PTE August Prediction File

PTE AUGUST PREDICTION MATERIAL

PTE Prediction August 2019  

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  1. Northcote Parkinson, a British writer, formulated Parkinson’s rule: “Work expands to fill the time allotted to it; or, conversely, the amount of work completed is in inverse proportion to the number of people employed.” Simply said: If you have an hour to do a 5-minute job, it will take an hour to do it. A large number of people accomplish less work than a smaller number of people.

 

  1. Fence, humanly erected barrier between two divisions of land, used to mark a legal or other boundary, to keep animals or people in or out, and sometimes as an ornament. In newly settled lands fences are usually made of materials at hand, e.g., stone, earth, or wood.

 

  1. The provision of accurate and authoritative statistical information strengthens modern societies. It provides a basis for decisions to be made on such things as where to open schools and hospitals, how much money to spend on welfare payments and even which football players to replace at half-time.

 

  1. Australians do speak English, however, for some tourists and travellers, it can be difficult to understand the slang. Also, the links between Australian and American English were seen to be very tenuous. At least some colloquialisms in Australian English does not exist in other types of English.

 

  1. Competence in mathematics was another trouble spot. More than half said that their real task school’s graduates are deficient in mathematics, more than 10% of respondents said college’s graduates are deficient in the subject, while 70% said they are adequate.

 

  1. Few things in the world produce such amazement as one’s first of clippers of the Grand Canyon; it took around more than 2 billion years to create this vast wonder – in some places. 17 miles wide, largely through the relentless force of Colorado River, which runs 277 miles along its length, a mile beneath its towering rims.

 

  1. Scientists know little about how exactly it works, especially when it comes to complex functions like memory formation. Research is more advanced in animals, but experiments on humans are hard. Yet, even today, some parts of the brain, like the motor cortex, are better understood. Nor is complete knowledge always needed. Machine learning can recognize patterns of neural activity; the brain itself gets the hang of controlling BCIS with extraordinary ease. And neuro technology will reveal more of the brain’s secrets.

 

  1. It seems that when it comes to love, men and women are designed to misconstrue misread and misunderstand one another and themselves. You discover that in fact they make good sense. Being a deluded romantic is often the best way to make a good-biologically successful-choice about a potential partner on the basis.

 

  1. The grid-based infrastructure enables large-scale scientific applications to be run on distributed resources. However, in practice, grid resources are not very easy to use for the end-users who have to learn how to generate security credentials. There is an imminent need to provide transparent access to these resources so that the end-users are shielded from the complicated details.
  1. Before European explorers had reached Australia, it was believed that all swans were white. Dutch mariner, Antoine Caen, was the first to be amazed at the sight of Australia’s Black swans on the Shark Bay in 1636. Explorer Willem de Vlamingh captured two of these creatures on Australia’s Swan River and returned with them to Europe to prove their existence. From that point on, black swans and Australia have been closely linked. 
  1. Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves. 
  1. For diplomacy the starting point must be that globalization requires bridges and removes barriers. A policy of containment is a difficult strategy in the age of the fibre-optic cable, the jumbo jet and the satellite dish. There will always be the exception, such as the murderous regime in Iraq where the only safe strategy is to keep it in the isolation ward until it accepts the norms of international behavior, or the military dictatorship in Burma which has persistently failed to respond to dialogue. It takes two to critically engage. 
  1. Since its inception, the UN system has been working to ensure adequate food for all through sustainable agriculture. The majority of the worlds poorest people live in rural areas of developing countries. They depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. This makes them particularly vulnerable to man-made and natural influences that reduce agricultural production.

 

  1. By this time, however, pale-ontological momentum had moved to England. In 1812, at Lyme Regis on the Dorset coast, an extraordinary child named Mary Anning -aged 11, 12 or 13, depending on whose account you read-found a strange fossilized sea monster, 17 feet long and now known as the ichthyologists, embedded in the steep and 17 dangerous cliffs along the English Channel.

 

  1. Clementson wanted to see if claims of question dodging actually held up,historically -not necessarily in the unique case of Trump. So Clementon analysed the transcripts of 14 presidential debates, from 1996 to 2012. Overall, he found 51 accusations of question dodging – 26 by Dems, 25 by Republicans.

 

  1. Electronic discourse is one form of interactive electronic communication. In this study, we reserve the term for the two-directional texts in which one person using a keyboard writes language that appears on the sender’s monitor and is transmitted to the monitor of a recipient, who responds by keyboard. 
  1. As we progress into the 21st century, communications are becoming faster and faster Think of millions of different media images you are bombarded with every day. It is as important now to be able to read and make sense of those images, as it has been to be able to read ordinary text. 
  1. In comparing material with non-material culture – the first being the objects and technologies we create, and the second our customs, beliefs and attitudes – the speaker gives greater emphasis to the material culture. He gives the example of the development of genetic science and the benefits it has brought to mankind, despite a fair amount of opposition.
  1. Where there are effects, there are often side effects. The car is a boon to mobility, but can lead to obesity, deaths and pollution. Burning fossil fuel may keep economies goings but wrecks the climate in the long run. In a similar way, there are side effects to information technology in education setting – from childcare to the classroom to the lecture hall and beyond.
  1. The elephant is the largest living land mammal. During evolution, its skeleton has greatly altered from the usual mammal, design for two main reasons. One is to cope with the great weight of huge grinding cheek teeth and elongated tusk, making the skull particularly massive. The other is to support the enormous bulk of such a huge body.

 

  1. The next wave of leaders in industrial manufacturing will build an ecosystem that capitalizes on the promise of analytics and connectivity to maximize efficiency for themselves and their customers. They will map out their strategies and prioritize measures that will bring the most value to their business, starting now with pilot projects, and building greater strengths in data analytics with cross-functional teams of experts.

 

  1. Business school admissions officers said the new drive to attract younger students was in part the result of a realization that they had inadvertently limited their applicant pool by requiring several years’ work experience. Talented students who might otherwise have gone to business school instead opted for a law or policy degree because they were intimidated by the expectation of work experience.

 

  1. A Hazard Assessment should be performed for work involving distillations of organic liquids and should thoroughly address issues relating to residual water and possible decomposition of the solvent in question, as well as the physical placement of the distillation apparatus and heating equipment to be employed.

 

  1. Shrimp farmers used to hold animals in nursery ponds for 30 to 60 days: now they try to move them into grow-out ponds in less than 30 days. This reduces stress on the animals and dramatically increases survivals in the grow-out ponds. Many farms that abandoned nursery ponds have gone back to them, and the results have been surprisingly positive. They’re using the old, uncovered, earthen, nursery ponds.

 

  1. The preparation of abstract is an intellectual effort requiring generally familiar with the subject to bring out the points of an author’s argument course for skills and experience. Consequently, a considerable amount of qualified manpower that could be used to advantage in other ways must be diverted to task of facilitating or to information.

 

  1. Although Botswana’s economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country’s future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors, it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who needed them, and by March 2004, Botswana’s infection rate has dropped significantly.

 

  1. Public demand for education has remained strong, reflecting the importance of education as a means of social progress. Aware of the added value of education to the world of work, the government continues to innovate and update the education system in order to produce a qualified and competent workforce.

 

  1. Training to become an actor is an intensive process which requires curiosity, courage and commitment. You’ll learn how to prepare for rehearsal, how to rehearse and how to use independent and proactive processes to achieve your best work possible for stage and screen.

 

  1. Globalization has affected what we eat in ways. We are only beginning to understand. More and more food production no longer related to our biological needs, but is indirectly conflict with them. The relationship between diet and our fertility, our cancer, heart diseases and mental illness is becoming clear, yet much of our food is nutritionally bankrupt.

 

  1. Traditional divisions of domestic work are understood to persist, because of the strong association of the home with humanity and with masculinity to challenge that home is arguably equivalent to challenge what it is to beat a woman or a man.

 

  1. Perhaps the most memorable benefit of the program has been the opportunity to me in small groups, something that is difficult to arrange such a desperate organization. Many officers would have to work together for thirty years but would not know other’s strength and weakness.

 

  1. The department determines whether or not the candidate has passed the examination. In cases where an appearance for the final public oral examination would constitute a substantial financial hardship for the candidate, the director of graduate studies may recommend to the dean of the Graduate School that the examination be waived.

 

  1. Companies will want to be known not just for the financial results they generate, but equally for the imprint they leave on society as a whole. First, ensuring that their products contribute positively. Second. operating in a way that approaches a “net-neutral” impact to the natural environment. And third, cherishing their people.

 

  1. When we recycle, used materials are converted into new products, reducing the need to consume natural resources. If used materials are not recycled, new products are made by extracting fresh, raw material from the Earth, through mining and forestry. Recycling helps conserve important raw materials and protects natural habitats for the future.

 

  1. like many other nineteenth-century thinkers, conceive of humanity either in large collective terms or in abstract generalities. Orientalists are neither interested in nor capable of discussing individuals; instead, artificial entities predominate. Similarly, the age-old distinction between “Europe” and “Asia” or “Occident” and “Orient” herds beneath very wide labels every possible variety of human plurality, reducing it in the process to one or two terminal collective realities.

 

  1. In the past, Naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction.
  1. Business school admissions officers said the new drive to attract younger students was in part the result of a realization that they had inadvertently limited their applicant pool by requiring several years’ work experience. Talented students who might otherwise have gone to business school instead opted for a law or policy degree because they were intimidated by the expectation of work experience.

 

  1. Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three categories, retailers enjoyed healthy increases across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers were also revised higher.

 

  1. Shrimp farmers used to hold animals in nursery ponds for 30 to 60 days; now they try to move them into grow-out ponds in less than 30 days. This reduces stress on the animals and dramatically increases survivals in the grow-out ponds. Many farms that abandoned nursery ponds have gone back to them, and the results have been surprisingly positive. They’re using the old, uncovered, earthen, nursery ponds.



REPEAT SENTENCES:

1.Being a vegan means not eating any other meat.
2.In your introduction, show you understood the question in no more than four sentences.
3.The clear evidence between brain events and behavioral events is fascinating.
4.Please register your student email account at your earliest convenience.
5.No crop responds more readily to care for husbandry and skillful cultivation.
6.On behalf of our department, I would like to thank you for your participation.
7.Parent should provide guidance and examples to children’s values.
8.Physiology is the study of internal and external structure of the body.
9.Portfolio is due to the internal review office no later than Tuesday
10.  Residents hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time in the semester.
11.Sport is the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.
12.All students and staff have the access to printers and scanners.
13.General biology text is located in the north wing of the library stair
14.Environmentalism is a category in which universities are competing
15.Allergy problems do run in the family, but we don’t understand why.
16.Any text or references you make should be cited appropriately
17.Anyone who has a problem with their accommodation should speak to the welfare officer.
18.As for me, it is a strategy to go to judicial review.
19.Biographical information should be removed before the publication of the results.
20.Conferences are always scheduled on the third Wednesday of the month.
21.Conservation is the survival of future generation.
22.Does the government in your country help families that need help?
23.Meteorology is a detailed study of earth’s atmosphere.
24.The investigate aims to establish the extent of the problem.
25.Modern poetry often tests the convention of language and rhythm.
26.It’s within that framework that we’re making our survey.
27.What distinguished him from others is his dramatic use of black and white photography.
28.When demand for the course rose, university authorities took on additional academic staff.
29.Our university has strong partnership with industry as well as collaborative relationship with government bodies.
30.Many students are so scared of writing essays, because they never learned how.
31.Eating too much can lead to many healthy problems.
32.The cafeteria closes soon but the snack machine is accessible throughout the
33.No more than four people can be in the lab at once.
34.There will be a guest lecturer visiting this department next month.
35.Art is influenced by the political events and ideas of its time period.
36.Students are not allowed to take journals out of the library.
37.There will be no classes scheduled during the exam week.
38.People with active lifestyle are less likely to die early or to have major illness.
39.The author is currently the Professor at the Cambridge university.
40.The new timetable will be posted on the website before class starts.
41.  The development in the information technology has greatly change the way people WORK
42.Biographic information should be removed before the publication of the results.
43.It isn’t easy when comes to the definition of this word.
44.Our log books make up five per cent of our total marks.
45.There is no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.
46.This dichotomy was evident after giving the test of prospective hindsight.
47.In this library, reserve collection books can be borrowed for up to three hours.
48.In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalisation.
49.Students are not allowed to take journals out of the library.
50.The study of archaeology requires extensive international field work.
51.There will be ample opportunities to ask questions about the presentation.
52.Leading scientists speculate that numerous planets could support life forms.
53.In consultation with your supervisor, your thesis is approved by the faculty committee.
54.A thorough bibliography is needed at the end of every assignment.
55.To receive the reimbursement, you must keep the original receipts.
56.There are no scheduled classes during the final exam weeks.
57.The search for universal explanations plays an important role in the development of archaeological theory.
58.Meeting with tutors could be arranged for students who need additional help.
59.He’s almost never in his office.
60.The new English classes will start next Monday morning.
61.There will be open book exams on Monday the 28th.
62.A full bibliography is needed at the end of all assignments.
63.The program depends entirely on private funding.
64.If she doesn’t speak the language, she’s not going to sit around a week for translator
65.The verdict depends on which side was more convincing to the jury.
66.The library is located at the other side of the campus behind the student center.
67.  Unfortunately, the two most interesting economic selectives clash on my timetable.
68.The aim of the work, presented could be formulated as follows.
69.One of hardest things about starting University is finding your way around.
70.Lecture theatre one is located on the ground floor of pack (of) building.
71.Current statistical evidence indicates that further research is required.
72.The first person in space was from the Soviet Union.
73.Chapter one provides the historical background to the topic.
74.She doesn’t care about anything but what is honest and true.
75.You need to be careful when quoting internet sources.
76.Meetings with mentors can be scheduled for students who require additional support
77.Is hypothesis on black hole as rendered moot as explanation of explanations.
78.Previous students pass the biology exam easily
79.Some methods for clinical applications have been presented as well.
80.The United States has become coffee culture recent years
81.We must hand in our assignments by end of the week
82.He was constantly looking for ways to bring industry and agriculture together
83.A demonstrated ability to write clear, correct and concise English is bigotry.
84.You can pay using cash or credit card.
85.The agriculture sector in the country is heavily subsidized.
86.It really depends on somebody’s personal situation.
87.It’s good for the environment and it’s good for your electric bill.
88.A limited amount of department funding is available to qualified students.
89.The methodology was criticized for inaccurate analysis of the data.
90.We developed a method for evaluation of dynamic changes.
91.A renowned economist is slate to speak this evening at eight.
92.Put the knife and fork next to the spoon on the edge of the table.
93.The small India state is a land of forest valleys and smelly highlands.
94.It can be effectively providing information to consumers.
95.Once more under the pressure of economic necessity, practice outstrips theory.
96.The opposition has so far been unresponsive to our proposal.
97.  Most animals have triangular vocal cords, but the lion’s mighty pipes are square.
98.Spiritualism is defined as a system of belief or religious practice.
99.Student loans are now available for international students.
100.Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.
101.Quantitative and temporal parameters of food consumptions were used.
102.Meeting with mentors can be scheduled for students who require additional support.
103.Proteins constitute at least thirty percent of the total mass of all living organism.
104.The current and conventional method has many disadvantages including the side effects.
105.Most of the strategies are in a preclinical state.
106.There has been a rapid growth in the commercial market.
107.Cellular engineering strategies are highly desirable.
108.Genetic and biochemical analyses have generated a detailed portfolios of mechanisms.
109.This process has enabled the rational identification of core machinery.
110.A key feature in drug development is examination of the pharmacological effects.
111.A science based approach is vital for effective advancements.
112.This essay examined the used of computer in the science classroom.
113.But they haven’t come to widespread use yet.
114.Diagnosis is not a discrete or limited process.
115.The website interface represents the stimulus that influence consumers’ decision making.
116.Participants were not performing an acutal purchase.
117.In market, short time thought often lead to diaster.
118.The gap between the rich and the poor was not decreased rapidly as expected.
119.The professor will be the last speaker this evening.
120.Could you please pass the handouts to the students that are in your row?
121.You should raise your concern with the head of school.
122.Number the beakers and put them away until tomorrow
123.The contest includes both the land history and the human history
124.Higher fees cause the student to look more critically at what universities offer.
125.On this project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.
126.This year, we are applying to use a different type of assessment on this module
127.We would like the first draft of the assignment by Monday
128.Just wait a minute, I will be with you shortly
129.I think the university’s main campus is closed
130.There are lot of people competing for the places in computer courses.
131.This can be used as a starting point for my discussion today
132.The office said Dr. Smith will arrive later today.
133.The library will be closed for three days over the bank holiday
134.The information on the internet becomes more reliable.
135.Making profits and protecting environment shouldn’t be serpentine
136.The development was mainly included in chapter nine.
137.The current compliance evidence indicates the need for further research
138.She used to be everywhere but today she is missing
139.Farmers do not always price for agriculture goods.
140.It’s time to fertilize the work before the Wednesday seminar
141.I will check again but I’m pretty sure we are assumed to read chapter two.
142.Doing this research makes me think of the purpose of science
143.The professor has promised to put his lecture notes online.
144.The results of the study underscored the discoveries from early detection.
145.Your enrolment information, results and fees will be available online.
146.We are changing classrooms because this one is too small.
147.I don’t like cheese and tomato sandwiches on white bread with orange juice.
148.Please finish all the reading chapters before the field trip
149.All field assignments should have a full list of bibliography
150.All students must participate in the exercise
151.There is an urgent need for people to help clean up the environment.
152.How much time did you spend on doing research before you started writing?
153.Tom doesn’t watch TV except on Saturdays.
154.I know how to solve the problem, but I’ve been asked not to tell you.
155.She sold all of her furniture, so she could afford to feed herself and her dog.
156.After I graduated from college, I spent two years traveling around the world
157.Let’s see if technology is going to cooperate this presentation.
158.Please write your name on essay cover sheet.
159.To understand its xx, we need to go back to its origin.
160.In English, the month of the year is always capitalized.
161.We divide our class into two groups. You come with me, the rest should stay here.
162.The bookshop is located at the north of main campus.
163.Every year, students pass biology course easily.
164.That country’s economy is primarily based on tourism.
165.Applicants for the course preferably have a preference over English or journalism.
166.You can find a lot more information on the university website.
167.The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.
168.Today we are going to discuss the role of government in preventing the injustice.
169.This lecture was meant to start at 10.
170.I need more quotations to back up my argument.
171.You need to finish the reporting of the chapter before going to the field trip.
172.Interpreters are not readily available in this department.
173.Scientists are getting closer to the answers of this questions.
174.In spite the cold temperature, the sky is clear and blue.
175.This ?? session is not supported by documentation.
176.The tutor is there to help. So do ask if you don’t understand anything.
177.Many health workers think that pensioners are too old to understand.
178.Several copies must be supplied to the university department to fulfil the requirement.
179.Transportation will be provided only in the exceptional circumstances.
180.The opposition has so far been unresponsive to our proposal.
181.Most animals have triangular vocal cords, but the lion’s mighty pipes are square.
182.Spiritualism is defined as a system of belief or religious practice.
183.Student loans are now available for international students.
184.Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.
185.There will be ample opportunities to ask questions about the presentation.
186.Elephant is the largest land living mammal.
187.All students are encouraged to vote in the forthcoming elections.
188.Newspapers around the world are reporting stories of presidents.
189.Interpreters are not readily available in this department.



