eastern Europe and the developing world. It Is very much OF INTEREST to the European Union as well. The Civil Dialogue initiated by the Commission in the 1990s was a first attempt by the EU to give the institutions of society and not only governments and businesses-a voice at the policy -making tables in Brussels. The EU, like other international Institutions, has a long way to go in trying to ACCOMMODATE the frequently divergent interests of non-governmental organisations and citizen groups. There is increasing RECOGNITION that international and national governments have to open up to civil society institutions.









Editing requires careful analysis and critical thinking, and proofreading requires a great deal of attention to detail. As such, they are not tasks that can be done in a rush or squeezed in between other tasks: it is essential to devote sufficient time and concentration to both, and being in the right frame of mind to do this is very important. Schedule a period of time in your diary for focusing solely on editing or proofing, and find an environment where you can be alone and free from distractions and interruptions. You may even wish to book a meeting room for yourself. Before you start, ensure that you are in a relaxed mood, with no other conflicting priorities or concerns to sidetrack your thoughts. Sit at a clear, uncluttered desk, which should have on it only the things that you need to help you with your task – pen, ruler, dictionary, thesaurus, grammar/punctuation guide, and your organisation’s style guide, if one exists. As with all types of work, take regular breaks, as it is not possible to concentrate for long periods. Don’t edit or proofread for more than half an hour at a time without taking a break. Take even just a few moments to give your eyes a rest from the text.



Question: Which of the following is not a correct guideline for editing and proofreading work?


  1. These tasks should not be done in a hurry.


  1. It is important to set aside a dedicated time solely for these tasks.


  1. These tasks should be done in one single sitting for maximum efficiency.


  1. Do these tasks in a clutter free workspace.


  1. These tasks are best done in a relaxed mood.


Answer: C




In 2012, there were more than 10 million low-income working families with children in the United States, and 39 percent were headed by working mothers. The economic conditions for these families have worsened since the onset of the recession; between 2007 and 2012, there was a four percentage-point increase in the share of female-headed working families that are low-income. Addressing challenges specific to these families will increase their economic opportunity, boost the




economy and strengthen the fabric of communities across the nation. Public policy can play a critical role in our future prosperity by reversing this trend and improving outcomes for low-income working mothers. Of particular interest is how state governments can best invest in helping working mothers gain the education, skills and supports necessary to become economically secure and provide a strong economic future for their children.


Question: Which of the following correctly indicates the intention of the writer?



  1. To highlight the economic disparity in the United States, especially when it comes to working families with children.


  1. To highlight the condition of low income working mothers to propel governments to take measures for their economic improvement.


  1. To highlight the impact of recession on low income families in the USA.


  1. To highlight the difference in economic conditions of families which are headed by single mothers versus others.



Answer: B




College application essays require you to follow a prompt or question. Select one idea, develop it throughout the essay, and include only the information that pertains to your topic. You might try to avoid writing abstract ideas or generalized thoughts. Instead, use concrete information and examples, which will prevent your writing from becoming lengthy and unfocused.


For example, if an essay prompt asks you to write about your college goals, instead of discussing general topics like getting good grades, meeting new people and earning a degree, you may be better served to write about the specific area you plan to study, the steps you plan to take to graduate with honors, and how you want to take part in student organizations in order to network or serve the community. Remember, admissions officers read a large amount of essays, and you’ll want your essay to keep the reader engaged and interested.


Question: Which of the following you should not do in a college application essay?




  1. Select one idea related to the prompt and flesh it out in the essay in a concrete manner.


  1. Try to make the essay interesting and engaging.


  1. Include information which is closely related to the essay topic.


  1. Do not include examples, only stick with hard facts.


Answer: D




In encouraging honest intellectual effort, it is important to establish a firm but positive classroom ethos from the first day of class. To be effective, the ethic should have a positive side. Statements about what is not allowed, no matter how urgently expressed, are far more effective when paired with what is expected. While it can be tempting to focus on how you will punish or mark down plagiarism rather than your specific expectations, do not fall into this trap. Once the ethos shifts to strategic game-playing for points, students will see cheating as a rational choice.


Question: Which of the following is not advised as a way to encourage students to not plagiarise?


  1. Explain to them very strictly how plagiarism will be punished and marked.


  1. Combine statements about what is not permissible with statements about what is expected.


  1. Explain specifically what is expected from the students.


  1. Setup a positive classroom ethos right from the beginning of the class.


Answer: A




The APA style contains not only a referencing system but also a number of other recommendations for how a scientific report should be written. These instructions, which apply to all forms of academic writing in Social Work, are based primarily on the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. However, it does not encompass all possible considerations, but a number of central aspects that are considered to create a sufficiently good basis for the student’s academic




writing. The student must ensure that references to literature and other material are included in both the running text and in the reference list at the end of the essay. In principle the student is to avoid the use of notes or footnotes. If the type of reference the student wishes to cite is not included in the instructions s/he will have to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and/or the links under the section entitled More reading tips about the APA style, in which there are continual updates, and that there are answers and tips concerning various questions about referencing. Please observe that the supporting books and sources mentioned do not replace these instructions, and if exemplifications in these instructions are lacking, the supporting books and sources mentioned may be used.


Question: Which of the following is not a true statement about the APA style?


  1. The APA style consists of a referencing system for scientific reports.


  1. The APA style consists of a number of recommendations for the writing of scientific reports.


  1. The APA style list contains a lot of recommendations, but does not include all possible considerations.


  1. The APA style is the only permitted style for writing of scientific reports.


  1. Students are advised to read the tips if the needed instructions are not found in the main instructions.


Answer: D




Passionate. Creative. Resourceful. Driven to Learn. That’s how Lee Ann Kidwell and Jennifer Hurst describe the children they interact with each day as preschool teachers for Day Early Learning. However, those same words are often used to describe great teachers, and they can certainly be used to describe this mother and daughter who have made a career out of educating Indiana’s youngest learners.