RETELL LECTURES:

 

  1. Hand measuring food portion

Transcript: I’m a dietitian and I work in clinical weight-loss recently. Accurately estimating portion size is critical in research or real-world settings. For example, if you’re trying to watch your weight and you’re out to dinner and you’re presented with a bowl of food, there’s no really good way to actually estimate how much you’re eating unless you’re gonna whip some scales out of your bag. So we wanted to find a more objective way for people to quantify what they’re eating when they’re out and about. I came up with a more hands-on approach. We got people to measure the dimensions of the food using the width of their fingers and remembering back to primary school math. We use the geometric volume formulas to estimate the weight of the food. To show you how this works, I’ve ordered a piece of lasagne and that’s my box, a glass of wine and that’s my cylinder. And I’m feeling pretty healthy, so I order some watermelon for dessert. And that’s my wedge.So this lasagne, it is seven by five, by four fingers. in the future, I see this method be incorporated into smartphone applications. So you put your fingers width in, along with your height and your weight. And the app will do all of the calculations for you. And then you’ve got a more accurate way to estimate the portion size.

 

Answer: There is an objective way for people to measure the food portion when they’re eating out, as the researcher believes that people can measure the dimension of food using their fingers. Moreover, the method should be incorporated into smartphone applications in the future, where people can enter their finger width measurements, as well as their height and weight so applications will do calculation to estimate appropriate food portion sizes.

 

  1. File a patent:

Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is filing a patent and it comprises that two scenarios in which people describe their items in different manner. The speaker uses a clicker as an example, on one of the spectrums, if people who intend to file a patent describe it in one word as clicker, there would be 0% chance of getting the patent despite the fact that it will bring an enormous value. On the other end of the spectrum is to use a million words to describe every single thing about the item, there will be 100% chance of getting it through the patent office, but the value of that patent would be close to zero.

 

  1. Type of questionnaires

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is the categories of questionnaires and it comprises that nominal, ordinal, continuous type are three levels of measurement in the form of questionnaires. Additionally, it also denotes that nominal questions allows participants to select from a list of categories for their response. Considering the most substantial insights which are specified here, it can be stated that ordinal type questions depict the order of variables, whereas continuous question is an open-ended question that can be answered by a number.

 

 

  1. Ecological Footprint

 

  • According to the data collected by WWF, more than 1/3 of resources on the earth have been consumed by people during the past three decades.
  • Ecological footprint is to calculate how much land does each resident need.
  • An average of 1.8 global hectares is needed by an individual, which means a total of 11.8 billion global hectares is required.
  • If everyone on the earth consumes resources like in Australia, by 2050, we will need at least two planets for resources.

 

  1. Bipolar Effect
  • The lecture talks about the bipolar effect of technology on human society.
  • The researcher has found that if we let workers stay at the production line constantly and keep doing the same job, it will shorten the whole working time.
  • However, while the advance in technology is increasing efficiency and productivity, technology also poses a huge threat on unemployment.

 

  1. Innovation and invention

 

Transcript: He says innovation equals invention. Let me just stop here. Innovation equals invention often people mistake these two things for the same thing. Innovation equals invention, they are not. Innovation is something that generates value for the world. It makes something faster, better, cheaper. It gives someone some great satisfaction. An invention is an idea, a technology, a patent. In and of itself, it does not generate value. So these two are not the same thing. And sometimes you see them interchange. And that’s not correct. So innovation equals invention times commercialization. So and when we look at this equation of innovation something of value, it requires a new idea and then it requires someone or some organization that is going to commercialize that idea. And to make it a value to the world.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is innovation and invention, and it comprises that innovation is not the same as invention. Additionally, it also denotes that innovation generates value for the world, whereas invention is an idea or patent that does not generate value. Considering the most substantial insights which are specified here, it requires both new idea and some organization that is going to commercialize that idea to create a value to the world.

  1. Discovering the Port of Roman London

Transcript: But what we are going to discuss today is how the port of London was discovered and what we discovered about it. Now if you look at the historical records of Roman London, there is only about 14 actual references to London in antiquity I contemporary references. And all those only one is in the first century, there are none at all at the second or third century. There is only one in the late third century and there is four in the fourth century. So if you are a historian trying to write the history of Rome in London, it’s really difficult. You don’t really have much data, you’re going to depend on the archaeological evidence, the material evidence of the port and indeed the town to have any understanding of what happened then. And so, what we’re looking at here is how did we discover about the port of London, there is no historical documentations, no customs books, no terrorists, no idea of the taxes. We have to understand the port entirely from the archaeological evidence. So that’s what we are going to do today.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is Port of Roman London and it comprises that there are only 14 references about Roman London. Additionally, archaeological evidence can be taken as a reference due to a lack of data. Considering the most substantial aspects, it can be stated that, there is no historical documentations or books regarding how the port of London was discovered and researchers have to understand the port entirely from the archaeological evidence.

  1. Newton and gravity

Transcript: We’ve all heard the story. A young Isaac Newton is sitting beneath an apple tree contemplating the mysterious universe. Suddenly — boink! – an apple hits him on the head. In a flash he understands that the very same force that brought the apple crashing toward the ground also keeps the moon falling toward the Earth and the Earth falling toward the sun: gravity. Or something like that. The apocryphal story is one of the most famous in the history of science and now you can see for yourself what Newton actually said. Squirreled away in the archives of London’s Royal Society was a manuscript containing the truth about the apple. So it turns out the apple story is true — for the most part. The apple may not have hit Newton in the head, but I’ll still picture it that way. Meanwhile, three and a half centuries and an Albert Einstein later, physicists still don’t really understand gravity. We’re gonna need a bigger apple.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is Newton and gravity and it comprises that a falling apple caused him to speculate upon the nature of gravitation. Additionally, it also denotes that Newton discovered gravity and understood that the same force that brought the apple crashing toward the ground also kept the moon falling toward the Earth and the Earth falling toward the sun.

  1. Melk

Transcript: The Melk is not typical of all monasteries for many reasons. Firstly, it is very grand which most especially later foundations aren’t. Secondly, it was founded in the countryside, whereas in 17th and 18th centuries, a good proportion of foundations were made in Towns. Thirdly, it still owns substantial amount of land, because fourthly it lies in the Austrian Republic, the only European country where grand old monasteries have been in continuous existence, since they were founded 900,1000, even in one case 1200 years ago.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is that Melk is a unique monastery for a number of different reasons, and it comprises that it is quite grand and founded in countryside where as the majority of foundations back in 17’h and 18th century was made in towns. Additionally, it occupies a substantial amount of land and lies in the Austrian Republic, which is the only European country where grand old monasteries have been in continuous existence.

  1. Former civilization

Transcript: The first thing I want to argue is that the former civilization is running into pretty profound crisis in its relationships to the rest of nature, which we do and what we have depended on for survival and for flourishing. And this is the most widely and well-recognized in relation to climate change, CO2 emissions, greenhouse gas emissions. But I want to argue the certain dangers in the way that has been presented as the central question that we have to address. Because it’s interlocked with a number of other crises that is most noticeably as the crisis in access to fresh water, crisis in access to food, biodiversity loss on a huge scale, and associated problems of human in equality not just in a common world, but actually in the kinds of environmental resources, and pleasures that I can enjoy. So all those together, have to be looked at as an interconnected set of really deep profound crisis.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is former civilization, and it comprises that there is crisis between former civilization and nature. Additionally, former civilization is interlocked with a number of other noticeably crises including the crisis in access to fresh water and food, natural resource allocation as well as biodiversity loss on a huge scale etc. Considering the most substantial insights which are specified here, it can be stated that all of aforementioned factors need to be considered while looking into the issue.

  1. Politics and international relations

Transcript: This course provides students with an in-depth understanding of the exciting disciplines of politics and international relations. Students will learn about the workings of political institutions in countries around the world and explore the complex field of relations between nations. Topics in governance, public policy, public administration, national security, and border control ensure that students receive a broad and current education in the range of issues which are covered under the label of politics and international relations.

Students will undertake four compulsory units and two majors, one in politics and international relations and the other in governance and policy. They will also choose an elective major from a wide choice of options including political communication, international studies, international business and national security studies.

In addition to acquiring specialist knowledge and competencies in Politics and International Relations and Commerce, students will graduate with a range of generic skills such as critical thinking, enhanced communication abilities, problem solving and strong capacities to work with others. They will also develop ethically based and socially responsible attitudes and behaviours.

Answer: Significantly focusing on the fact which is mentioned is the course of politics and international relations, and it comprises that in this course students will learn about the political realm around the world. Additionally, students will receive a broad education associated with politics and international relations, and they need to undertake four compulsory units and two majors. Considering the most substantial insights which are specified here, it can be stated that students will graduate with a range of generic skills and a sense of social responsibility.

  1. Anti-HIV Program

Sample answer: This is an anti-HIV program carried out in India. There are quarterly meetings to provide training and consultation to people in the program. They would know the service and how to prevent catching the diseases. The training is provided by professionals in hospital and weekly meetings are held to follow up and give consultation. The risks include contagious diseases such as HIV which is quite difficult to control. Training is essential for workers to understand the precaution knowledge.

  1. Loggerhead turtle

The lecture talks about loggerhead turtle, one of the largest turtles in the world, and almost distinct in the USA. They have big heads and short necks.In September,1986,scientists put a tracker on a turtle’s shell, and use satellites to track and locate the migration route of the turtle.They reach different localities in different time.The migration takes three months, from the south Florida to the north.

  1. Nelson Mandela

The lecture talks about how to lead people and the speaker was in South Africa doing her research.Nelson Mandela is famous for his autobiography.Creating the context to allow talented people to flourish is important.Lead from behind and let others believe they are in front.The best way to be a leader is to create the appropriate context.

  1. CO2 Pollution

The topic is the correlation between greenhouse gase and temperature.It does not prove one causes the other, but correlation exists.CO2 is a lot worse than we thought, but we don’t know how to reduce the amount.Developing sustainable energy resources is important to conserve the energy we have.

  1. Character Education

The lecture is about a research on young people aged from 3 to 25 years old to see how they participate in their communities and how they form values, as well as their character education. The outcome involves parents, friends, and school. We try to figure out which one is the most important.

  1. Soot Emission

Soot is also called black carbon.Soot emission contributes to climate warming.Soot does not accumulate in the atmosphere like CO2 (carbon dioxide) . Reduction in soot has immediate but not long-term effects on global warming. If we want to stabilize the climate system, we need to focus on greenhouse gases such as CO2.

  1. Rural Poverty

The topic is the poverty in rural and urban areas.Firstly, the poverty rates in rural areas are much higher than those in urban areas, because most of the poor live in rural areas.Rural areas also have high infant mortality rate and low education level.It is important to make sure the population in rural areas have access to sanitation and education.The poverty in urban areas is caused by the migration from rural areas.

 

  1. Silk Road

 

The silk road is not like what we thought it would be.People traveled in groups to other countries through the silk road, exchanged things, and then came back.There were also some side groups who went to other countries such as India, which was called the ‘Amber Route’.At that time, there was also gift changing happened on the silk road.

  1. Pyramids

Pyramid is often used to show age structure.The bottom has the largest portion, indicating newly-born babies and teenagers.The oldest people has the least number.Then the lecture compare the age structure in 1976 to the age structure now.

  1. Presentation Skill

If people feel nervous and speak quickly, audience would not understand what you said.Another part is about how to overcome it.Don’t give too much information, just only mention 3 points in 15 minutes.

  1. Visual Culture

This topic is described as the visual culture in science fiction.The visual culture in science fiction involves drama, culture, technology, and most importantly, logical and visual effects.This was minor and sub-cultural until a big change occurred since the introduction of the movie Star War.The story of the movie is stupid and aggressive, but the speaker still likes it because of the well-designed visual logic.Fiction is now a part of the visual culture.

  1. Chloe sunglasses

This lecture is about real and fake sunglasses. The real Chloe sunglasses are worth of 300 dollars, whereas the fake ones are only 30 dollars. Researchers gave the real Chloe sunglasses to a group of people, and they found that those who wore fake ones are doing more cheating when they were filling the questionnaires. But wearing real ones can increase people’s confidence.

  1. The lecture talks about the differences between language learning and other cognitive skills’ learning. The use of language is universal used, and all developing children learn to speak as least one language, even more than one. Not everyone becomes proficient at other cognitive skills, such as mathematical reasoning, painting or carrying a tune. The universal use of language makes it capable of learning simply. Language is one of the most complex human cognitive skills.
  2. Sample answer: Thermodynamics is simply defined as the branch of physics that deals with the conversion of different forms of energy. Kinetics deals with the actions of forces that cause various motions (also known as dynamics). Thermal energy is defined as the total of all kinetic energies within a given system. Kinetic energy may be best understood by examples that demonstrate how it is transformed to and from other forms of energy.

 

  1. The Shuttle

The shuttle was designed to be a space truck; it’s a multi-purpose vehicle. We’ve done a tremendous number of different things with it. It’s the most versatile space vehicle that has ever been built. We’ve used it to launch satellites. We’ve used it to repair satellites in orbit and put them back into orbit. We’ve used it to capture satellites and bring them back to Earth for repair. We’ve outfitted it with the space lab built by our European partners and used it before the era of the space station to do scientific research. We used it as part of our partnership with the Russians, which is still continuing, first as part of the Mir space station, where we actually prolonged the useful life of Mir by several years through logistical supply visits with the shuttle. And now, of course, we’re using it to build the new international space station, which is a huge international partnership.

Sample answer: The shuttle was designed to be a space truck,which is a multi-purpose vehicle. It’s the most versatile space vehicle that has ever been built. It is used to launch, repair and capture satellites. It is used before the era of the space station to do scientific research. It is part of partnership with Russians, which is continuing. Now, we’re using it to build the new international space station, which is a huge international partnership.

  1. Melatonin

I’m just going to take on the stuff where left off. The whole I want to now talk about it’s called melatonin. The synthesis is in the Pineal Gland, which is very small. It is the size of a pea in your brain. The corpus is the site of the soul, and it is where melatonin is made. And it has a rhythm as well. And in the sense, it is the opposite of the callosum. It peaks at night. We call it as the darkness hormone. In every species that we studied, melatonin occurs at night. And its hormone that prepares you for the things, that your species, does at night. So, of course, in humans we sleep, but animals, like rodents, they are awake. It’s hormone that is related to darkness behavior.

  1. Bee Language

Honey bees do a waggle dance to direct other bees to the source of nectar. The dancing bees like this one can be halted by a headbutt from another bee. Now research has found that this headbutt is actually a warning signal. A feeding station was set up in the lab to mimic a source of nectar, then foraging bees were introduced to the dangers at the station, such as competition from rival colonies. When foragers returned to the hive they stopped bees dancing. Scientists think the behavior warns dancers of a dangerous source of nectar.

Sample Answer: This lecture is about honey bees. Bees perform a strange ritual when they encounter aggressive rival bees, for example, or predatory spiders hanging out at favored foraging spots. When they return to the hive, they headbutt hive mates performing the famous “waggle dance” that direct would-be foragers to rich sources of nectar. By halting their hive mates mid-dance, the scouting bees save them from previous excursion

  1. Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

Protons are finally transferred to the LHC (both in a clockwise and an anticlockwise direction) where they are accelerated for 20 minutes to 6.5 TeV. Beams circulate for many hours inside the LHC beam pipes under normal operating conditions.For each collision, the physicist’s goal is to count, track and characterize all the different particles.The charge of the particle, for instance, is obvious since particles with positive electric charge bend one way and those with negative charge bend the opposite way. Also the momentum of the particle can be determined.

Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest particle accelerator lies in a tunnel. The LHC is a ring roughly 28km around that accelerates protons almost to the speed of light before colliding them head-on. Protons are particles found in the atomic nucleus, roughly one thousand-million-millionth of a meter in size. The LHC starts with a bottle of hydrogen gas, which is sent through an electric field to strip away the electrons, leaving just the protons Electric and magnetic fields are the key to a particle accelerator.

  1. Vitamin D

Vitamin D refers to a group of fat–soluble secosteroids responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. [1][2][3] Very few foods contain vitamin D; synthesis of vitamin D (specifically cholecalciferol) in the skin is the major natural source of the vitamin. Dermal synthesis of vitamin D from cholesterol is dependent on sun exposure Vitamin D from the diet or dermal synthesis from sunlight is biologically inactive; activation requires enzymatic conversion (hydroxylation) in the liver and kidney. Evidence indicates the synthesis of vitamin D from sun exposure is regulated by a negative feedback loop that prevents toxicity, but because of uncertainty about the cancer risk from sunlight, no recommendations are issued by the Institute of Medicine (US), for the amount of sun exposure required to meet vitamin D requirements. Accordingly, the Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin D assumes no synthesis occurs and all of a person’s vitamin D is from food intake, although that will rarely occur in practice. As vitamin D is synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sunlight [citation needed], it is not strictly a vitamin, and may be considered a hormone as its synthesis and activity occur in different locations. Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. Its discovery was due to effort to find the dietary substance lacking in rickets.

  1. Salary Types

Sample Answer: The lecture is introducing salary, commission and combination plans. The salary plan is a type of structure that you pay your sales people fixed salary with no bonus and commission. These plans are not very common because it is hard to motivate high level salesperson. The commission plan is to pay your sales people in direct proportion to sales and nothing else. These plans can attract top-performing and hardest working sales professionals but bring negative effects to the other sales team members. The combination plan is a salary plus commission plan offers both motivation and stability to sales people. Though it can be more complex to administer, it is the most common plan used today.

  1. Animal behavior

We can ask 2 fundamental questions about animal behavior they referred to as proximate and ultimate. Proximate questions are those concerned with the mechanisms that bring about behavior. Ultimate questions are those concerned with the evolution of behavior. We can divide the proximate and ultimate into 2 sub-questions. For proximate, how does behavior develop and secondly what causes the behavior. For ultimate, you can ask how did the behavior evolve and secondly what is the adaptive of significance of the behavior. What’s its purpose? Together these comprise what are called Tinbergen’s 4 questions about animal behavior. Niko Tinbergen was one of the founding fathers of the study of the animal behaviors. These questions represent different ways of studying animal behavior and understanding the difference between those 4 questions are fundamental to understanding behavior and indeed the whole of biology. How do we study animal behavior? Well that depends on the type of question we’re hoping to answer.

  1. Human Behavior

Sample answer: This lecture is about determinants of human behavior. It is affected by both internal and external factors. At the end of lecture, the speaker mentioned that psychologists are interested in explaining human behavior. Generally, the personal factors are considered to be internal and environmental factors are external. Personal factors include people’s belief on certain things and their individual thinking about it, while the environmental factors include temperature, air pressure and the others’ thinking about them. In conclusion, human behavior is affected by both himself and the environment.

  1. NGO Version 2

Sample Answer: This lecture mainly talks about the non-governmental organization. NGOs may be funded by governments, foundations, businesses or private persons. The number of NGOs in the US is 1.5 million and India has around 2 million in 2009. It is difficult to define NGO as the activities are highly diverse, some may have charitable status while others may be registered for tax exemption.

 

ANSWER SHORT QUESTIONS:

 

 

  1. One map given and asked about which ocean is on west of it. [Pacific Ocean]

 

  1. Three words spoken and asked which one is odd (Decrease, Increase and Decline)

[Increase]

 

  1. One big table given with information related to export asked which country has max export. [Atlanta.]

 

  1. One flow diagram given and asked in which step Director takes action. [Step no 6]

 

  1. A fish like puffer fish/Jelly fish was shown and they asked about its habitat?

[Sea/water/ocean. Rivers/lakes and floodplains]

 

  1. What does tons, ounces. and pounds refer to? [Weights.]

 

  1. Science concerned about study of earth materials and nutrients is geology or geography? [Geology]

 

  1. Below text will be on your screen.

 

 

  1. King George was the ruler of Spain in 1993

 

  1. King Russel ruled Spain in 1996

 

  1. King Bernard ruled Spain in 2000

 

who was the predecessor for King Bernard? [King Russel]

 

  1. What is a manmade river called? [Canal]

 

  1. What do u call an individual musical sound [Solo]

 

  1. Which is the best method of transportation. Bus? Plane or ship? [Bus]

 

  1. Butterfly in the picture and asks what does it do with wings? Grasp? Flutter? And other two? [Flutter]

 

  1. Letter C was shown in image. What do u call the word in the book which is starting with this letter? [Contents]

 

  1. 2 girls were looking at laptop and laptop was on table. What are these girls doing?

[surfing internet on laptop]

 

  1. 15. How many hemispheres does equator divides earth into? [two]

 

  1. An image was given with different colours and questions was asked which colour has a major portion. [Black]

 

  1. Circle formula to find radius was given and equation was also given. [pie r square]

 

  1. Scientists believe in subjective knowledge or objective? [Objective]

 

  1. The part of comp u can carry with u and has the same name as that of animal. [Mouse]

 

 

 

  1. What helps you go up in a 25 floor building? Ladder / Stairs I Elevator [Elevator]

 

  1. What can vegetarians can eat? [Vegetables]

 

  1. On compass, what is the opposite of northwest? [Southeast]

 

  1. Ounces, kg are the measures of what? [Weight]

 

  1. Algebra, statistics are branches of which field? [Mathematics]

 

  1. What is the difference between wall clock and wrist watch? (a) colour (b) size (c) features (d) technology [Size]

 

  1. Plants that are grown in between rocks [Alpine plants OR Lithophytes]

 

  1. Picture is given and ask whose prints are these? Polar Bear or Penguin? [Polar

Bear]

 

  1. A picture was shown of some students and asked what day is it? [Graduation Day]

 

  1. For killing bacteria drugs used are? [Antibiotics]

 

  1. Some calendar start their week from Sunday. Which is other day we start our wek?

 

[Monday]

 

  1. Picture given which shows like spacecraft and person wearing spacesuit? What place is shown in the picture? [Space]

 

  1. Horse is an amphibious, mammal, or retptiles? [Mammal]

 

  1. Image of Scientist doing experiment. What the person is wearing to protect eyes from chemical. [Goggle]

 

  1. Which one has radius and circumference [Circle]

 

  1. Which kind of transportation involves human effort? Horse riding, cycling and?.

[Cycling]

 

  1. In which subject can you see this globe [geography]

 

  1. Which subject studies the past? [history]

 

  1. What happened to the paper? [a gust of wind]

 

  1. What’s the man in the front doing? [Giving a presentation]

 

  1. What does I suggest for the building’s name? [Lincoln Hall]

 

 

  1. How many subjects does the student take? [Four]

 

  1. What do we use to launch space shuttle? [rocket boosters]

 

  1. What do call someone who study about rocks? [Geologist]

 

  1. Which is not a way of public transportation? train, Model car, airplane? [Model ]

 

 

 

  1. In Mathematics, there are four basic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and what? [Division]

 

  1. Where does camel normally appear? [Desert]

 

  1. How many ECO2000 are there in a week? [Five]

 

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
am
12pm ECO2000 ECO2000 ECO2000 ECO2000 ECO2000
2pm

 

 

 

  1. Kilogram and velocity. which one is used to measure the speed of butterfly wings? [velocity]

 

  1. Which subject is in the sphere of biology? Genetics, xx, and xxx? [genetics]

 

  1. What does a student must do when he feels ill in the test? [report to invigilator]

 

  1. Where does crocodiles live? In forest or swamp? [swamp]

 SUMMARISE WRITEN TEXT

 

  1. Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level – productivity, creativity, engagement – improves. Yet happiness is perhaps the most misunderstood driver of performance. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness. “Once I get a promotion, I’ll be happy,” they think. Or, “Once I hit my sales target, I’ll feel great.” But because success is a moving target – as soon as you hit your target, you raise it again, the happiness that results from success is fleeting. In fact, it works the other way around: People who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of challenge. I call this the “happiness advantage” – every business outcome shows improvement when the brain is positive. I’ve observed this effect in my role as a researcher and lecturer in 48 countries on the connection between employee happiness and success. And I’m not alone: In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers Sonja Lyubomirsky, Laura King, and Ed Diener found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes. Another common misconception is that our genetics, our environment, or a combination of the two determines how happy we are. To be sure, both factors have an impact. But one’s general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. The habits you cultivate, the way you interact with coworkers, how you think about stress – all these can be managed to increase your happiness and your chances of success.

 

 

  1. Ethics is a set of moral obligations that define right and wrong in our practices and decisions. Many professions have a formalized system of ethical practices that help guide professionals in the field. For example, doctors commonly take the Hippocratic Oath, which, among other things, states that doctors “do no harm” to their patients. Engineers follow an ethical guide that states that they “hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.” Within these professions, as well as within science, the principles become so ingrained that practitioners rarely have to think about adhering to the ethic – it’s part of the way they practice. And a breach of ethics is considered very serious, punishable at least within the profession (by revocation of a license, for example) and sometimes by the law as well. Scientific ethics calls for honesty and integrity in all stages of scientific practice, from reporting results regardless to properly attributing collaborators. This system of ethics guides the practice of science, from data collection to publication and beyond. As in other professions, the scientific ethic is deeply integrated into the way scientists work, and they are aware that the reliability of their work and scientific knowledge in general depends upon adhering to that ethic. Many of the ethical principles in science relate to the production of unbiased scientific knowledge, which is critical when others try to build upon or extend research findings. The open publication of data, peer review, replication, and collaboration required by the scientific ethic all help to keep science moving forward by validating research findings and confirming or raising questions about results.

 

  1. Working nine to five for a single employer bears little resemblance to the way a substantial share of the workforce makes a living today. Millions of people assemble various income streams and work independently, rather than in structured payroll jobs. This is hardly a new phenomenon, yet it has never been well measured in official statistics and the resulting data gaps prevent a clear view of a large share of labor-market activity. To better understand the independent workforce and what motivates the people who participate in it, the McKinsey Global Institute surveyed some 8,000 respondents across Europe and the United States. We asked about their income in thepast 12 months-encompassing primary work, as well as any other income-generating activities, and about their professional satisfaction and aspirations for work in the future. The resulting report, Independent work: Choice, necessity, and the gig economy, finds that up to 162 million people in Europe and the United States-or 20 to 30 percent of the working-age population – engage in some form of independent work. While demographically diverse, independent workers largely fit into four segments (exhibit): free agents, who actively choose independent work and derive their primary income from it; casual earners, who use independent work for supplemental income and do so by choice; reluctants, who make their primary living from independent work but would prefer traditional jobs; and the financially strapped, who do supplemental independent work out of necessity.

 

  1. A day would come, Percy Shelley predicted in 1813, when “the monopolizing eater of animal flesh would no longer destroy his constitution by eating an acre at a meal”. He explained: “The quantity of nutritious vegetable matter consumed in fattening the carcass of an ox would afford 10 times the sustenance if gathered immediately from the bosom of the earth.” Two hundred years later, mainstream agronomists and dietitians have caught up with the poet. A growing scientific consensus agrees that feeding cereals and beans to animals is an inefficient and extravagant way to produce human food, that there is a limited amount of grazing land, that the world will be hard-pressed to supply a predicted population of 9 billion people with a diet as rich in meat as the industrialized world currently enjoys, and that it’s not a very healthy diet anyway. On top of this, livestock contribute significantly towards global warming, generating 14.5% of all manmade greenhouse gas emissions, according to one much-quoted estimate from the United Nations. Now that the problem has been identified, the challenge is to persuade people in wealthy countries to eat less meat. That might seem a tall order, but governments have successfully persuaded people to quit smoking through a combination of public information, regulation and taxation.

 

  1. Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms among themselves and with their environment. It seeks to understand patterns in nature (e.g., the spatial and temporal distribution of organisms) and the processes governing those patterns. Climatology is the study of the physical state of the atmosphere – its instantaneous state or weather, its seasonal-to-interannual variability, its long-term average condition or climate, and how climate changes over time. These two fields of scientific study are distinctly different. Ecology is a discipline within the biological sciences and has as its core the principle of natural selection. Climatology is a discipline within the geophysical sciences based on applied physics and fluid dynamics. Both, however, share a common history.

 

 

The origin of these sciences is attributed to Aristotle and Theophrastus and their books Meteorological and Enquiry into Plants, respectively, but their modern beginnings trace back to natural history and plant geography. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century naturalists and geographers saw changes in vegetation as they explored new regions and laid the foundation for the development of ecology and climatology as they sought explanations for these geographic patterns. Alexander von Humboldt, in the early 1800s, observed that widely separated regions have structurally and functionally similar vegetation if their climates are similar. Alphonse de Candolle hypothesized that latitudinal zones of tropical, temperate, and arctic vegetation are caused by temperature and in 1874 proposed formal vegetation zones with associated temperature limits. Over the years, language teachers have alternated between favoring teaching approaches that focus primarily on language use and those that focus on language forms or analysis. The alternation has been due to a fundamental disagreement concerning whether one learns to communicate in a second language by communicating in that language (such as in an immersion experience) or whether one learns to communicate in a second language by learning the lexicogrammar – the words and grammatical structures – of the target language. In other words, the argument has been about two different means of achieving the same end.

 

As with any enduring controversy, the matter is not easily resolved. For one thing, there is evidence to support both points of view. It is not uncommon to find learners who, for whatever reason, find themselves in a new country or a new region of their own country, who need to learn a new language, and who do so without the benefit of formal instruction. If they are postpubescent, they may well retain an accent of some kind, but they can pick up enough language to satisfy their communicative needs. In fact, some are natural acquirers who become highly proficient in this manner. In contrast, there are learners whose entire exposure to the new language comes in the form of classroom instruction in lexicogrammar. Yet they too achieve a measure of communicative proficiency, and certain of these learners become highly proficient as well. What we can infer from this is that humans are amazingly versatile learners and that some people have a natural aptitude for acquiring languages and will succeed no matter what the circumstances.