As a military wife, Lee Ann often found herself running her household and serving as the primary caregiver for her three young children while her husband was serving in the Navy. During that time, she decided to run a




home-based child care so she could teach her children while also providing help to other families.


“I started caring for kids in my home, but once I decided this was a good career for me, I moved on to work in Navy child care centers,” said Lee Ann. “That is where I learned what quality care looks like.” Nearly 95 percent of the Department of Defense’s more than 800 centers are accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children and are considered among the highest quality centers.


Question: Which of the following can be thought of as the reason behind Lee Ann’s choice of career?


  1. She was always passionate about teacher younger children.


  1. She was influenced by her daughter Jennifer Hurst’s decision to become a preschool teacher.


  1. She wanted to teach her own children while also helping others.


  1. She was given the opportunity by Navy to join the Navy child care centres.


  1. She wanted to fill in the spare time in her day to day schedule.


Answer: C




In some countries, parallel pre-primary education systems have emerged: those privately provided alongside government ones. A recent study following children in 362 villages in three Indian States showed that while 85% of children in Assam attend government child- and mother-care centres that also provide non-formal pre-school education (Anganwadis), only 52% do in Andhra Pradesh and 20% in Rajasthan. Meanwhile, about 30% attend private schools in Andhra Pradesh and 40% in Rajasthan, reflecting the enormous growth in private pre-primary schools across rural, urban and tribal areas. Four countries in the region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal) have arrived at public–private partnerships, usually involving state funding for private provision, though often with some fees as well.


Question: In which Indian state are parents most likely to send their children to government run pre-school education centers?


  1. Assam




  1. Rajasthan



  1. Andhra Pradesh


  1. Non-Indian state


  1. Some other Indian state


Answer: A




Planets which generate magnetic fields in their interiors, such as Earth, Mercury, Jupiter and Saturn, are surrounded by invisible magnetospheres. Their magnetic fields deflect the charged particles of the solar wind (electrons and protons) as they stream away from the Sun. This deflection creates a magnetosphere – a protective “bubble” around the planet – which ends in an elongated magnetotail on the lee side of the magnetosphere.


Since Venus has no intrinsic magnetic field to act as a shield against incoming charged particles, the solar wind sometimes interacts directly with the upper atmosphere. However, Venus is partially protected by an induced magnetic field.


As on Earth, solar ultraviolet radiation removes electrons from the atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere, creating a region of electrically charged gas known as the ionosphere. This ionised layer interacts with the solar wind and the magnetic field carried by the solar wind.


During the continuous battle with the solar wind, this region of the upper atmosphere is able to slow and divert the flow of particles around the planet, creating a magnetosphere, shaped rather like a comet’s tail, on the lee side of the planet


Question: Which of the following explains how Venus is protected from solar winds despite the absence of a magnetic field?


  1. Venus has an invisible magnetosphere which forms an invisible bubble around it.


  1. Ionosphere of Venus interacts with solar wind creating something like a magnetosphere on one side of the planet.


  1. Solar ultraviolet radiation removes electrons from the atoms making them harmless.




  1. Venus has a comet like tail that protects it from the incoming solar winds.


  1. Venus has no intrinsic magnetic field and thus is not impacted by the solar winds in the first place.


Answer: B











  1. Spain Terrain


Here is a part of Spain’s sun-baked Andalucia that is extraordinary not only because of its unspoiled terrain and authentic Spanish traditions but also because of its caves. These are not dark, damp holes, with dripping water and evil smells. They are residences, ancient Bronze Age dwellings now being refurbished for hundreds of 21st century Spaniards. In Galera, the region’s most important village, it’s estimated that there are at least 1,000 such habitations carved into its hillsides. “We take old caves, renovate them, then sell them on,” says Rob Oakley, office manager of leading developer Galera enterprises. “Our company was set up by someone who discovered the area of Galera when it was just a tourist attraction 15 years ago and saw its potential.” The ancient abodes are transformed from rough caves into relatively luxurious homes, equipped out with amenities like electricity and sewage, phone lines, running hot water, even Internet connections.



Question: Which of the following words in the passages have the same meaning at residences?


  1. Adobes


  1. amenities


  1. connections


  1. dwellings


  1. habitations


  1. hillsides


  1. terrain




A, B, E




Schools The Turks and Caicos Islands are a multi-island archipelago at the southern tip of the Bahamas chain, approximately 550 miles south-east of Florida. The islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom although they exercise a high degree of local political autonomy. The economy of the islands rests mainly on tourism, with some contribution from offshore banking and fishing. Primary schooling is divided into eight grades, with most pupils entering at the age of four years and leaving at twelve. After two kindergarten years, Grades 1-6 are covered by a graded




curriculum in maths, language and science that increases in difficulty as pupils get older. There is little repetition and pupils are expected to progress through primary school in their age cohorts. At the end of primary schooling, pupils sit an examination that serves to stream them in the secondary setting. Primary and secondary school enrolment is virtually universal. There are a total of ten government primary schools on the islands. Of these, seven are large enough to organize pupils into single grade classrooms. Pupils in these schools are generally grouped by age into mixed-ability classes. The remaining three schools, because of their small pupil numbers, operate with multigrade groupings. They serve communities with small populations whose children cannot travel to a neighboring larger primary school. Pupils in these classes span up to three grade and age groups. As far as classroom organization is concerned, the multigrade and monograde classrooms are similar in terms of the number of pupils and the general seating arrangements, with pupils in rows facing the blackboard. There is no evidence that the multigrade teachers operate in a particularly resource-poor environment in the Turks and Caicos Islands. This is in contract to studies conducted in other developing country contexts.