 

 

  1. To bring fresh water to the city, his hydraulic engineer, Eugène Belgrand, built a new aqueduct to bring clean water from the Vanne River in Champagne, and a new huge reservoir near the future Parc Montsouris. These two works increased the water supply of Paris from 87,000 to 400,000 cubic metres of water a day. He laid hundreds of kilometres of pipes to distribute the water throughout the city, and built a second network, using the less-clean water from the Ourq and the Seine, to wash the streets and water the new park and gardens. The population of Paris had doubled since 1815, with no increase in its area. To accommodate the growing population and those who would be forced from the centre by the new boulevards and squares Napoleon III planned to build, he issued a decree annexing eleven surrounding communes, and increasing the number of arrondissements from twelve to twenty, which enlarged the city to its modern boundaries. Beginning in 1854, in the centre of the city, Haussmann’s workers tore down hundreds of old buildings and cut eighty kilometres of new avenues, connecting the central points of the city. Buildings along these avenues were required to be the same height and in a similar style, and to be faced with cream-coloured stone, creating the signature look of Paris boulevards. Napoleon III also wanted to build new parks and gardens for the recreation and relaxation of the Parisians, particularly those in the new neighbourhoods of the expanding city,] Napoleon Ill’s new parks were inspired by his memories of the parks in London, especially Hyde Park, where he had strolled and promenaded in a carriage while in exile; but he wanted to build on a much larger scale. Working with Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand, the engineer who headed the new Service of Promenades and Plantations, he laid out a plan for four major parks at the cardinal points of the compass around the city. Thousands of workers and gardeners began to dig lakes, build cascades, plant lawns, flowerbeds and trees, construct chalets and grottoes. Napoleon III created the Bois de Boulogne (1852-1858) to the west of Paris: The Bois de Vincennes (1860-1865) to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (1865-1867) to the north, and Parc Montsouris (1865-1878) to the south

 

  1. The worldwide population of wild giant pandas increased by 268 over the last decade according to a new survey conducted by the government of China. The increase in population brings the total number of wild giant pandas to 1864. The population increase represents 16.8% rise compared to the last panda survey in 2003. Wild giant pandas, a global symbol of wildlife conservation, are found only in China’s Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu provinces.

 

According to the report, formally known as the Fourth National Giant Panda Survey, the geographic range of pandas throughout China also increased. The total area inhabited by wild giant pandas in China now equals 2,577,000 hectares, an expansion of 11.8% since 2003.

 

“These results are a testament to the conservation achievements of the Chinese government,” said Xiaohai Liu, executive director of programs, WWF- China. “A lot of good work is being done around wild giant panda conservation, and the government has done well to integrate these efforts and partner with conversation organizations including WWF.

 

 

The report, the fourth in a series of decadal (10- year) surveys conducted by the State Forestry Administration of China, began in 2011 with financial and technical support from WWF. Much of the success in increasing the panda population comes as a result of conservation policies implemented by the Chinese government, including the Natural Forest Protection Project and Grain for Green.

 

The report found that 1,246 wild giant pandas live within nature reserves, accounting for 66.8% of the total wild population, and the habitat within nature reserves accounts for

 

53.8% of the total habitat area. There are currently 67 panda nature reserves in China, an increase of 27 since the last report.

 

  1. In a study conducted in Tubingen, Germany, chess experts and novices were shown geometric objects and chess positions and were later asked to identify each one of them. Their reaction times and brain activity closely monitored with the use of functional MRI scans. On the first part, which was recognizing the geometric objects, results reveal that the subjects’ performance didn’t show any dissimilarities, which implied that the experts’ visualization skills are no better than the amateurs’. However, during the identification of the chess position, the experts were seen to have performance significantly faster and better.

 

As the researchers geared toward an element of a study previously conducted on pattern and object recognition by the chess experts, they had anticipated to notice areas of the left hemisphere of the experts’ brains (involved in object recognition) to be more reactive when they performed the tasks. However, the reaction times of the subjects were virtually identical. The very thing that sets the experts apart from the amateurs is that the former’s right brain hemispheres (involved in pattern recognition) were to seen to have also lit up during the activity. Therefore, both sides of the experts’ brains were active, processing information in two places simultaneously. The researchers added that when they showed the chess diagrams to the subjects, they observed that the amateur relied on looking at the pieces intently to be able to recognize them, whereas the experts merely relied on their peripheral vision and looked across the boards. Scientists have worked for many years to unravel the complex workings of the

brain. Their research efforts have greatly improved our understanding of brain function. During the past decade alone, scientific and technical progress in all fields of brain research has been astonishing. Using new imaging techniques, scientists can visualize the human brain in action. Images produced by these techniques have defined brain regions responsible for attention, memory, and emotion. A series of discoveries (in multiple fields of study) has displaced the long-standing assumption that brain cells are stable and unchanging. Amazingly, new findings show that some adult brain cells can divide and grow! In addition, advances in research are allowing scientists to analyse and make progress toward understanding the causes of inherited brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Taken together, these discoveries provide hope for the recovery of nervous system function lost through injury or disease. Despite these and other significant advances in the field of brain research, most of the processes responsible for the integrated functioning of billions of brain cells remain a mystery. Research on the brain in the new millennium is crucial to our effort to come to a complete understanding of this fascinating organ. In turn, improved understanding makes the development of new treatment options possible. Research continues to bring new insights into how the brain is put together, how it works, and whether damage to the brain can be reversed.

 

  1. Their trade networks made the Phoenicians rich but also enabled cultural exchange and transfer between East and West in an unprecedented way: the most significant was the spread of the alphabetic script which was adopted all over the Mediterranean.

 

 

The Phoenician alphabet is a writing system consisting of only 22 signs representing exactly one sound (phoneme) each. The term “alphabet” derives from the names of the first two signs in the sequence, aleph (“cattle”) and beit(“house”): these names also reflect the letters’ shapes, each derived from the picture of an object whose name starts with the relevant sound.

 

The alphabetic script is simple enough to learn quickly, without the years of dedicated training required to master writing systems such as cuneiform or Egyptian hieroglyphs. Specialised schooling was unnecessary, and literacy was therefore disengaged from the institutional context of palaces and temples where the traditional scripts continued to be used. The alphabet suited the needs of long-distance merchants who needed to be able to record their business affairs on the go and who, for reasons of confidentiality and money, often preferred to write themselves rather than employ a specialist scribe. As the script could easily be used to record any language, it was, in the course of the first millennium BC, adapted for Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, Phrygian, Lydian, Etruscan and Latin, to name but a few.

 

  1. Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the ‘coffee experience’ has become a staple of our modern life and culture. While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee consumption on human health has been contradictory, a study in the June issue of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, which is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), found that the potential benefits of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health outcomes considered. Researchers at Ulster University systematically reviewed 1,277 studies from 1970 to-date on coffee’s effect on human health and found the general scientific consensus is that regular, moderate coffee drinking (defined as 3-4 cups per day) essentially has a neutral effect on health, or can be mildly beneficial. The authors noted causality of risks and benefits cannot be established for either with the research currently available as they are largely based on observational data. Further research is needed to quantify the risk-benefit balance for coffee consumption, as well as identify which of coffee’s many active ingredients, or indeed the combination of such, that could be inducing these health benefits.

 

  1. Life expediencies have been rising by up to three months a year since 1840, and there is no sign of that flattening. Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott draw on a 2009 study to show that if the trend continues, more than half the babies born in wealthier countries since 2000 may reach their 100th birthdays. With a few simple, devastating strokes, Gratton and Scott show that under the current system it is almost certain you won’t be able to save enough to fund several decades of decent retirement. For example, if your life expectancy is 100, you want a pension that is 50percent of your final salary, and you save 10 percent of your earnings each year, they calculate that you won’t be able to retire till your 80s. People with 100-year life expediencies must recognize they are in for the long haul, and make an early start arranging their lives accordingly. But how to go about this? Gratton and Scott advance the idea of a multistage life, with repeated changes of direction and attention. Material and intangible assets will need upkeep, renewal or replacement. Skills will need updating, augmenting or discarding, as will networks of friends and acquaintances. Earning will be interspersed with learning or self-reflection. As the authors warn, recreation will have to become re-creation.

 

  1. The English have the reputation of being a nation of tea drinkers, but this wasn’t always the case. By the end of the 17th century, the English were the biggest coffee drinkers in the Western world, and coffee houses became the places to be seen. As well as gossip, you could pick up talk of the latest intellectual developments in science, politics, and so on, in this age of scientific discovery and progress. At first coffee houses were very basic; a room with a bar at one end and a few plain tables and chairs. Customers paid a penny for a bowl — not a cup — of coffee. A polite young woman was usually in charge of the bar because it was thought her presence would ensure that the customers didn’t use bad language or cause any trouble. An added attraction was that coffee houses provided free newspapers and journals.

 

 

But people didn’t go to the coffee houses just to drink coffee. They went to talk. They soon developed from simple cafes, where anyone with a penny could go for a drink and a chat, into clubs. People started to go to coffee houses where they would find other people who had the same jobs or who shared their interests and ideas, to talk and conduct business.

 

The great popularity of coffee houses lasted about a hundred years. In the later 18th century, increased trade with other countries made such luxuries as coffee cheaper and more easily available to the ordinary person. As a result, people started to drink it at home. Also at this time more tea was imported from abroad, and the century of the coffee house was replaced by the domestic tea-party as the typical English social occasion.

 

  1. For those political analysts whose main interest remains class divisions in society the biggest split these days is that between those who control and work with informational technology (IT) and those we might still call blue-collar workers. The old divisions of class have become a lot more difficult to apply, if not completely outdated. There’s no escaping the enormous impact of information technology in the late 20th and, even more, the early 21st centuries, both economically and socially.

 

During the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, the spirit of experiment was in the air, and those involved were practical people working to practical ends — often on their own or with a small group of trusted friends. Secrecy was important as there was money to be made in new inventions.

 

What interested them were results, not theories. Most modern technological advances, however, were developed as theories first, and then made reality by large teams of scientists and experts in the field. What we have now is that more and more of this type of expertise is being used to analyse and find solutions to all kinds of business and social problems, thus creating — in the eyes of the political analysts mentioned above — a whole large new economic and social class.

 

 

  1. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.

 

The analysis of building types provides an insight into past cultures and eras. Behind each of the greater styles lies not a casual trend nor a vogue, but a period of serious and urgent experimentation directed toward answering the needs of a specific way of life. Climate, methods of labor, available materials, and economy of means all impose their dictates. Each of the greater styles has been aided by the discovery of new construction methods. Once developed, a method survives tenaciously, giving way only when social changes or new building techniques have reduced it. That evolutionary process is exemplified by the history of modern architecture, which developed from the first uses of structural iron and steel in the mid-19th cent.

 

  1. The saying “The camera never lies.” has been with us almost since the beginning of photography — yet we all now know that it can, and does lie, and very convincingly. Yet most of us still seem to trust the truth of a photographic image — especially in our newspapers or on TV news reports — even though we may question its message. We think of photographs as an accurate reflection of unaltered reality. We’re convinced of this when we take unposed snaps on our family holidays or of colleagues the worse for wear at the office party. It is this property of photography that makes it hard to question the evidence before our eyes.

 

Our holiday snaps, though, like photographs showing life ten, fifty, a hundred years ago, tend only to bring about at most a feeling of nostalgia — not always a negative emotion. Many people keep albums to relive the better moments of their lives — and their impact is reduced by the fact that what they show is over, part of history. News photos, on the other hand, in presenting moments of an event that is probably still going on somewhere, must provoke a more vivid, emotional response.

 

  1. A country’s standard of living generally depends on the size of its national income. Standards of living are measured by such things as the number of cars, televisions, telephones, computers, washing machines, and so on, for every one thousand people. There is, however, no standard international index, which is why national income figures are used as a substitute. But the use of these figures to compare the standard of living between countries needs to be done carefully, because they are, at best, only a rough guide which can be misleading. The main problem here is that it is necessary to have a common unit of measurement if any sort of comparison is to be made at all. It has become the custom to use the dollar, and each country’s currency is converted at its official exchange rate into a national income figure in dollars. Now, since the exchange rate is often set at an artificial level in relation to dollars, you are likely to end up with a figure that is useless for your purposes.

 

  1. Many people have problems with irony, both in their everyday lives and as it is used or deployed in literature. We learn early on at school about “dramatic irony”, that is, we are told, when the audience of a play is aware of some situation or circumstance, or has information that one or more characters in the play do not. If you like, you are sharing a secret with the writer — you are in the know. Perhaps, as you go about your daily business, irony is not so clear-cut.

 

 

Here’s an example: your neighbour draws your attention to how lovely the dandelions and daisies growing in your lawn are. Now, to someone not familiar with the care and attention many English people give to their gardens, this might need a bit of explanation. Lawns are grass, and are cut and rolled regularly so that a professional golfer could practice his putting on it. Daisies and dandelions are weeds. For a moment — but just for a moment — you wonder how serious your neighbour is being. Does he really think the weeds are lovely or is he telling you — in a rather superior way — that you’re a lousy gardener?

 

Irony, however, usually needs an audience; and not only does it need some people to get the point, it also very much needs there to be people who don’t. There is, it has to be said, a rather undemocratic air of superiority about it.

 

Irony is slippery, sometimes difficult to get a firm hold on, and can easily backfire, like a joke that falls flat. It wasn’t until the 19th century that Britain had a police force as we know it today. In medieval times, the maintenance of law and order was in the hands of local nobles and lords who were expected to keep the peace in their own land, and they would often appoint “constables” to police it. For a long time, policing remained an unpaid activity or was paid for privately, either by individuals or organizations. There were also people who made a living as “thief takers”. They were not paid wages, but were rewarded by a proportion of the value of the stolen possessions they recovered. Later, in London, where the population was rapidly increasing crime was rising, night-watchmen — the first paid law enforcement body — were created and worked alongside the unpaid, part-time constables.

 

Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe: France had one long before — indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign — that is, French — and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.

 

It was not until Robert Peel set up his “new police” as a separate force in 1829 that policemen began to replace the old part -time constables. Sir Robert “Bobby” Peel’s own name provided two common nicknames for the new force: “Peelers” or “Bobbies”. These

names seem mild, if not affectionate, and are possibly an interesting gauge of how the police were viewed by people at the time, in contrast with the kind of names they get called these days.

 

Why throw everything you say into doubt? Besides, there’s an unpleasant air of intellectual snobbery about it, and that sort of thing doesn’t go down well any more.

 

  1. Current research into the nature of the relationship between participation in physical activity/sport and educational performance has produced mixed, inconsistent and often non-comparable results. For example, some cross-sectional studies illustrate a positive correlation between participation in sport and physical activity and academic success (e.g. maths, reading, acuity, reaction times). However, critics point to a general failure to solve the issue of direction of cause — whether intelligence leads to success in sport, whether involvement in sport enhances academic performance, or whether a third factor (e.g. personality traits) explains both.

 

 

Longitudinal studies also generally support the suggestion that academic performance is enhanced, or at least maintained, by increased habitual physical activity. Yet such studies are criticized for not being definitive because some do not use randomised allocation of pupils to experimental and control groups (to control for pre-existing differences), others tend to use (subjective) teacher-assigned grades to assess academic achievement, rather than standardised and comparable tests; and some programmes include parallel interventions, making it difficult to isolate specific effects.

 

More generically, one key piece of research illustrates that both acute exercise and chronic training programmes have small, but beneficial, positive impacts on cognitive performance. However, this study concludes that as experimental rigour decreased, effect size increased. Further, generalisation is limited because effect size is influenced by the nature and type of exercise, the type of participants, the nature of the cognitive tests and the methodological quality of the study.

 

  1. Is the purpose of history to promote a strong national identity and support national myths? Certainly, it has been used in this way for centuries, and this is often reflected in the history curriculum. We can all remember history at school as being a matter of learning lots of facts and dates, and long lists of kings and queens – a grand narrative of how we got from a· not so civilized past to the great nation we are today. Putting aside the fact that national identity is a complex and divisive question – especially in countries like the UK, which is comprised of several nationalities – this approach to history emphasizes a broad understanding, rather than a detailed understanding.

 

Yet history is, or should be, a critical, skeptical discipline: some historians see their work as disproving myths, demolishing orthodoxies. and exposing politically-motivated narratives which claim to be objective. What students need to develop are more critical and analytical skills; in other words, to think for themselves. They can do this by studying certain historical problems in depth. This involves being critical of the narratives presented by historians and skeptical of the myths preserved in the national memory.

 

  1. How do we measure efficiency? To economists – or to a certain type of economist – it is simply a question of profitability, even when it concerns what most people consider a social provision such as public transport. What is lost when railway lines and bus routes to small, out-of-the-way communities are cut in the name of efficiency? After all, if a lineor a route is only used occasionally by a few people,it would be much cheaper to rip up the lines and let everyone use their cars.