Question: According to the text, which of the following statements can be concluded about primary classes in the Turks and Caicos Islands?


  1. Parents can choose to send their child to a multigrade school.


  1. Multigrade classes are for the youngest three grades.


  1. Most primary pupils are in multigrade classes.


  1. Most primary pupils are in mixed ability classes.


  1. Multigrade classes are mostly found in smaller schools


Answer: E and D




Mount Everest The actual particulars of the event are unclear, obscured by the accretion of myth. But the year was 1852, and the setting was the office of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India in the northern hill station of Debra Dun. According to the most plausible version of what transpired, a clerk rushed into the chambers of Sir Andrew Waugh, India’s surveyor general, and exclaimed that a Bengali computer named Radhanath Sikhdar, working out of the Survey’s Calcutta bureau, had ‘discovered the highest mountain in the world.’ (In Waugh’s day a computer was a job description rather than a machine.) Designated Peak




XV by surveyors in the field who’d first measured the angle of its rise with a twenty-four-inch theodolite three years earlier, the mountain in question jutted from the spine of the Himalaya in the forbidden kingdom of Nepal.


Until Sikhdar compiled the survey data and did the math, nobody had suspected that there was anything noteworthy about Peak XV. The six survey sites from which the summit had been triangulated were in northern India, more than a hundred miles from the mountain. To the surveyors who shot it, all but the summit nub of Peak XV several was obscured by various high escarpments in the foreground, of which gave the illusion of being much greater in stature. But according to Sikhdar’s meticulous trigonometric reckoning (which took curvature of the earth, atmospheric reinto account such factors as fraction, and plumb-line deflection) Peak XV stood 29,002* feet above sea level, the planet’s loftiest point.


In 1865, nine years after Sikhdar’s computations had been confirmed, Waugh bestowed the name Mount Everest on Peak XV, in honor of Sir George Everest, his predecessor as surveyor general. As it happened, Tibetans who lived to the north of the great mountain already had a more mellifluous name for it, Jornolurignia, which translates to “goddess, mother of the world,” and Nepalis who resided to the south called the peak Sagarmatha, “goddess of the sky.” But Waugh pointedly chose to ignore these native appellations (as well as official policy encouraging the retention of local or ancient names), and Everest was the name that stuck.


Question1: What does the author think about Mount Everest?


  1. Waugh should not name the mountain after his predecessor


  1. should not name after Tibetan and Nepal 9


  1. The mountain should name Nepal as it is located in Nepal


  1. The mountain should not name Everest


  1. should keep Peak XV


Answer: A, D


Question2: Why Mount Everest is called Sagarmatha?


Answer: Sagarmatha is the Nepali name and it is the pride of Nepal


  1. Female’s accomplishment and status




The essay describes the status of female has experienced major shift since 19th century, they are less willing to raise as many children as they used to. There are a significant proportion of women getting married later in their lives or never get married at all, some of them obtain successful careers, such as work as academics or become novelists.


Question: What are changes since the 19th century?


Answer: Choose below


  1. Family size is becoming smaller.



  1. Choose not get married is acceptable by the society.


  1. Jupiter


Jupiter has 2-1/2 times more mass as compared to all other planets put together. Besides, its diameter is 11 times more than Earth’s diameter. Because of its size, the scientists were also forced into believing that it became a star. Gasses and dust contracted to build the planet and immense pressure was created by the gravitational forces along with tens of thousands of degrees of temperature. However, unlike the Sun, the unavailability of sufficient mass required to create the temperature which can initiate fusion reaction, Jupiter relatively got cooler over a period of time.


Question: What’s the main idea of the passage?


  1. Comparison of Jupiter’s temperature with other planets.


  1. Size of Jupiter compared to other planets.


  1. Jupiter’s development as compared to Earth over a period.


  1. Jupiter’s development as compared to Sun.


Answer: D


  1. John Robertson


When he was awarded an Honorary Degree by the University of Newcastle, even John Robertson himself must surely have looked back in wonder at his astonishing rise to success. The year was 1910, and those assembled were to hear not only of his generosity to the University, which enabled it to contribute to the pioneering research into tropical diseases being carried out at that time, but also of his humanitarian work in southern Africa, where he was ahead of his time in improving the working




conditions of local mine workers. To those who knew John in his youth, it will have come as no surprise to hear of his success. He was now enjoying the rewards of the fierce determination, desire to succeed and extraordinary ability to acquire knowledge, which they had noticed in the young man.


Question: What does the reader of this text learn about John Robertson?


  1. He was born in Africa.


  1. His abilities were evident at a young age.



  1. He studied medicine. d. He completed his degree in 1910.


  1. He achieved success rapidly.


Answer: B and E


  1. Research about Banks


The artists were not a rich man’s frivolous addition to his entourage but an essential part of a scientific team in the age before photography. Their principal task was to draw the specimens that the scientists collected. Although the naturalists, such as Banks, intended to preserve some of their specimens and take them home to England, it would not be practical to do so with all of them. Banks also expected to dissect certain animals, and the artists would preserve a record of this work. In addition to their scientific drawings, Banks wanted the artists to sketch the people and places they visited.


Question: Which of the following can be inferred from the text?


  1. Dissecting specimens was not as useful as taking them to England.


  1. Photography eventually made scientific expeditions more productive.


  1. Artists performed a variety of tasks in early scientific explorations.


  1. Naturalists themselves were often talented artists.


Answer: C


  1. Gas emission of Australia


Every day millions of lights and computers are left on in deserted offices, apartments and houses. Environmental activists say that simply switching them off could cut Sydney’s greenhouse gas emissions by five percent




over the next year. Per capita, Australia is one of the world’s largest producers of carbon dioxide and other gases that many scientists believe are helping to warm the Earth’s atmosphere, causing climate upset. A long-standing drought and serious water shortages in Australia have focused much attention on climate change. Some experts warn higher temperatures could leave this nation of 20 million people at the mercy of more severe droughts and devastating tropical cyclones.


Question: One present indicator of climate change in Australia is…?


  1. Gas emissions



  1. Environmental activists


  1. Carbon dioxide


  1. Drought


Answer: A




Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Europe, in which the emotional content is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the lyrics. By contrast, in musical theatre an actor’s dramatic performance is primary, and the music plays a lesser role. The drama in opera is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. However, the words of the opera, or libretto, are sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra.


QUESTION: According to the passage, which of the following statements can be deemed accurate about Opera?


  1. It has developed under the influence of musical theatre


  1. It is a drama sung with the accompaniment of an orchestra


  1. It is not a high-budget production


  1. orchestras in it can vary considerably in size


  1. musical theatre relies above all on music


  1. many people find musical theatre more captivating than opera





  1. music in musical theatre is not as important as it is in it



Answer: B, D, G




Naval architects never claim that a ship is unsinkable, but the sinking of the passenger-and-car ferry Estonia in the Baltic surely should have never have happened. It was well designed and carefully maintained. It carried the proper number of lifeboats. It had been thoroughly inspected the day of its fatal voyage. Yet hours later, the Estonia rolled over and sank in a cold, stormy night. It went down so quickly that most of those on board, caught in their dark, flooding cabins, had no chance to save themselves: Of those who managed to scramble overboard, only 139 survived. The rest died of hypothermia before the rescuers could pluck them from the cold sea. The final death toll amounted to 912 souls. However, there were an unpleasant number of questions about why the Estonia sank and why so many survivors were men in the prime of life, while most of the dead were women, children and the elderly.



QUESTION: One can understand from the reading that


  1. the lifesaving equipment did not work well and lifeboats could not be lowered


  1. most victims were trapped inside the boat as they were in their cabins C. survivors of the accident were mostly young men but women, children and the elderly stood little chance


  1. there were enough lifeboats for the number of people on board E. 139 people managed to leave the vessel but died in freezing water


Answer: B, C, D




Erosion of America’s farmland by wind and water has been a problem since settlers first put the prairies and grasslands under the plow in the nineteenth century. By the 1930s, more than 282 million acres of farmland were damaged by erosion. After 40 years of conservation efforts, soil erosion has accelerated due to new demands placed on the land by heavy crop production. In the years ahead, soil erosion and the pollution problems it causes are likely to replace petroleum scarcity as the nation’s most critical natural resource problem.




QUESTION: As we understand from the reading, today, soil erosion in America


  1. causes humans to place new demands on the land


  1. is worse than it was in the nineteenth century


  1. happens so slowly that it is hardly noticed


  1. occurs only in areas with no vegetation



  1. can become a more serious problem in the future


Answer: B, E




Traditionally, many linguists stressed the importance of mastering grammar structures first while teaching English. In recent years, the majority of educators have become more aware of the fallacy of this approach and other approaches promoting vocabulary development have gained popularity. It has been found out without vocabulary to put on top of the grammar system, the learners can actually say very little despite being able to manipulate complex grammatical structures in exercise drills. It is obvious that to learn English, one needs to learn many words. Native speakers have a vocabulary of about 20,000 words but foreign learners of English need far fewer. They need only about 5,000 words to be quite competent in speaking and listening. The reason for this seemingly small number is the nature of words and the frequency with which they appear in a language. It seems clear that frequent words should be among the first words to learn because they will be met most of ten and will be needed in speech or writing.


QUESTION: It is stated in the passage that


  1. a great number of educators today believe that mastering grammar points is more important than learning words while studying a foreign language


  1. grammar drills are effective in teaching the most frequently encountered English words


  1. an approach based on mastering grammar structures first to teach English is at most unlikely to find supporters today


  1. the learners of English are required to learn all grammar structures




perfectly in order to make themselves understood by foreigners


  1. the number of English words which must be learned to communicate with a foreigner exceeds 20,000


  1. In English language teaching, most educators are not in favour of the traditional approach having dominated the language teaching field once anymore


Answer: C, F





Dolphins are regarded as the friendliest creatures in the sea and stories of them helping drowning sailors have been common since Roman times. The more we learn about dolphins, the more we realize that their society is more complex than people previously imagined. They look after other dolphins when they are ill, care for pregnant mothers and protect the weakest in the community, as we do. Some scientists have suggested that dolphins have a language but it is much more probable that they communicate with each other without needing words. Could any of these mammals be more intelligent than man? Certainly, the most common argument in favour of man’s superiority over them that we can kill them more easily than they can kill us is the least satisfactory. On the contrary, the more we discover about these remarkable creatures, the less we appear superior when we destroy them.


QUESTION: It is clear from the passage that dolphins.


  1. don’t want to be with us as much as we want to be with them


  1. are proven to be less intelligent than once thought


  1. have a reputation for being friendly to humans


  1. are the most powerful creatures that live in the oceans


  1. dolphins have some social traits that are similar to those of humans


  1. are capable of learning a language and communicating with humans


Answer: D, E




You may have heard that tomatoes and processed tomato products like tomato sauce and canned tomatoes protect against some types of cancer.



The cancer-preventing properties of tomato products have been attributed to lycopene. It is a bright red pigment found in tomatoes and other red fruits and is the cause of their red color. Unlike other fruits and vegetables, where nutritional content such as vitamin C is diminished upon cooking, processing of tomatoes increases the concentration of lycopene. Lycopene in tomato paste is four times more than in fresh tomatoes. This is because lycopene is insoluble in water and is tightly bound to vegetable fiber. Thus, processed tomato products such as pasteurized tomato juice, soup, sauce, and ketchup contain the highest concentrations of lycopene. Cooking and crushing tomatoes as in the canning process and serving in oil-rich dishes such as spaghetti sauce or pizza greatly increase assimilation from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Lycopene is a fat-soluble substance, so the oil is said to help absorption to a great extent.