 

For many governments, the way to turn inefficient national services into profitable businesses has been to sell off these services – and their responsibilities – to private enterprises. Cost, in terms of profit and loss, is of course an important factor, but other factors need to be considered when dealing with the livelihoods of whole communities, however small. Among these are the social, environmental, human and cultural costs incurred by cutting off more remote communities from greater opportunities, including economic activities that benefit society as a whole.

 

Taking away such links – the usual result of privatization – may well lead to economic benefits in the short term, but, as the last twenty to thirty years have shown, also leads to long-term social and cultural damage. Of course, no business with its eye on profits is going to “waste” money supporting underused services. Only large collective bodies such as national and local governments can do that. These services are, after all, a social provision, not businesses.

 



  1. Humans have been cultivating chilies as food for 6,000 years, but we are still learning new things about the science behind their heat and how it reacts with our body. In the late 1900’s, scientists identified the pain nerves that detect capsaicin: the chemical in chillies responsible for most of the burning sensation in our mouth. But it’s only during the last few years that scientists have also learnt why chilies evolved to be spicy in the first place, and they have managed to cultivate new varieties that are up to

 

  • times hotter than the common Jalapeno.

 

The hottest part of a chilli is not the seeds, as many people think, but the white flesh that houses the seeds, known as the placenta. But why did chillies evolve to be hot in the first place? Most scientists believe capsaicin acts mainly as a deterrent against would- be mamma l predato rs such as rodents. But recent research suggests this may not be the whole story. US scientists working in Bolivia have studied how hot and mild chillies differ in their susceptibility to a certain harmful fungus. It turns out that the hotter the chilli, the better its defences against the fungus, leading the researchers to propose that heat may have evolved to help chillies deal with harmful microbes, as well as hungry mammals.

 

 

  1. We know that Shakespeare took whole chunks of Plutarch word for word to use in his Roman plays — though, of course, in doing so he turned them into great poetry. Does this make Shakespeare a plagiarist? Was he a word thief?

 

In its legal definition, plagiarism includes “both the theft or misrepresentation of intellectual property and the substantial textual copying of another’s work”. But it is also considered to be a factor of a particular culture or time — that is, in some cultures and in some periods the idea was undefined — which makes it harder to identify precisely. However, the main problem these days is plagiarism in academic writing, which is becoming increasingly common, due to the vast amount of material that has been published which can be accessed via the Internet. This easy access, coupled with the increasing pressure put on students, has led to a rapid rise in incidents of plagiarism. It comes down to who owns the intellectual property in question, and with the advent of the Internet this has become less clearly defined. By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that the second most popular beverage is tea. Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia – in countries such as China, Burma and India – it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around the globe. Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate, which includes up to 200 centimeters of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth, and temperatures that range from ten to 35 degrees centigrade. They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to promote the flavor and taste of the tea, and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh. Together these conditions contribute to the production of the wide range of high-quality teas that are in such huge demand among the world’s consumers. There is green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, pepper mint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea to relieve stress; but above all, tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of human beings in general.

 

  1. A company in the USA is paying its employees to sleep more. Staff at the insurance company Aetna will get $300 a year added to their salary if they get at least seven hours of sleep a night. That works out to just over an extra dollar for each night the employee sleeps over seven hours. The idea behind this scheme is employee performance. Human resources officials say employees will work better if they have slept well. They add that a workforce that is more awake and alert will mean the company will perform better. Staff can either record their sleep automatically using a wrist monitor that connects to Aetna’s computers, or manually record how long they have slept every night.

 

 

There are a number of studies that warn that not sleeping enough can affect our ability to do our job. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine said that the average worker in the USA loses 11.3 working days of productivity a year because of not getting enough sleep. This costs companies about $2,280 for one worker. It estimates that the US economy loses $63.2 billion a year because workers do not sleep more than seven hours a night. A 2015 study in Europe by the Rand Corporation found that staff who slept less than seven hours per night were far less productive than workers who had eight or more hours of sleep. The staff at Aetna also receive extra cash if they do exercise.

 

  1. Twin studies have been very useful in giving us information about whether our genes or our environment makes us who we are. A surprising result is the way that genes influence our work. At a basic level, our genes affect how we look and so they influence whether we can become a basketball player or a supermodel, for example.

 

However, there is evidence that genes influence our job choice in much greater ways.

 

Research shows that identical twins choose more similar jobs than non- identical twins. In fact, identical twins who have grown up apart choose more similar jobs than non-identical twins who have grown up together. Studies also show that identical twins suggest that our genes affect both the satisfaction that comes from doing a job and satisfaction that comes from working conditions such as a person’s pay or their manager.

 

So what does this mean? It means that from birth, you are more likely to prefer one occupation to another and find certain jobs more satisfying than others. However, genes are not the only factor. Other things in your life, such as family background and education, will also be influential in your career choices.

 

  1. A large new study has found that people who regularly took a siesta were significantly less likely to die of heart disease.

 

“Taking a nap could turn out to be an important weapon in the fight against coronary mortality,” said DimitriosTrichopoulos of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, who led the study published yesterday in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

 

The study of more than 23,000 Greek adults — the biggest and best examination of the subject to date found that those who regularly took a midday siesta were more than 30 percent less likely to die of heart disease.

 

Other experts said the results are intriguing. Heart disease kills more than 650,000 Americans each year, making it the nation’s No. 1 cause of death.

 

 

“It’s interesting. A little siesta, a little snooze may be beneficial,” said Gerald Fletcher, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., speaking on behalf of the American Heart Association. “It’s simple, but it has a lot of promise.”

 

While more research is needed to confirm and explore the findings, there are several ways napping could reduce the risk of heart attacks, experts said.

 

“Napping may help deal with the stress of daily living,” said Michael Twery, who directs the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. “Another possibility is that it is part of the normal biological rhythm of daily living. The biological clock that drives sleep and wakefulness has two cycles each day, and one of them dips usually in the early afternoon. It’s possible that not engaging in napping for some people might disrupt these processes.”

 

Researchers have long known that countries such as Greece, Italy and Spain, where people commonly take siestas, have lower rates of heart disease than would be expected. But previous studies that attempted to study the relationship between naps and heart disease have produced mixed results. The new study is first to try to fully account for factors that might confuse the findings, such as physical activity, diet and other illnesses.

 

“This study has a number of advantages,” Trichopoulos said. He and colleagues at the University of Athens examined 23,681 Greek men and women ages 20 to 86 who had no history of heart disease or any other serious health problem when they enrolled in the study between 1994 and 1999. The researchers asked the participants whether they took midday naps and, if so, how often and for how long. They also asked detailed questions about their health and lifestyles, such as whether they had any illnesses that might make them sleep more, how much exercise they got and what they ate.

 

After an average of more than six years of follow-up, 792 of the study subjects died, including 133 who died of heart disease. Of that group, 94 were nappers. After the researchers accounted for factors that could confuse the issue, they found that those who took naps frequently were 34 percent less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not. The biggest nappers-79 people who took a siesta for 30 minutes or more at least three times a week-had a 37 percent lower risk.

 

Naps appeared to offer the most protection to working men: Those who took midday siestas either occasionally or systematically had a 64 percent lower risk of death from

heart disease. Non-working men had a 36 percent reduction in risk. A similar analysis could not be done in women because too few died of heart disease.

 

  1. Getting to know fellow academics, especially more senior ones, can be very daunting. Lecturers and researchers are used to spending a lot of time in isolation working independently. The thought of going public and ‘selling yourself’ does not seem enticing. However, it is easier than you think to begin to develop your own career-enhancing networks. Your PhD supervisor and examiners or if you are already in post, your mentor, are a great place to start. They will have been chosen to guide you because they are more experienced and in most cases they will work close to your field of interest. Ask their advice for ways of building up your own network of contacts. Also it is easier to approach someone unknown to you if you can mention the name of a mutual acquaintance.

 

 

If you are a postgraduate who is serious about a career in academia, or a more senior scholar wanting to develop one, you will surely be attending conferences on a fairly regular basis. There is no right or wrong number of these, some scholars stick to one or two a year, others seem to attend one a month! Conferences are the main way that academics network with each other, so do not miss out on these opportunities. If you are presenting a paper it gives others a chance to see what you are working on, and the informal sections of the programme (such as food and drink breaks) encourage mingling and further discussion.

 

  1. An international team of scientists is set to go to Arctic to investigate the Greenland shark longevity mystery. The shark is known to be the longest living vertebrate animal on the planet Earth. One of the members is Dr. Holy Shiels, a physiologist and senior lecturer in the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester. She will be the only British scientist in the team to study Greenland shark, which is believed to be the vertebrate animals and mammals with the longest living. The shark is reported to have lived for more than 200 years, and possibly close to or more than 400 years. The shark is both hunter and a scavenger, that feed on seals and other animals including polar bears and whales. It is also known as one of the largest sharks, reaching to five and a half meters (1 8 feet), very close to the size of a great white. The research team is commissioned by the Greenland government and will conduct the research on board the multi-purpose research vessel Sanna, operated by the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources. A Greenland shark is estimated to be able to live for 400 years according to Science Magazine. Professor Shiels expects to gather sufficient data of Greenland shark, a top predator in the Arctic sea. She wanted to find a clue of how Greenland shark is able to survive in the deep sea of the Arctic sea, by examining how its heart and circulation work in its normal habitat, as she specializes in the cardiovascular function. “Greenland sharks are classified as data deficient,” Shiels said. “This means that we don’t know enough to put measures in place to protect them from over-fishing, pollution or climate change.”

 

  1. It’s important to realise that the brain doesn’t see the world around it simply as though the scene was projected onto a cinema screen on the inside of your skull. Before a scene can be observed “in your head” it has to be broken down into a number of different components for processing, and these components then have to be recombined into the meaningful form that we call “an image”. Amongst other things, the scene is broken down into its different colours — red, green and blue — in a way that’s analogous to the manner in which a television image or magazine photograph is broken down into tiny dots of primary colours (which are too small to be noticed individually when we look at them, but which when seen collectively give the impression of a continuous full colour image) . However, unlike and magazine images, the image that we see with our eyes is broken down not only into separate colour components but into other components too. It is, rather incredibly, deconstructed into component parts such as horizontal lines, vertical lines, circles and so on. Each of these component parts is sent to a separate area of the brain for processing, with the different components of the scene only merging again when they are unified into what you perceive as the image.

 

  1. The shipping container is one of the mainstays of international trade. The globalised modern economy depends on the rapid and efficient movement of goods that containerisation allows. In many ways it was the advent of the container that allowed this globalised economy to develop.

 

 

Invented during World War two as an efficient method of moving equipment to the front lines, there are now at any one time up to 15 million containers being used to transport goods on land and sea or waiting to be filled at factories and ports. They are vital in the supply chain and have allowed the added efficiency of “just in time” inventory management, where companies no longer keep large warehouses of stock or parts, but rely on the ability to quickly order what they want from their suppliers. It is estimated that since the 1980s the ratio of inventory to GDP in American business has fallen from 25% to 15%. Altogether total business inventory in the US is estimated at $1.5 trillion, without “just in time” management methods this might be as much as $2.5 trillion.

 

This means that companies rely more and more on the prompt delivery of parts from their suppliers to fulfill orders. This is particularly true of industries such as computer manufacture, which no longer make all the parts of the products that bear their names, but instead out source, often to suppliers half way around the world. American computer manufacturers are, for example, increasingly dependent on Asian microchip manufacturers in countries such as Taiwan and Thailand.

 

  1. Tim Berners-Lee believes the internet can foster human understanding and even world peace Times Online, March 20, 2010. He is the man who has changed the world more than anyone else in the past hundred years. Sir Tim Berners-Lee may be a mild-mannered academic who lives modestly in Boston, but as the inventor of the world wide web he is also a revolutionary. Along with Galileo, William Caxton and Sir Isaac Newton, he is a scientist who has altered the way people think as well as the way they live

 

Since the web went global 20 years ago, the way we shop, listen to music and communicate has been transformed. There are implications for politics, literature, economics even terrorism because an individual can now have the same access to information as the elite. Society will never be the same.

 

The computer scientist from Oxford, who built his own computer from a television screen and spare parts after he was banned from one of the university computers, is a cultural guru as much as a technological one. It is amazing how far we’ve come, he says. But you’re always wondering what’s the next crazy idea, and working to make sure the web stays one web and that the internet stays open. There isn’t much time to sit back and reflect. We speak for more than an hour about everything from Facebook to fatwas, Wikipedia to Google. He invented the web, he says, because he was frustrated that he couldn’t find all the information he wanted in one place. It was an imaginary concept that he realized.

 

  1. The suburbs of Las Vegas do not look like the cradle of a revolution. Golden stucco-clad houses stretch for street after identical street, interspersed with gated communities with names such as Spanish Oaks and Rancho Bel Air. The sky is the deepest blue, the desert air is clear and the distant mountains are beautiful. The only sounds are the buzz of a gardener’s hedge trimmer and a squeaking baby buggy pushed by a power-walking mother. The bright lights of Sin City seem a very long way away. Yet these quiet streets are being changed by a movement that is gathering momentum across America and around the world, challenging one of the most fundamental of economic relationships: the way we use and pay for energy. There are now more than 7,000 homes in Nevada fitted with solar panels to generate their own electricity, and the number is rising fast. Just five years ago, residential solar power was still a niche product for the homeowner with a fat wallet and a bleeding heart. Not anymore. Technology, politics and finance have aligned to move it into the mainstream. Solar power has become the fastest-growing energy source in the US.

 

 

For decades the electricity industry has been a cautious and conservative business, but the plunging prices of solar panels, down by about two-thirds in the past six years, have woken it up with a bang. Dynamic rooftop solar power companies have entered the market, in the most radical change to electricity supplies since the industry was born in the 19th century. It has been described as the equivalent of the mobile revolution in telephony, or the PC in computing.

 

  1. What killed off the dinosaurs?The end of the Cretaceous Period saw one of the most dramatic mass extinctions the Earth has ever seen.The fossil record shows that throughout their 160-million-year existence, dinosaurs took on a huge variety of forms as the environment changed and new species evolved that were suited to these new conditions. Others that failed to adapt went extinct.But then 66 million years ago, over a relatively short time, dinosaurs disappeared completely (except for birds). Many other animals also died out, including pterosaurs, large marine reptiles, and other sea creatures such as ammonites. Although the number of dinosaur species was already declining, this suggests a sudden catastrophic event sealed their fate, causing unfavourable changes to the environment more quickly than dinosaurs and other creatures could adapt.The exact nature of this catastrophic event is still open to scientific debate. The catastrophe could have been an asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions or the effect of both, together with more gradual changes in the Earth’s climate over millions of years.Whatever the causes, the huge extinction that ended the age of the dinosaur left gaps in the ecosystem that were subsequently filled by mammals and birds, allowing them to evolve rapidly.

 

  1. Times are fraught, and overstretched executives are constantly on the lookout for a way to clear their minds so they can work in a calmer, more effective, and more responsive way. Cultivating a special state of consciousness called ‘mindfulness’ — an intense awareness of the here and now — is proving attractive to a growing number of senior managers, both in the US and elsewhere.

 

Mindfulness is achieved by meditation techniques, often involving sitting on a cushion, eyes closed, concentrating on the inflow and outflow of your breath. Or you might spend 10 minutes studying, sniffing, tasting and finally eating a piece of fruit. That might make

it sound like a remnant of the navel-gazing 1960s and 1970s, but the evidence for mindfulness’s effectiveness is good enough to have impressed hard-nosed companies such as Google (which has invited mindfulness gurus to speak at the Googleplex), General Mills, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deutsche Bank, Procter & Gamble, AstraZeneca, Apple, Credit Suisse, KPMG, Innocent, Reuters and many more.

 

According to Don McCormick, assistant professor of management at California State University and a dedicated meditator, it ‘can help individuals to manage workplace stress, perform tasks more effectively, enhance self-awareness and self -regulation, experience work as more meaningful, improve workplace relationships, increase ethical behavior, and make perception more accurate’. It is said to pay dividends for leaders and managers, by improving the quality of their listening and communicating.

 

 

  1. Tradition and commerce often clash in many cultures. In Trinidad, it is the Carnival that is the cause of current friction. The complaint, as you would expect, is that traditional skills and creativity are being lost in the rush to make profits. And the profits are large: the two-day festival, which attracts up to 40,000 tourists each year, is estimated to generate somewhere between $27 million and $100 million.