QUESTION: According to the passage, it is true that lycopene-A. can only be found in processed tomato products


  1. loses its cancer-preventing property when the tomato is processed


  1. lowers the risk of having cancer only when it is consumed together with vitamin


  1. is absorbed by the body more easily when accompanied by the oil E. is what gives some fruits their color


Answer: D, E




The grey wolf also known as the timber wolf or wolf is a mammal of the order Carnivore. Genetic studies indicate the grey wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog and might be its ancestor. Many other grey wolf subspecies have been identified however the actual number of subspecies is still open to discussion. Though once abundant over much of North America and areas of Europe and Asia, the grey wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of the widespread destruction of its habitat. Gray wolves are highly adaptable and have thrived in forests, deserts, mountains, tundra and grasslands. They function as social predators and hunt in packs organized according to strict social hierarchies. It was originally believed that this comparatively high level of social organization was related to hunting success, and while this still may be true to a certain extent, emerging theories suggest that the pack has less to do with hunting and more to do with reproductive success.




QUESTION: We can understand from the passage that the grey wolf-



  1. is able to survive in a wide variety of habitats


  1. prefers to hunt individually rather than in groups


  1. was once found in every continent of the world in great numbers


  1. is known that many of grey wolf subspecies have already become extinct



  1. there is no consensus on how many grey wolf subspecies exist


Answer: A, E




Autism is a brain development disorder that impairs social interaction and communication and causes restricted and repetitive behavior, all starting before a child is three years old. The genetics of autism are complex and it is generally unclear which genes are responsible for it. Autism affects many parts of the brain but how this occurs is also poorly understood. Autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects. Other proposed causes, such as childhood vaccines, are controversial and the vaccine hypotheses lack convincing scientific evidence. The number of people known to have autism has increased dramatically since the 1980s. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life. Early behavioral cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social and communication skills but there is no cure for it. Few children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, but same become successful and an autistic culture has developed, with same seeking a cure and others believing that autism is a condition rather than a disorder.


QUESTION: According to the passage, autism is a developmental disorder of the human



  1. that gives its first signs early in the childhood period


  1. which is caused by childhood vaccines


  1. which can’t be diagnosed until after the child is three years old


  1. that even if the treatment for autism starts early, the child doesn’t have any chance to recover completely





  1. which is characterized by abnormalities of behavior patterns



Answer: A, D




Slavery is a system under which certain persons are totally deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services. Although outlawed in nearly all countries, slavery is still practiced in some parts of the world. The evidence for slavery predates written records. It can be found in almost all cultures and continents. Historically, most slaves were captured in wars but some persons were sold into slavery by their parents, or by themselves, as a means of surviving extreme conditions. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for prisoners and their families. Captives were often considered the property of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of war. Those captured sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from their enslavers, but often were the same as the captors. The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them into slaves. The possibility always existed of reversals of fortune at the height of the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves, anyone could find himself enslaved.



QUESTION: According to the passage, slavery-


  1. was banned by international agreements between countries a long time ago


  1. meant for some people surviving the conditions they had to endure C. is a practice which can be seen in many places in the world today D. was the most common in the Roman Empire E. goes back to ancient times


Answer: A, B, C




The Emperor Penguin is a penguin that lives in Antarctica. It is the tallest and heaviest of all penguin species. Emperor Penguins are black and white like all penguins but the sides of their neck are golden. Emperors live in the coldest climate on earth. They breed at the beginning of the Antarctic winter (March and April), on the ice all around the Antarctic continent. The shape of their body helps them to survive. They have short wings that help them dive up to 900 feet to catch larger fish. They can




swim up to 12 miles per hour for a short time, which lets them escape from their main enemy, the Leopard Seal. They can stay warm because they have a thick layer of blubber. In addition, the layer of soft feathers trap air that keeps the body heat in and cold air and water out.


QUESTION: It can be understood from the passage that the physical features of the

Emperor Penguins-


  1. should be examined more closely by the scientists



  1. let them stay alive in one of the harshest climatic conditions of the world


  1. present certain differences from other penguin species


  1. makes them effective against cold weather as they have a thick layer of blubber and a layer of soft feathers.


  1. are believed not to have changed a lot throughout time


Answer: B, D




Biomedical jewellery, accessories which monitor the wearer’s vital functions or sound a warning in response to unhealthy environmental conditions, is already on the market and promises to become much more medically sophisticated and commonplace in the foreseeable future. Today, heart-monitoring devices and posture indicators can be hidden in attractive belts; necklaces may contain portable electrocardiographs, or may register body temperature or the level of pollution in the air. If the pollution level is dangerous, some necklaces open and dispense a face mask and a ten-minute supply of oxygen. One of the less serious versions of this type of necklace simply tells the wearer if his or her own breath has reached an offensive level. Still on the drawing board are designs for attractive personal ornaments which could warn of impending epileptic seizures or migraine headaches. Designers of biomedical jewelry predict that the time will come when artfully designed bracelets or necklaces will be able to diagnose, analyse, and even prescribe treatment for their wearers.


QUESTION: According to the passage, the biomedical necklaces mentioned





  1. provide oxygen


  1. monitor the wearer’s heartbeat


  1. contain some sort of diamond


  1. dispense a breath freshener


  1. indicate body temperature


Answer: A, B, E





It might seem illogical that the development of modern currency rests on a scientific discovery, but the invention of the “touchstone” allowed ancient societies to create a standard by which valuable metals could be judged. In its most basic form, a touchstone is any dark, finely grained stone upon which soft metals leave traces. When rubbed, a process known as “probing”, precious metal alloy cleaves to the stone, leaving a stripe. The color of the stripe (which reveals the percentage of its content that is base metal) can then be compared to a stripe of a known grade of a standard alloy. Despite its primitiveness, this probing process allowed merchants to examine alloys quickly and with reasonable certainly. Though civilizations were using gold and silver currencies as early as 500 B.C., coins were easily forged or diluted with less valuable metals, such as tin or lead. The invention and popularization of the touchstone ensured that pure gold and silver could become a standard expression of value.


QUESTION: According to the text, which of the following advances brought

about the probing process?


  1. A measure to compare the value of gold and silver with tin and lead


  1. An attempt to generalize the value of gold and silver


  1. An ancient means of ascertaining the purity of a metal


  1. A measure of security against adulterated coins


  1. A means by which governments could standardize currency values


Answer: B, C






Little is known about the elusive section of the earth’s atmosphere known as the mesosphere. Located between the stratosphere (the maximum altitude that airplanes can achieve) and the thermosphere (the minimum altitude of spacecraft), the mesosphere is poorly understood and little explored. The most significant feature of the mesosphere is the various tides and waves that propagate up from the troposphere and stratosphere. The dissipation of these waves is largely responsible for propelling the mesosphere around the globe. These wave patterns are further affected when gas particles in the mesosphere collide with meteoroids, producing spectacular explosions, which usually generate enough heat to consume the meteor before it can fall to earth. The conflagration leaves behind traces of iron and other metals and fuels the atmospheric tides radiating outward from the mesosphere.



QUESTION: The passage suggests that the mesosphere is influenced by


  1. Collisions with extra-terrestrial debris


  1. Volcanic eruptions


  1. Interatomic destruction in the space


  1. Oceanic tides


  1. Vibrations from the troposphere


Answer: C, D




Reviving the practice of using elements of popular music in classical composition, an approach that had been in hibernation in the United States during the 1960s, composer Philip Glass (born 1937) embraced the ethos of popular music in his compositions. Glass based two symphonies on music by rock musicians David Bowie and Brian Eno, but the symphonies’ sound is distinctively his. Popular elements do not appear out of place in Glass’s classical music, which from its early days has shared certain harmonies and rhythms with rock music. Yet this use of popular elements has not made Glass a composer of popular music. His music is not a version of popular music packaged to attract classical listeners; it is high art for listeners steeped in rock rather than the classics.


QUESTION: The passage suggests that Glass’s work displays which of the




following qualities?



  1. A return to the use of popular music in classical compositions


  1. An attempt to elevate rock music to an artistic status more closely approximating that of classical music


  1. A long-standing tendency to incorporate elements from two apparently disparate musical styles


  1. His composition attracts listeners of all taste



Answer: B, C




In the UK, travel times to work had been stable for at least six centuries, with people avoiding situations that required them to spend more than half an hour travelling to work. Trains and cars initially allowed people to live at greater distances without taking longer to reach their destination. However, public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl, causing massive congestion problems which now make commuting times far higher. There is a widespread belief that increasing wealth encourages people to live farther out where cars are the only viable transport. The example of European cities refutes that. They are often wealthier than their American counterparts but have not generated the same level of car use. In Stockholm, car use has actually fallen in recent years as the city has become larger and wealthier. A new study makes this point even more starkly. Developing cities in Asia, such as Jakarta and Bangkok, make more use of the car than wealthy Asian cities such as Tokyo and Singapore. In cities that developed later, the World Bank and Asian Development Bank discouraged the building of public transport and people have been forced to rely on cars – creating the massive traffic jams that characterize those cities.


QUESTION: In which of the following statements are correct according to the passage?


  1. In the UK, people spend an hour travelling to work


  1. European cities have more cars than the US cities


  1. Developing cities in Asia have more cars than the developed ones


  1. Stockholm has experienced a decrease in use of cars as the city expands





  1. Massive traffic jams are often created by public transport



Answer: C, D




Bullying can take a variety of forms, from the verbal – being taunted or called hurtful names – to the physical – being kicked or shoved – as well as indirect forms, such as being excluded from social groups. A survey I conducted with Irene Whitney found that in British primary schools up to a quarter of pupils reported experience of bullying, which in about one in ten cases was persistent. There was less bullying in secondary schools, with about one in twenty-five suffering persistent bullying, but these cases may be particularly recalcitrant. Bullying is clearly unpleasant, and can make the child experiencing it feel unworthy and depressed. In extreme cases it can even lead to suicide, though this is thankfully rare. Victimized pupils are more likely to experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships as adults, while children who persistently bully are more likely to grow up to be physically violent, and convicted of antisocial


offences. Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately, more schools are now saying: ‘There is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it.’


QUESTION: Which of the following statements are true according to the author?


  1. In Britain, bullying was more prevalent in secondary schools than in primary schools


  1. Bullying has the potential to make a child feel unhappy


  1. In extreme cases bullying often leads to suicide


  1. children who bully become criminals in the future


  1. Schools admit that there is bullying there.


Answer: B, D






In 1979, the government of Nicaragua established a number of social programmes, including a National Literacy Crusade. By 1985, about 300,000 illiterate adults from all over the country, many of whom had never attended primary school, had learnt how to read, write and use numbers. During this period, researchers from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the Central American Institute of Health in Nicaragua, the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua and the Costa Rican Institute of Health interviewed nearly 3,000 women, some of whom had learnt to read as children, some during the literacy crusade and some who had never learnt at all. The women were asked how many children they had given birth to and how many of them had died in infancy. The research teams also examined the surviving children to find out how wellnourished


they were. The investigators’ findings were striking. In the late


1970s, the infant mortality rate for the children of illiterate mothers was around 110 deaths per thousand live births. At this point in their lives, those mothers who later went on to learn to read had a similar level of child mortality (105/1000). For women educated in primary school, however, the infant mortality rate was significantly lower, at 80 per thousand.