 

A particular problem for the traditionalists is that the extravagant colorful costumes people wear in the bands or processions are now largely being imported, especially from China. These costumes are cheaper and more revealing (another cause of complaint) than those made locally. Critics say these imports are a threat to traditional creations and, worse, mean sending work elsewhere. Others see turning the Carnival into a profitable and exportable industry as a progressive move, benefiting the country as a whole.

 

A large number of people are in two minds. On the one hand, the changes are a reflection of what people – mainly tourists – want, and bring in money. On the other, there is a desire to preserve traditions. The transformation of the bands and processions into businesses has disrupted the social order, which used to be made up of friends getting together to relax, eat and drink, and make costumes. Both sides agree, though, that the country needs to make better use of the skills of the people in the Carnival business and that the country’s resources must appeal to a wider market.

 

  1. Broadly speaking, there are two different ways of thinking about modern art, or two different versions of the story. One way is to view art as something that can be practised (And though of) as an activity radically separate from everyday life or worldly concerns. From this point of view, art is said to be “autonomous” from society – that is, it is believed to be self-sustaining and self-referring. One particularly influential versions of this story suggest that modern art should be viewed as process by which features extraneous to a particular branch of art would be progressively eliminated, and painters or sculptors would come to concentrate on problems specific to their domain. Another way of thinking about modern art is to view it as responding to the modern world, and to see modern artists immersing themselves in the conflicts and challenges of society. That is to say, some modern artists sought ways of conveying the changing experiences generated in European by the twin processes of commercialisation (the commodification of everyday life) and urbanisation. From this point of view, modern art is a way of reflecting on the transformation that created what we call, in a sort of shorthand, “modernity”.

 

 

  1. Spurred by the sense that disorderly behaviour among students in South Euclid was increasing, the school resource officer (SRO) reviewed data regarding referrals to the principal’s office. He found that the high school reported thousands of referrals a year for bullying and that the junior high school had recently experienced a 30 percent increase in bullying referrals. Police data showed that juvenile complaints about disturbances, bullying, and assaults after school hours had increased 90 percent in the past 10 years.

 

The SRO worked in close collaboration with a social worker and the university researcher. They coordinated a Response Planning Team comprising many stakeholders that was intended to respond to each of the areas identified in the initial analysis. Environmental changes included modifying the school schedule and increasing teacher supervision of hotspots. Counsellors and social workers conducted teacher training courses in conflict resolution and bullying prevention. Parent education included mailings with information about bullying, an explanation of the new school policy, and a discussion about what could be done at home to address the problems. Finally, student education included classroom discussions between homeroom teachers and students, as well as assemblies conducted by the SRO. The SRO also opened a substation next to a primary hotspot. The Ohio Department of Education contributed by opening a new training centre to provide a non-traditional setting for specialized help.

 

 

The results from the various responses were dramatic. School suspensions decreased 40 percent. Bullying incidents dropped 60 percent in the hallways and 80 percent in the gym area. Follow-up surveys indicated that there were positive attitudinal changes among students about bullying and that more students felt confident that teachers would take action when a problem arose. Teachers indicated that training sessions were helpful and that they were more likely to talk about bullying as a serious issue. Parents responded positively, asking for more information about the problem in future mailings. The overall results suggest that the school environments were not only safer; but that early intervention was helping at-risk students succeed in school (South Euclid (Ohio) Police Department, 2001).

 

  1. Disabled people were among the early adopters of personal computers. They were quick to appreciate that word processing programs and printers gave them freedom from dependence on others to read and write for them. Some of these disabled early adopters became very knowledgeable about what could be achieved and used their knowledge to become independent students at a high level. They also gained the confidence to ask that providers of education make adjustments so that disabled students could make better use of course software and the web, rather than just word processing.

 

For some disability groups, information in electronic format (whether computer-based or web- based) can be more accessible than printed information. For example, people who have limited mobility or limited manual skills can find it difficult to obtain or hold printed material; visually impaired people can find it difficult or impossible to read print, but both these groups can be enabled to use a computer and, therefore, access the information electronically.

 

Online communication can enable disabled students to communicate with their peers on an equal basis. For example, a deaf student or a student with Asperger’s syndrome may find it difficult to interact in a face-to-face tutorial, but may have less difficulty interacting when using a text conferencing system in which everyone types and reads text. In addition, people’s disabilities are not necessarily visible in online communication

 

 

 

systems; so disabled people do not have to declare their disability and are not perceived as being different.

 

  1. The 1920’s movie goers experience was largely dominated by silent movies but saw the introduction of synchronized sound. In the 1920’s movie stars were really stars – with huge salaries, the fashions and activities of the Hollywood greats echoed around the world and 100,000 people would gather in cities all over the world, including such diverse cities as London and Moscow, to greet Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks when they toured of Europe. Early silent movies were often accompanied by live piano or organ music and provided enormous entertainment value to audiences captivated by the experience of watching moving pictures on the silver screen. Although the had been previous attempts to introduce sound, it wasn’t until 1923 that a synchronized sound track was photographically recorded and printed on to the side of the strip of motion picture film and made it on to a commercially distributed movie. It would still be seven long years before taking pictures gained total supremacy and finally replaced the silent film era.

 

 

The first movie theatres were called Nickelodeons, and were very basic compared the luxurious picture palaces that followed but what an aura of excitement, of laughter, fun and tears surrounded them! Before the introduction of movie soundtracks, movies were often accompanied by scripted music from a piano.

 

  1. The National Oceanography Center

 

The National Oceanography Center (NOC) is engaged in research into the potential risks and benefits of exploiting deep-sea mineral resources, some of which are essential for low-carbon technology, as well as using ocean robots to estimate the environmental impact of these potential deep-sea mining activities.

 

Late last year the NOC led an expedition on the RRS James Cook that found enough of the scarce element Tellurium present in the crust of a submerged volcano that, if it were all to be used in the production of solar PV panels, could provide two-thirds of the UK’s annual electricity supply. Recently, the NOC also led an international study demonstrating deep-sea nodule mining will cause long-lasting damage to deep-sea life, lasting at least for decades.

 

These nodules are potato-sized rocks containing high levels of metals, including copper.

 

manganese and nickel. They grow very slowly on the sea-bed, over millions of years.

 

Although no commercial operations exist to extract these resources, many are planned.

 

Professor Edward Hill, Executive Director at the NOC commented, – By 2050 there will be nine billion people on earth and attention is increasingly turning to the ocean, particularly the deep ocean, for food, clean supplies of energy and strategic minerals. The NOC is undertaking research related to many aspects and perspectives involved in exploiting ocean resources. This research is aimed at informing with sound scientific evidence the decisions that will need to be taken in the future, as people increasingly turn to the oceans to address some of society’s greatest challenges’

 SUMMARISE WRITEN TEXT

 

  1. Research shows that when people work with a positive mind-set, performance on nearly every level – productivity, creativity, engagement – improves. Yet happiness is perhaps the most misunderstood driver of performance. For one, most people believe that success precedes happiness. “Once I get a promotion, I’ll be happy,” they think. Or, “Once I hit my sales target, I’ll feel great.” But because success is a moving target – as soon as you hit your target, you raise it again, the happiness that results from success is fleeting. In fact, it works the other way around: People who cultivate a positive mind-set perform better in the face of challenge. I call this the “happiness advantage” – every business outcome shows improvement when the brain is positive. I’ve observed this effect in my role as a researcher and lecturer in 48 countries on the connection between employee happiness and success. And I’m not alone: In a meta-analysis of 225 academic studies, researchers Sonja Lyubomirsky, Laura King, and Ed Diener found strong evidence of directional causality between life satisfaction and successful business outcomes. Another common misconception is that our genetics, our environment, or a combination of the two determines how happy we are. To be sure, both factors have an impact. But one’s general sense of well-being is surprisingly malleable. The habits you cultivate, the way you interact with coworkers, how you think about stress – all these can be managed to increase your happiness and your chances of success.

 

 

  1. Ethics is a set of moral obligations that define right and wrong in our practices and decisions. Many professions have a formalized system of ethical practices that help guide professionals in the field. For example, doctors commonly take the Hippocratic Oath, which, among other things, states that doctors “do no harm” to their patients. Engineers follow an ethical guide that states that they “hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.” Within these professions, as well as within science, the principles become so ingrained that practitioners rarely have to think about adhering to the ethic – it’s part of the way they practice. And a breach of ethics is considered very serious, punishable at least within the profession (by revocation of a license, for example) and sometimes by the law as well. Scientific ethics calls for honesty and integrity in all stages of scientific practice, from reporting results regardless to properly attributing collaborators. This system of ethics guides the practice of science, from data collection to publication and beyond. As in other professions, the scientific ethic is deeply integrated into the way scientists work, and they are aware that the reliability of their work and scientific knowledge in general depends upon adhering to that ethic. Many of the ethical principles in science relate to the production of unbiased scientific knowledge, which is critical when others try to build upon or extend research findings. The open publication of data, peer review, replication, and collaboration required by the scientific ethic all help to keep science moving forward by validating research findings and confirming or raising questions about results.

 

  1. Working nine to five for a single employer bears little resemblance to the way a substantial share of the workforce makes a living today. Millions of people assemble various income streams and work independently, rather than in structured payroll jobs. This is hardly a new phenomenon, yet it has never been well measured in official statistics and the resulting data gaps prevent a clear view of a large share of labor-market activity. To better understand the independent workforce and what motivates the people who participate in it, the McKinsey Global Institute surveyed some 8,000 respondents across Europe and the United States. We asked about their income in thepast 12 months-encompassing primary work, as well as any other income-generating activities, and about their professional satisfaction and aspirations for work in the future. The resulting report, Independent work: Choice, necessity, and the gig economy, finds that up to 162 million people in Europe and the United States-or 20 to 30 percent of the working-age population – engage in some form of independent work. While demographically diverse, independent workers largely fit into four segments (exhibit): free agents, who actively choose independent work and derive their primary income from it; casual earners, who use independent work for supplemental income and do so by choice; reluctants, who make their primary living from independent work but would prefer traditional jobs; and the financially strapped, who do supplemental independent work out of necessity.

 

  1. A day would come, Percy Shelley predicted in 1813, when “the monopolizing eater of animal flesh would no longer destroy his constitution by eating an acre at a meal”. He explained: “The quantity of nutritious vegetable matter consumed in fattening the carcass of an ox would afford 10 times the sustenance if gathered immediately from the bosom of the earth.” Two hundred years later, mainstream agronomists and dietitians have caught up with the poet. A growing scientific consensus agrees that feeding cereals and beans to animals is an inefficient and extravagant way to produce human food, that there is a limited amount of grazing land, that the world will be hard-pressed to supply a predicted population of 9 billion people with a diet as rich in meat as the industrialized world currently enjoys, and that it’s not a very healthy diet anyway. On top of this, livestock contribute significantly towards global warming, generating 14.5% of all manmade greenhouse gas emissions, according to one much-quoted estimate from the United Nations. Now that the problem has been identified, the challenge is to persuade people in wealthy countries to eat less meat. That might seem a tall order, but governments have successfully persuaded people to quit smoking through a combination of public information, regulation and taxation.

 

  1. Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms among themselves and with their environment. It seeks to understand patterns in nature (e.g., the spatial and temporal distribution of organisms) and the processes governing those patterns. Climatology is the study of the physical state of the atmosphere – its instantaneous state or weather, its seasonal-to-interannual variability, its long-term average condition or climate, and how climate changes over time. These two fields of scientific study are distinctly different. Ecology is a discipline within the biological sciences and has as its core the principle of natural selection. Climatology is a discipline within the geophysical sciences based on applied physics and fluid dynamics. Both, however, share a common history.

 

 

The origin of these sciences is attributed to Aristotle and Theophrastus and their books Meteorological and Enquiry into Plants, respectively, but their modern beginnings trace back to natural history and plant geography. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century naturalists and geographers saw changes in vegetation as they explored new regions and laid the foundation for the development of ecology and climatology as they sought explanations for these geographic patterns. Alexander von Humboldt, in the early 1800s, observed that widely separated regions have structurally and functionally similar vegetation if their climates are similar. Alphonse de Candolle hypothesized that latitudinal zones of tropical, temperate, and arctic vegetation are caused by temperature and in 1874 proposed formal vegetation zones with associated temperature limits. Over the years, language teachers have alternated between favoring teaching approaches that focus primarily on language use and those that focus on language forms or analysis. The alternation has been due to a fundamental disagreement concerning whether one learns to communicate in a second language by communicating in that language (such as in an immersion experience) or whether one learns to communicate in a second language by learning the lexicogrammar – the words and grammatical structures – of the target language. In other words, the argument has been about two different means of achieving the same end.

 

As with any enduring controversy, the matter is not easily resolved. For one thing, there is evidence to support both points of view. It is not uncommon to find learners who, for whatever reason, find themselves in a new country or a new region of their own country, who need to learn a new language, and who do so without the benefit of formal instruction. If they are postpubescent, they may well retain an accent of some kind, but they can pick up enough language to satisfy their communicative needs. In fact, some are natural acquirers who become highly proficient in this manner. In contrast, there are learners whose entire exposure to the new language comes in the form of classroom instruction in lexicogrammar. Yet they too achieve a measure of communicative proficiency, and certain of these learners become highly proficient as well. What we can infer from this is that humans are amazingly versatile learners and that some people have a natural aptitude for acquiring languages and will succeed no matter what the circumstances.

 

 

  1. To bring fresh water to the city, his hydraulic engineer, Eugène Belgrand, built a new aqueduct to bring clean water from the Vanne River in Champagne, and a new huge reservoir near the future Parc Montsouris. These two works increased the water supply of Paris from 87,000 to 400,000 cubic metres of water a day. He laid hundreds of kilometres of pipes to distribute the water throughout the city, and built a second network, using the less-clean water from the Ourq and the Seine, to wash the streets and water the new park and gardens. The population of Paris had doubled since 1815, with no increase in its area. To accommodate the growing population and those who would be forced from the centre by the new boulevards and squares Napoleon III planned to build, he issued a decree annexing eleven surrounding communes, and increasing the number of arrondissements from twelve to twenty, which enlarged the city to its modern boundaries. Beginning in 1854, in the centre of the city, Haussmann’s workers tore down hundreds of old buildings and cut eighty kilometres of new avenues, connecting the central points of the city. Buildings along these avenues were required to be the same height and in a similar style, and to be faced with cream-coloured stone, creating the signature look of Paris boulevards. Napoleon III also wanted to build new parks and gardens for the recreation and relaxation of the Parisians, particularly those in the new neighbourhoods of the expanding city,] Napoleon Ill’s new parks were inspired by his memories of the parks in London, especially Hyde Park, where he had strolled and promenaded in a carriage while in exile; but he wanted to build on a much larger scale. Working with Haussmann and Jean-Charles Alphand, the engineer who headed the new Service of Promenades and Plantations, he laid out a plan for four major parks at the cardinal points of the compass around the city. Thousands of workers and gardeners began to dig lakes, build cascades, plant lawns, flowerbeds and trees, construct chalets and grottoes. Napoleon III created the Bois de Boulogne (1852-1858) to the west of Paris: The Bois de Vincennes (1860-1865) to the east; the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (1865-1867) to the north, and Parc Montsouris (1865-1878) to the south

 

  1. The worldwide population of wild giant pandas increased by 268 over the last decade according to a new survey conducted by the government of China. The increase in population brings the total number of wild giant pandas to 1864. The population increase represents 16.8% rise compared to the last panda survey in 2003. Wild giant pandas, a global symbol of wildlife conservation, are found only in China’s Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu provinces.

 

According to the report, formally known as the Fourth National Giant Panda Survey, the geographic range of pandas throughout China also increased. The total area inhabited by wild giant pandas in China now equals 2,577,000 hectares, an expansion of 11.8% since 2003.

 

“These results are a testament to the conservation achievements of the Chinese government,” said Xiaohai Liu, executive director of programs, WWF- China. “A lot of good work is being done around wild giant panda conservation, and the government has done well to integrate these efforts and partner with conversation organizations including WWF.

 

 

The report, the fourth in a series of decadal (10- year) surveys conducted by the State Forestry Administration of China, began in 2011 with financial and technical support from WWF. Much of the success in increasing the panda population comes as a result of conservation policies implemented by the Chinese government, including the Natural Forest Protection Project and Grain for Green.

 

The report found that 1,246 wild giant pandas live within nature reserves, accounting for 66.8% of the total wild population, and the habitat within nature reserves accounts for

 

53.8% of the total habitat area. There are currently 67 panda nature reserves in China, an increase of 27 since the last report.

 

  1. In a study conducted in Tubingen, Germany, chess experts and novices were shown geometric objects and chess positions and were later asked to identify each one of them. Their reaction times and brain activity closely monitored with the use of functional MRI scans. On the first part, which was recognizing the geometric objects, results reveal that the subjects’ performance didn’t show any dissimilarities, which implied that the experts’ visualization skills are no better than the amateurs’. However, during the identification of the chess position, the experts were seen to have performance significantly faster and better.

 

As the researchers geared toward an element of a study previously conducted on pattern and object recognition by the chess experts, they had anticipated to notice areas of the left hemisphere of the experts’ brains (involved in object recognition) to be more reactive when they performed the tasks. However, the reaction times of the subjects were virtually identical. The very thing that sets the experts apart from the amateurs is that the former’s right brain hemispheres (involved in pattern recognition) were to seen to have also lit up during the activity. Therefore, both sides of the experts’ brains were active, processing information in two places simultaneously. The researchers added that when they showed the chess diagrams to the subjects, they observed that the amateur relied on looking at the pieces intently to be able to recognize them, whereas the experts merely relied on their peripheral vision and looked across the boards. Scientists have worked for many years to unravel the complex workings of the

brain. Their research efforts have greatly improved our understanding of brain function. During the past decade alone, scientific and technical progress in all fields of brain research has been astonishing. Using new imaging techniques, scientists can visualize the human brain in action. Images produced by these techniques have defined brain regions responsible for attention, memory, and emotion. A series of discoveries (in multiple fields of study) has displaced the long-standing assumption that brain cells are stable and unchanging. Amazingly, new findings show that some adult brain cells can divide and grow! In addition, advances in research are allowing scientists to analyse and make progress toward understanding the causes of inherited brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Taken together, these discoveries provide hope for the recovery of nervous system function lost through injury or disease. Despite these and other significant advances in the field of brain research, most of the processes responsible for the integrated functioning of billions of brain cells remain a mystery. Research on the brain in the new millennium is crucial to our effort to come to a complete understanding of this fascinating organ. In turn, improved understanding makes the development of new treatment options possible. Research continues to bring new insights into how the brain is put together, how it works, and whether damage to the brain can be reversed.

 

  1. Their trade networks made the Phoenicians rich but also enabled cultural exchange and transfer between East and West in an unprecedented way: the most significant was the spread of the alphabetic script which was adopted all over the Mediterranean.

 

 

The Phoenician alphabet is a writing system consisting of only 22 signs representing exactly one sound (phoneme) each. The term “alphabet” derives from the names of the first two signs in the sequence, aleph (“cattle”) and beit(“house”): these names also reflect the letters’ shapes, each derived from the picture of an object whose name starts with the relevant sound.

 

The alphabetic script is simple enough to learn quickly, without the years of dedicated training required to master writing systems such as cuneiform or Egyptian hieroglyphs. Specialised schooling was unnecessary, and literacy was therefore disengaged from the institutional context of palaces and temples where the traditional scripts continued to be used. The alphabet suited the needs of long-distance merchants who needed to be able to record their business affairs on the go and who, for reasons of confidentiality and money, often preferred to write themselves rather than employ a specialist scribe. As the script could easily be used to record any language, it was, in the course of the first millennium BC, adapted for Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, Phrygian, Lydian, Etruscan and Latin, to name but a few.

 

  1. Coffee is enjoyed by millions of people every day and the ‘coffee experience’ has become a staple of our modern life and culture. While the current body of research related to the effects of coffee consumption on human health has been contradictory, a study in the June issue of Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, which is published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), found that the potential benefits of moderate coffee drinking outweigh the risks in adult consumers for the majority of major health outcomes considered. Researchers at Ulster University systematically reviewed 1,277 studies from 1970 to-date on coffee’s effect on human health and found the general scientific consensus is that regular, moderate coffee drinking (defined as 3-4 cups per day) essentially has a neutral effect on health, or can be mildly beneficial. The authors noted causality of risks and benefits cannot be established for either with the research currently available as they are largely based on observational data. Further research is needed to quantify the risk-benefit balance for coffee consumption, as well as identify which of coffee’s many active ingredients, or indeed the combination of such, that could be inducing these health benefits.

 

  1. Life expediencies have been rising by up to three months a year since 1840, and there is no sign of that flattening. Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott draw on a 2009 study to show that if the trend continues, more than half the babies born in wealthier countries since 2000 may reach their 100th birthdays. With a few simple, devastating strokes, Gratton and Scott show that under the current system it is almost certain you won’t be able to save enough to fund several decades of decent retirement. For example, if your life expectancy is 100, you want a pension that is 50percent of your final salary, and you save 10 percent of your earnings each year, they calculate that you won’t be able to retire till your 80s. People with 100-year life expediencies must recognize they are in for the long haul, and make an early start arranging their lives accordingly. But how to go about this? Gratton and Scott advance the idea of a multistage life, with repeated changes of direction and attention. Material and intangible assets will need upkeep, renewal or replacement. Skills will need updating, augmenting or discarding, as will networks of friends and acquaintances. Earning will be interspersed with learning or self-reflection. As the authors warn, recreation will have to become re-creation.

 

  1. The English have the reputation of being a nation of tea drinkers, but this wasn’t always the case. By the end of the 17th century, the English were the biggest coffee drinkers in the Western world, and coffee houses became the places to be seen. As well as gossip, you could pick up talk of the latest intellectual developments in science, politics, and so on, in this age of scientific discovery and progress. At first coffee houses were very basic; a room with a bar at one end and a few plain tables and chairs. Customers paid a penny for a bowl — not a cup — of coffee. A polite young woman was usually in charge of the bar because it was thought her presence would ensure that the customers didn’t use bad language or cause any trouble. An added attraction was that coffee houses provided free newspapers and journals.

 

 

But people didn’t go to the coffee houses just to drink coffee. They went to talk. They soon developed from simple cafes, where anyone with a penny could go for a drink and a chat, into clubs. People started to go to coffee houses where they would find other people who had the same jobs or who shared their interests and ideas, to talk and conduct business.

 

The great popularity of coffee houses lasted about a hundred years. In the later 18th century, increased trade with other countries made such luxuries as coffee cheaper and more easily available to the ordinary person. As a result, people started to drink it at home. Also at this time more tea was imported from abroad, and the century of the coffee house was replaced by the domestic tea-party as the typical English social occasion.

 

  1. For those political analysts whose main interest remains class divisions in society the biggest split these days is that between those who control and work with informational technology (IT) and those we might still call blue-collar workers. The old divisions of class have become a lot more difficult to apply, if not completely outdated. There’s no escaping the enormous impact of information technology in the late 20th and, even more, the early 21st centuries, both economically and socially.

 

During the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries, the spirit of experiment was in the air, and those involved were practical people working to practical ends — often on their own or with a small group of trusted friends. Secrecy was important as there was money to be made in new inventions.

 

What interested them were results, not theories. Most modern technological advances, however, were developed as theories first, and then made reality by large teams of scientists and experts in the field. What we have now is that more and more of this type of expertise is being used to analyse and find solutions to all kinds of business and social problems, thus creating — in the eyes of the political analysts mentioned above — a whole large new economic and social class.

 

 

  1. As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also an important factor in architecture, since a building is usually comprehended in a succession of experiences rather than all at once. In most architecture there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure.

 

The analysis of building types provides an insight into past cultures and eras. Behind each of the greater styles lies not a casual trend nor a vogue, but a period of serious and urgent experimentation directed toward answering the needs of a specific way of life. Climate, methods of labor, available materials, and economy of means all impose their dictates. Each of the greater styles has been aided by the discovery of new construction methods. Once developed, a method survives tenaciously, giving way only when social changes or new building techniques have reduced it. That evolutionary process is exemplified by the history of modern architecture, which developed from the first uses of structural iron and steel in the mid-19th cent.

 

  1. The saying “The camera never lies.” has been with us almost since the beginning of photography — yet we all now know that it can, and does lie, and very convincingly. Yet most of us still seem to trust the truth of a photographic image — especially in our newspapers or on TV news reports — even though we may question its message. We think of photographs as an accurate reflection of unaltered reality. We’re convinced of this when we take unposed snaps on our family holidays or of colleagues the worse for wear at the office party. It is this property of photography that makes it hard to question the evidence before our eyes.

 

Our holiday snaps, though, like photographs showing life ten, fifty, a hundred years ago, tend only to bring about at most a feeling of nostalgia — not always a negative emotion. Many people keep albums to relive the better moments of their lives — and their impact is reduced by the fact that what they show is over, part of history. News photos, on the other hand, in presenting moments of an event that is probably still going on somewhere, must provoke a more vivid, emotional response.

 

  1. A country’s standard of living generally depends on the size of its national income. Standards of living are measured by such things as the number of cars, televisions, telephones, computers, washing machines, and so on, for every one thousand people. There is, however, no standard international index, which is why national income figures are used as a substitute. But the use of these figures to compare the standard of living between countries needs to be done carefully, because they are, at best, only a rough guide which can be misleading. The main problem here is that it is necessary to have a common unit of measurement if any sort of comparison is to be made at all. It has become the custom to use the dollar, and each country’s currency is converted at its official exchange rate into a national income figure in dollars. Now, since the exchange rate is often set at an artificial level in relation to dollars, you are likely to end up with a figure that is useless for your purposes.

 

  1. Many people have problems with irony, both in their everyday lives and as it is used or deployed in literature. We learn early on at school about “dramatic irony”, that is, we are told, when the audience of a play is aware of some situation or circumstance, or has information that one or more characters in the play do not. If you like, you are sharing a secret with the writer — you are in the know. Perhaps, as you go about your daily business, irony is not so clear-cut.

 

 

Here’s an example: your neighbour draws your attention to how lovely the dandelions and daisies growing in your lawn are. Now, to someone not familiar with the care and attention many English people give to their gardens, this might need a bit of explanation. Lawns are grass, and are cut and rolled regularly so that a professional golfer could practice his putting on it. Daisies and dandelions are weeds. For a moment — but just for a moment — you wonder how serious your neighbour is being. Does he really think the weeds are lovely or is he telling you — in a rather superior way — that you’re a lousy gardener?

 

Irony, however, usually needs an audience; and not only does it need some people to get the point, it also very much needs there to be people who don’t. There is, it has to be said, a rather undemocratic air of superiority about it.

 

Irony is slippery, sometimes difficult to get a firm hold on, and can easily backfire, like a joke that falls flat. It wasn’t until the 19th century that Britain had a police force as we know it today. In medieval times, the maintenance of law and order was in the hands of local nobles and lords who were expected to keep the peace in their own land, and they would often appoint “constables” to police it. For a long time, policing remained an unpaid activity or was paid for privately, either by individuals or organizations. There were also people who made a living as “thief takers”. They were not paid wages, but were rewarded by a proportion of the value of the stolen possessions they recovered. Later, in London, where the population was rapidly increasing crime was rising, night-watchmen — the first paid law enforcement body — were created and worked alongside the unpaid, part-time constables.

 

Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe: France had one long before — indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign — that is, French — and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.

 

It was not until Robert Peel set up his “new police” as a separate force in 1829 that policemen began to replace the old part -time constables. Sir Robert “Bobby” Peel’s own name provided two common nicknames for the new force: “Peelers” or “Bobbies”. These

names seem mild, if not affectionate, and are possibly an interesting gauge of how the police were viewed by people at the time, in contrast with the kind of names they get called these days.

 

Why throw everything you say into doubt? Besides, there’s an unpleasant air of intellectual snobbery about it, and that sort of thing doesn’t go down well any more.

 

  1. Current research into the nature of the relationship between participation in physical activity/sport and educational performance has produced mixed, inconsistent and often non-comparable results. For example, some cross-sectional studies illustrate a positive correlation between participation in sport and physical activity and academic success (e.g. maths, reading, acuity, reaction times). However, critics point to a general failure to solve the issue of direction of cause — whether intelligence leads to success in sport, whether involvement in sport enhances academic performance, or whether a third factor (e.g. personality traits) explains both.

 

 

Longitudinal studies also generally support the suggestion that academic performance is enhanced, or at least maintained, by increased habitual physical activity. Yet such studies are criticized for not being definitive because some do not use randomised allocation of pupils to experimental and control groups (to control for pre-existing differences), others tend to use (subjective) teacher-assigned grades to assess academic achievement, rather than standardised and comparable tests; and some programmes include parallel interventions, making it difficult to isolate specific effects.

 

More generically, one key piece of research illustrates that both acute exercise and chronic training programmes have small, but beneficial, positive impacts on cognitive performance. However, this study concludes that as experimental rigour decreased, effect size increased. Further, generalisation is limited because effect size is influenced by the nature and type of exercise, the type of participants, the nature of the cognitive tests and the methodological quality of the study.

 

  1. Is the purpose of history to promote a strong national identity and support national myths? Certainly, it has been used in this way for centuries, and this is often reflected in the history curriculum. We can all remember history at school as being a matter of learning lots of facts and dates, and long lists of kings and queens – a grand narrative of how we got from a· not so civilized past to the great nation we are today. Putting aside the fact that national identity is a complex and divisive question – especially in countries like the UK, which is comprised of several nationalities – this approach to history emphasizes a broad understanding, rather than a detailed understanding.

 

Yet history is, or should be, a critical, skeptical discipline: some historians see their work as disproving myths, demolishing orthodoxies. and exposing politically-motivated narratives which claim to be objective. What students need to develop are more critical and analytical skills; in other words, to think for themselves. They can do this by studying certain historical problems in depth. This involves being critical of the narratives presented by historians and skeptical of the myths preserved in the national memory.

 

  1. How do we measure efficiency? To economists – or to a certain type of economist – it is simply a question of profitability, even when it concerns what most people consider a social provision such as public transport. What is lost when railway lines and bus routes to small, out-of-the-way communities are cut in the name of efficiency? After all, if a lineor a route is only used occasionally by a few people,it would be much cheaper to rip up the lines and let everyone use their cars.

 

For many governments, the way to turn inefficient national services into profitable businesses has been to sell off these services – and their responsibilities – to private enterprises. Cost, in terms of profit and loss, is of course an important factor, but other factors need to be considered when dealing with the livelihoods of whole communities, however small. Among these are the social, environmental, human and cultural costs incurred by cutting off more remote communities from greater opportunities, including economic activities that benefit society as a whole.

 

Taking away such links – the usual result of privatization – may well lead to economic benefits in the short term, but, as the last twenty to thirty years have shown, also leads to long-term social and cultural damage. Of course, no business with its eye on profits is going to “waste” money supporting underused services. Only large collective bodies such as national and local governments can do that. These services are, after all, a social provision, not businesses.

 

 

  1. Humans have been cultivating chilies as food for 6,000 years, but we are still learning new things about the science behind their heat and how it reacts with our body. In the late 1900’s, scientists identified the pain nerves that detect capsaicin: the chemical in chillies responsible for most of the burning sensation in our mouth. But it’s only during the last few years that scientists have also learnt why chilies evolved to be spicy in the first place, and they have managed to cultivate new varieties that are up to

 

  • times hotter than the common Jalapeno.

 

The hottest part of a chilli is not the seeds, as many people think, but the white flesh that houses the seeds, known as the placenta. But why did chillies evolve to be hot in the first place? Most scientists believe capsaicin acts mainly as a deterrent against would- be mamma l predato rs such as rodents. But recent research suggests this may not be the whole story. US scientists working in Bolivia have studied how hot and mild chillies differ in their susceptibility to a certain harmful fungus. It turns out that the hotter the chilli, the better its defences against the fungus, leading the researchers to propose that heat may have evolved to help chillies deal with harmful microbes, as well as hungry mammals.

 

 

  1. We know that Shakespeare took whole chunks of Plutarch word for word to use in his Roman plays — though, of course, in doing so he turned them into great poetry. Does this make Shakespeare a plagiarist? Was he a word thief?

 

In its legal definition, plagiarism includes “both the theft or misrepresentation of intellectual property and the substantial textual copying of another’s work”. But it is also considered to be a factor of a particular culture or time — that is, in some cultures and in some periods the idea was undefined — which makes it harder to identify precisely. However, the main problem these days is plagiarism in academic writing, which is becoming increasingly common, due to the vast amount of material that has been published which can be accessed via the Internet. This easy access, coupled with the increasing pressure put on students, has led to a rapid rise in incidents of plagiarism. It comes down to who owns the intellectual property in question, and with the advent of the Internet this has become less clearly defined. By far the most popular and most consumed drink in the world is water, but it may come as no surprise that the second most popular beverage is tea. Although tea was originally grown only in certain parts of Asia – in countries such as China, Burma and India – it is now a key export product in more than 50 countries around the globe. Countries that grow tea, however, need to have the right tropical climate, which includes up to 200 centimeters of rainfall per year to encourage fast growth, and temperatures that range from ten to 35 degrees centigrade. They also need to have quite specific geographical features, such as high altitudes to promote the flavor and taste of the tea, and land that can offer plenty of shade in the form of other trees and vegetation to keep the plants cool and fresh. Together these conditions contribute to the production of the wide range of high-quality teas that are in such huge demand among the world’s consumers. There is green tea, jasmine tea, earl grey tea, pepper mint tea, tea to help you sleep, tea to promote healing and tea to relieve stress; but above all, tea is a social drink that seems to suit the palates and consumption habits of human beings in general.