QUESTION: Which of the following options are true according to the passage?


  1. By 1985, 300,000 illiterate women in Nicaragua had learnt to read, write and use numbers


  1. The research showed that mother’s education had a direct impact on infant mortality rate


  1. Literacy crusade was a social campaign with a view to educating women


  1. The research was conducted during a period between 1979 and 1985


  1. The researchers found that children of the educated mothers were healthier


Answer: B, D




It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organization than a declining one. When organizations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay rises, and the excitement of




being associated with a dynamic organization create Slings of optimism. Management is able to use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organization is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organization can least afford to lose- those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited. Morale also surfers during decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumours and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions.



QUESTION: Which of the following statements are true according to the passage?


  1. It is a challenge to motivate employees in a thriving organization B. Organization cannot afford to lose its most mobile employees


  1. In shrinking companies, increased salaries are provided to those who decides to stay


  1. Productivity suffers when employees provide moral support to each other


  1. Pay cuts hardly occur during growth stage of an organization


Answer: B, E




Unusual incidents are being reported across the Arctic. Inuit families going off on snowmobiles to prepare their summer hunting camps have found themselves cut off from home by a sea of mud, following early thaws. There are reports of igloos losing their insulating properties as the snow drips and refreezes, of lakes draining into the sea as permafrost melts, and sea ice breaking up earlier than usual, carrying seals beyond the reach of hunters. Climate change may still be a rather abstract idea to most of us, but in the Arctic it is already having dramatic effects- if summertime ice continues to shrink at its present rate, the Arctic Ocean could soon become virtually ice-free in summer. The knock-on effects are likely to include more warming, cloudier skies, increased precipitation and higher sea levels. Scientists are increasingly keen to find out what’s going on because they consider the Arctic the ‘canary in the mine’ for global




warming – a warning of what’s in store for the rest of the World. For the Inuit the problem is urgent. They live in precarious balance with one of the toughest environments on earth. Climate change, whatever its causes, is a direct threat to their way of life. Nobody knows the Arctic as well as the locals, which is why they are not content simply to stand back and let outside experts tell them what’s happening. In Canada, where the Inuit people are jealously guarding their hard-won autonomy in the country’s newest territory, Nunavut, they believe their best hope of survival in this changing environment lies in combining their ancestral knowledge with the best of modern science. This is a challenge in itself.



QUESTION: Which of the following realities Inuit people are experiencing due to climate change?


  1. Lower temperature inside igloos


  1. Mud in the sea


  1. Difficulty in hunting seals


  1. Higher levels of ice


  1. More rainfall


  1. Tough environment


Answer: B, F




International trade is growing at a startling pace. While the global economy has been expanding at a bit over 3% a year, the volume of trade has been rising at a compound annual rate of about twice that. Foreign products, from meat to machinery, play a more important role in almost every economy in the world, and foreign markets now tempt businesses that never much worried about sales beyond their nation’s borders. What lies behind this explosion in international commerce? The general worldwide decline in trade barriers, such as customs duties and import quotas, is surely one explanation. The economic opening of countries that have traditionally been minor players is another. But one force behind the import-export boom has passed all but unnoticed: the rapidly falling cost of getting goods to market. Theoretically, in the world of trade, shipping costs do not matter. Goods, once they have been made, are assumed to move instantly and at no cost from place to place. The real world, however, is full of frictions. Cheap labour may make Chinese clothing competitive in America, but if delays in shipment tie up




working capital and cause winter coats to arrive in spring, trade may lose its advantages.


QUESTION: What are the reasons behind the present expansion of international trade according to the passage?


  1. Free movement of goods from one country to another


  1. Some counties now prefer foreign products over their domestic products



  1. More countries started to increasingly engage in international trade D. The effects of the introduction of electronic delivery


  1. Costs involved in transporting a product from abroad have dropped considerably


  1. Availability of cheap labour in some parts of the world



Answer: A, E, F








Land reclamation has been carried out along the coast of Tokyo Bay since the Meiji period. Areas along the shore with a depth of less than 5 metres are simplest to carry out landfill, and sand from the floor of Tokyo Bay is used for these projects. The topography of the shoreline of Tokyo Bay differs greatly from that of the pre-modern period due to ongoing land reclamation projects. Tokyo Bay includes about 249 square kilometres of reclaimed land area in 2012. Aggregate household waste production is enormous in Greater Tokyo, there is little room for traditional garbage disposal sites; waste is rigorously sorted at the household, much of it is turned into ash and further recycled into bay landfill.





  • conventional sales is when the home is owned out-right or the seller owes less on the mortgage than fair market value. Conventional sales involve quicker transactions between both parties unlike foreclosures, short sales and probate sales


We typically recommend conventional sales for our buyers, especially first-time homebuyers, to help them avoid the complications they could run into when dealing with distressed properties or probate sales. For a majority of buyers who are looking to purchase and move into their dream home as soon as possible, conventional sales are the way to go. Often times, distressed properties can take many months for the seller’s bank to approve an offer or for a court date to bet set in the case of a probate sale.




The Knowledge Challenge invites proposers to submit proposals for research activities aimed at improving our basic understanding


of entrepreneurs and the levers, tools and methods that can advance entrepreneurship in the United States. The Knowledge Challenge is open to proposers conducting research in universities and academic institutions, laboratories, companies, nonprofit organizations and as individuals. Collaborations between academic researchers and entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship support programs and other entrepreneurial ecosystem builders are welcome.


The Knowledge Challenge may grant up to $400,000 annually for project teams, up to $150,000 annually for individual researchers, including hiring contract or research assistance, and up to $30,000 annually for students or student teams or doctoral researchers.





Understanding Migration was conceived in response to numerous requests from educators and curriculum specialists concerning the presentation and discussion of issues related to human migration in the social studies classroom. What are the reasons that large groups of people have found themselves moving from place to place? What effects does this movement have? And most importantly, how can such a fluid and nebulous concept be presented in a classroom in an easy-to-follow manner with clear lesson objectives and outcomes? Regional case studies were chosen to address these, and other, essential questions. Where possible, we have used primary source documents to present the information in each case study.




In every recession marketers find themselves in poorly charted waters because no two downturns are exactly alike. However, in studying the marketing successes and failures of dozens of companies as


they’ve navigated recessions from the 1970s onward, we’ve identified patterns in consumers’ behavior and firms’ strategies that either propel or undermine performance. Companies need to understand the evolving consumption patterns and fine-tune their strategies accordingly.


During recessions, of course, consumers set stricter priorities and reduce their spending. As sales start to drop, businesses typically cut costs, reduce prices, and postpone new investments. Marketing expenditures in areas from communications to research are often slashed across the board—but such indiscriminate cost cutting is a mistake.


Although it’s wise to contain costs, failing to support brands or examine core customers’ changing needs can jeopardize performance over the long term. Companies that put customer needs under the microscope, take a scalpel rather than a cleaver to the marketing budget, and nimbly adjust strategies, tactics, and product offerings in response to shifting demand are more likely than others to flourish both during and after a recession.



Secure financial messaging services provider SWIFT said today that it has expanded the GPI Tracker system to help banks track their global transactions at all times, keeping full vigil on the payments activity.


Extension of its GPI Tracker will cover all payment instructions sent across the network, SWIFT said in a statement.

The introduction of the unique end-to-end transaction reference in all payment instructions will be effected through the mandatory annual standards update in November 2018.




SWIFT GPI improves customer experience by increasing speed, transparency and automatically provides status updates to all GPI banks involved in any GPI payment chain, it said.





If you are carrying out building work personally, it is very important that you understand how the building regulatory system and material applies to your situation as you are responsible for making sure that the


work complies with the building regulations.


If you are employing a builder, the responsibility will usually be theirs – but you should confirm this at the very beginning. You should also bear in mind that if you are the owner of the building, it is ultimately you who may be served with an enforcement notice if the work does not comply with the regulations.


Some kinds of building projects are exempt from the regulations, however generally if you are planning to carry out ‘building work’ as defined in regulation 3 of the building regulations, then it


must comply with the building regulations.




Plastic domes can be produced from a quality plastic called Plexiglas. Its qualities are closer to glass. Its light permeability doesn’t change with time. Its surface is hard and smog and dust do not stick to or bake onto the surface. Each rain completely rinses it, making it self-cleaning. The surface is scratch-resistant against flying dust in strong wind. It has excellent optical characteristics and the ability to collect sunlight and send it down the tube. It doesn’t age under UV rays or temperature changes or moisture. Its disadvantage is, however, a higher price. Some producers don’t use a dome, but instead use a roof window to which they then attach a sun tunnel tube. This is an interesting solution, but only for spaces where a lower amount of sunlight is enough. The flat surface of a window reflects 30% of the light away from the sun tunnel at roof level. Smog and dust sticks more easily to its flat surface and it’s necessary to keep it clean. Snow sticks to the flat surface very easily, leaving no other choice but to crawl onto the roof and remove the snow or remain without sunlight and turn on a light during the day. There are also several kinds of surface profiles and internal reflectors for domes. These alterations are supposed to raise the amount of light the dome catches.





The Global Nutrition Summit will take stock of commitments made to date, celebrate progress toward global goals on nutrition, and announce new commitments to accelerate the global response to malnutrition. The




event is open to governments, civil society, multilateral agencies, private foundations and companies.


After a decade of decline, the recent news that global hunger is on the


rise — with the number of undernourished people increasing from 777 to

815 million in 2016 – signals the urgent need for action. During a time of

political change around the globe, this event is an opportunity for world


leaders to make new pledges and commit to upholding prior ones.

Nutrition plays a critical role not only in child health and survival, but also

in driving economic prosperity for families and nations. It is encouraging


to see increased attention from world leaders to address malnutrition in

all its forms and in particular to reduce stunting everywhere. It will


take continued efforts and dedication to ensure this progress continues.

The Global Nutrition Summit will build on the legacy of Nutrition for

Growth, the first-ever global nutrition conference held in London in


2013, which mobilized over $4 billion for nutrition-specific projects, and

$19 billion in nutrition-sensitive projects. The Summit will foster dialogue

around emerging issues such as ‘Cities as Innovator Hubs’, ‘Sustainable


Food Systems for Optimal Nutrition’ and ‘Gender, health and nutrition.’




You are quite satisfied with the job and your company is quite happy with your deliverables. However, all this can change almost overnight if you do not look into that major aspect of professional life – progress. Make sure that you enhance your qualities at least once a year. Also, make sure that you are constantly in pursuit of enhancing your academic knowledge. Without an increase in the academic knowledge as well as qualities required for the job, you will find it very difficult to move your career forward.


Another important aspect of maximizing your career potential is to network.

The network of a professional is sometimes considered as his or her second salary.


Having a cordial relationship with colleges, company’s customers and even company’s competitors, may enhance your career.

If you have a number of people on your network, you will be able to keep an ear to the market position as well as new career opportunities


and prospects.


This is a tricky aspect, but if carried out right, it can work wonders for your profession. This will not only ease the initial hesitation anyone has about grouping with existent members, as well as ensure that your interaction levels have increased or at least exist with other individuals

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