 

  1. A company in the USA is paying its employees to sleep more. Staff at the insurance company Aetna will get $300 a year added to their salary if they get at least seven hours of sleep a night. That works out to just over an extra dollar for each night the employee sleeps over seven hours. The idea behind this scheme is employee performance. Human resources officials say employees will work better if they have slept well. They add that a workforce that is more awake and alert will mean the company will perform better. Staff can either record their sleep automatically using a wrist monitor that connects to Aetna’s computers, or manually record how long they have slept every night.

 

 

There are a number of studies that warn that not sleeping enough can affect our ability to do our job. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine said that the average worker in the USA loses 11.3 working days of productivity a year because of not getting enough sleep. This costs companies about $2,280 for one worker. It estimates that the US economy loses $63.2 billion a year because workers do not sleep more than seven hours a night. A 2015 study in Europe by the Rand Corporation found that staff who slept less than seven hours per night were far less productive than workers who had eight or more hours of sleep. The staff at Aetna also receive extra cash if they do exercise.

 

  1. Twin studies have been very useful in giving us information about whether our genes or our environment makes us who we are. A surprising result is the way that genes influence our work. At a basic level, our genes affect how we look and so they influence whether we can become a basketball player or a supermodel, for example.

 

However, there is evidence that genes influence our job choice in much greater ways.

 

Research shows that identical twins choose more similar jobs than non- identical twins. In fact, identical twins who have grown up apart choose more similar jobs than non-identical twins who have grown up together. Studies also show that identical twins suggest that our genes affect both the satisfaction that comes from doing a job and satisfaction that comes from working conditions such as a person’s pay or their manager.

 

So what does this mean? It means that from birth, you are more likely to prefer one occupation to another and find certain jobs more satisfying than others. However, genes are not the only factor. Other things in your life, such as family background and education, will also be influential in your career choices.

 

  1. A large new study has found that people who regularly took a siesta were significantly less likely to die of heart disease.

 

“Taking a nap could turn out to be an important weapon in the fight against coronary mortality,” said DimitriosTrichopoulos of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, who led the study published yesterday in the Archives of Internal Medicine.

 

The study of more than 23,000 Greek adults — the biggest and best examination of the subject to date found that those who regularly took a midday siesta were more than 30 percent less likely to die of heart disease.

 

Other experts said the results are intriguing. Heart disease kills more than 650,000 Americans each year, making it the nation’s No. 1 cause of death.

 

 

“It’s interesting. A little siesta, a little snooze may be beneficial,” said Gerald Fletcher, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., speaking on behalf of the American Heart Association. “It’s simple, but it has a lot of promise.”

 

While more research is needed to confirm and explore the findings, there are several ways napping could reduce the risk of heart attacks, experts said.

 

“Napping may help deal with the stress of daily living,” said Michael Twery, who directs the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s National Center on Sleep Disorders Research. “Another possibility is that it is part of the normal biological rhythm of daily living. The biological clock that drives sleep and wakefulness has two cycles each day, and one of them dips usually in the early afternoon. It’s possible that not engaging in napping for some people might disrupt these processes.”

 

Researchers have long known that countries such as Greece, Italy and Spain, where people commonly take siestas, have lower rates of heart disease than would be expected. But previous studies that attempted to study the relationship between naps and heart disease have produced mixed results. The new study is first to try to fully account for factors that might confuse the findings, such as physical activity, diet and other illnesses.

 

“This study has a number of advantages,” Trichopoulos said. He and colleagues at the University of Athens examined 23,681 Greek men and women ages 20 to 86 who had no history of heart disease or any other serious health problem when they enrolled in the study between 1994 and 1999. The researchers asked the participants whether they took midday naps and, if so, how often and for how long. They also asked detailed questions about their health and lifestyles, such as whether they had any illnesses that might make them sleep more, how much exercise they got and what they ate.

 

After an average of more than six years of follow-up, 792 of the study subjects died, including 133 who died of heart disease. Of that group, 94 were nappers. After the researchers accounted for factors that could confuse the issue, they found that those who took naps frequently were 34 percent less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not. The biggest nappers-79 people who took a siesta for 30 minutes or more at least three times a week-had a 37 percent lower risk.

 

Naps appeared to offer the most protection to working men: Those who took midday siestas either occasionally or systematically had a 64 percent lower risk of death from

heart disease. Non-working men had a 36 percent reduction in risk. A similar analysis could not be done in women because too few died of heart disease.

 



  1. Getting to know fellow academics, especially more senior ones, can be very daunting. Lecturers and researchers are used to spending a lot of time in isolation working independently. The thought of going public and ‘selling yourself’ does not seem enticing. However, it is easier than you think to begin to develop your own career-enhancing networks. Your PhD supervisor and examiners or if you are already in post, your mentor, are a great place to start. They will have been chosen to guide you because they are more experienced and in most cases they will work close to your field of interest. Ask their advice for ways of building up your own network of contacts. Also it is easier to approach someone unknown to you if you can mention the name of a mutual acquaintance.

 

 

If you are a postgraduate who is serious about a career in academia, or a more senior scholar wanting to develop one, you will surely be attending conferences on a fairly regular basis. There is no right or wrong number of these, some scholars stick to one or two a year, others seem to attend one a month! Conferences are the main way that academics network with each other, so do not miss out on these opportunities. If you are presenting a paper it gives others a chance to see what you are working on, and the informal sections of the programme (such as food and drink breaks) encourage mingling and further discussion.

 

  1. An international team of scientists is set to go to Arctic to investigate the Greenland shark longevity mystery. The shark is known to be the longest living vertebrate animal on the planet Earth. One of the members is Dr. Holy Shiels, a physiologist and senior lecturer in the Faculty of Life Sciences at the University of Manchester. She will be the only British scientist in the team to study Greenland shark, which is believed to be the vertebrate animals and mammals with the longest living. The shark is reported to have lived for more than 200 years, and possibly close to or more than 400 years. The shark is both hunter and a scavenger, that feed on seals and other animals including polar bears and whales. It is also known as one of the largest sharks, reaching to five and a half meters (1 8 feet), very close to the size of a great white. The research team is commissioned by the Greenland government and will conduct the research on board the multi-purpose research vessel Sanna, operated by the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources. A Greenland shark is estimated to be able to live for 400 years according to Science Magazine. Professor Shiels expects to gather sufficient data of Greenland shark, a top predator in the Arctic sea. She wanted to find a clue of how Greenland shark is able to survive in the deep sea of the Arctic sea, by examining how its heart and circulation work in its normal habitat, as she specializes in the cardiovascular function. “Greenland sharks are classified as data deficient,” Shiels said. “This means that we don’t know enough to put measures in place to protect them from over-fishing, pollution or climate change.”

 

  1. It’s important to realise that the brain doesn’t see the world around it simply as though the scene was projected onto a cinema screen on the inside of your skull. Before a scene can be observed “in your head” it has to be broken down into a number of different components for processing, and these components then have to be recombined into the meaningful form that we call “an image”. Amongst other things, the scene is broken down into its different colours — red, green and blue — in a way that’s analogous to the manner in which a television image or magazine photograph is broken down into tiny dots of primary colours (which are too small to be noticed individually when we look at them, but which when seen collectively give the impression of a continuous full colour image) . However, unlike and magazine images, the image that we see with our eyes is broken down not only into separate colour components but into other components too. It is, rather incredibly, deconstructed into component parts such as horizontal lines, vertical lines, circles and so on. Each of these component parts is sent to a separate area of the brain for processing, with the different components of the scene only merging again when they are unified into what you perceive as the image.

 

  1. The shipping container is one of the mainstays of international trade. The globalised modern economy depends on the rapid and efficient movement of goods that containerisation allows. In many ways it was the advent of the container that allowed this globalised economy to develop.

 

 

Invented during World War two as an efficient method of moving equipment to the front lines, there are now at any one time up to 15 million containers being used to transport goods on land and sea or waiting to be filled at factories and ports. They are vital in the supply chain and have allowed the added efficiency of “just in time” inventory management, where companies no longer keep large warehouses of stock or parts, but rely on the ability to quickly order what they want from their suppliers. It is estimated that since the 1980s the ratio of inventory to GDP in American business has fallen from 25% to 15%. Altogether total business inventory in the US is estimated at $1.5 trillion, without “just in time” management methods this might be as much as $2.5 trillion.

 

This means that companies rely more and more on the prompt delivery of parts from their suppliers to fulfill orders. This is particularly true of industries such as computer manufacture, which no longer make all the parts of the products that bear their names, but instead out source, often to suppliers half way around the world. American computer manufacturers are, for example, increasingly dependent on Asian microchip manufacturers in countries such as Taiwan and Thailand.

 

  1. Tim Berners-Lee believes the internet can foster human understanding and even world peace Times Online, March 20, 2010. He is the man who has changed the world more than anyone else in the past hundred years. Sir Tim Berners-Lee may be a mild-mannered academic who lives modestly in Boston, but as the inventor of the world wide web he is also a revolutionary. Along with Galileo, William Caxton and Sir Isaac Newton, he is a scientist who has altered the way people think as well as the way they live

 

Since the web went global 20 years ago, the way we shop, listen to music and communicate has been transformed. There are implications for politics, literature, economics even terrorism because an individual can now have the same access to information as the elite. Society will never be the same.

 

The computer scientist from Oxford, who built his own computer from a television screen and spare parts after he was banned from one of the university computers, is a cultural guru as much as a technological one. It is amazing how far we’ve come, he says. But you’re always wondering what’s the next crazy idea, and working to make sure the web stays one web and that the internet stays open. There isn’t much time to sit back and reflect. We speak for more than an hour about everything from Facebook to fatwas, Wikipedia to Google. He invented the web, he says, because he was frustrated that he couldn’t find all the information he wanted in one place. It was an imaginary concept that he realized.

 

  1. The suburbs of Las Vegas do not look like the cradle of a revolution. Golden stucco-clad houses stretch for street after identical street, interspersed with gated communities with names such as Spanish Oaks and Rancho Bel Air. The sky is the deepest blue, the desert air is clear and the distant mountains are beautiful. The only sounds are the buzz of a gardener’s hedge trimmer and a squeaking baby buggy pushed by a power-walking mother. The bright lights of Sin City seem a very long way away. Yet these quiet streets are being changed by a movement that is gathering momentum across America and around the world, challenging one of the most fundamental of economic relationships: the way we use and pay for energy. There are now more than 7,000 homes in Nevada fitted with solar panels to generate their own electricity, and the number is rising fast. Just five years ago, residential solar power was still a niche product for the homeowner with a fat wallet and a bleeding heart. Not anymore. Technology, politics and finance have aligned to move it into the mainstream. Solar power has become the fastest-growing energy source in the US.

 

 

For decades the electricity industry has been a cautious and conservative business, but the plunging prices of solar panels, down by about two-thirds in the past six years, have woken it up with a bang. Dynamic rooftop solar power companies have entered the market, in the most radical change to electricity supplies since the industry was born in the 19th century. It has been described as the equivalent of the mobile revolution in telephony, or the PC in computing.

 

  1. What killed off the dinosaurs?The end of the Cretaceous Period saw one of the most dramatic mass extinctions the Earth has ever seen.The fossil record shows that throughout their 160-million-year existence, dinosaurs took on a huge variety of forms as the environment changed and new species evolved that were suited to these new conditions. Others that failed to adapt went extinct.But then 66 million years ago, over a relatively short time, dinosaurs disappeared completely (except for birds). Many other animals also died out, including pterosaurs, large marine reptiles, and other sea creatures such as ammonites. Although the number of dinosaur species was already declining, this suggests a sudden catastrophic event sealed their fate, causing unfavourable changes to the environment more quickly than dinosaurs and other creatures could adapt.The exact nature of this catastrophic event is still open to scientific debate. The catastrophe could have been an asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions or the effect of both, together with more gradual changes in the Earth’s climate over millions of years.Whatever the causes, the huge extinction that ended the age of the dinosaur left gaps in the ecosystem that were subsequently filled by mammals and birds, allowing them to evolve rapidly.

 

  1. Times are fraught, and overstretched executives are constantly on the lookout for a way to clear their minds so they can work in a calmer, more effective, and more responsive way. Cultivating a special state of consciousness called ‘mindfulness’ — an intense awareness of the here and now — is proving attractive to a growing number of senior managers, both in the US and elsewhere.

 

Mindfulness is achieved by meditation techniques, often involving sitting on a cushion, eyes closed, concentrating on the inflow and outflow of your breath. Or you might spend 10 minutes studying, sniffing, tasting and finally eating a piece of fruit. That might make

it sound like a remnant of the navel-gazing 1960s and 1970s, but the evidence for mindfulness’s effectiveness is good enough to have impressed hard-nosed companies such as Google (which has invited mindfulness gurus to speak at the Googleplex), General Mills, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deutsche Bank, Procter & Gamble, AstraZeneca, Apple, Credit Suisse, KPMG, Innocent, Reuters and many more.

 

According to Don McCormick, assistant professor of management at California State University and a dedicated meditator, it ‘can help individuals to manage workplace stress, perform tasks more effectively, enhance self-awareness and self -regulation, experience work as more meaningful, improve workplace relationships, increase ethical behavior, and make perception more accurate’. It is said to pay dividends for leaders and managers, by improving the quality of their listening and communicating.

 

 

  1. Tradition and commerce often clash in many cultures. In Trinidad, it is the Carnival that is the cause of current friction. The complaint, as you would expect, is that traditional skills and creativity are being lost in the rush to make profits. And the profits are large: the two-day festival, which attracts up to 40,000 tourists each year, is estimated to generate somewhere between $27 million and $100 million.

 

A particular problem for the traditionalists is that the extravagant colorful costumes people wear in the bands or processions are now largely being imported, especially from China. These costumes are cheaper and more revealing (another cause of complaint) than those made locally. Critics say these imports are a threat to traditional creations and, worse, mean sending work elsewhere. Others see turning the Carnival into a profitable and exportable industry as a progressive move, benefiting the country as a whole.

 

A large number of people are in two minds. On the one hand, the changes are a reflection of what people – mainly tourists – want, and bring in money. On the other, there is a desire to preserve traditions. The transformation of the bands and processions into businesses has disrupted the social order, which used to be made up of friends getting together to relax, eat and drink, and make costumes. Both sides agree, though, that the country needs to make better use of the skills of the people in the Carnival business and that the country’s resources must appeal to a wider market.

 

  1. Broadly speaking, there are two different ways of thinking about modern art, or two different versions of the story. One way is to view art as something that can be practised (And though of) as an activity radically separate from everyday life or worldly concerns. From this point of view, art is said to be “autonomous” from society – that is, it is believed to be self-sustaining and self-referring. One particularly influential versions of this story suggest that modern art should be viewed as process by which features extraneous to a particular branch of art would be progressively eliminated, and painters or sculptors would come to concentrate on problems specific to their domain. Another way of thinking about modern art is to view it as responding to the modern world, and to see modern artists immersing themselves in the conflicts and challenges of society. That is to say, some modern artists sought ways of conveying the changing experiences generated in European by the twin processes of commercialisation (the commodification of everyday life) and urbanisation. From this point of view, modern art is a way of reflecting on the transformation that created what we call, in a sort of shorthand, “modernity”.

 

 

  1. Spurred by the sense that disorderly behaviour among students in South Euclid was increasing, the school resource officer (SRO) reviewed data regarding referrals to the principal’s office. He found that the high school reported thousands of referrals a year for bullying and that the junior high school had recently experienced a 30 percent increase in bullying referrals. Police data showed that juvenile complaints about disturbances, bullying, and assaults after school hours had increased 90 percent in the past 10 years.

 

The SRO worked in close collaboration with a social worker and the university researcher. They coordinated a Response Planning Team comprising many stakeholders that was intended to respond to each of the areas identified in the initial analysis. Environmental changes included modifying the school schedule and increasing teacher supervision of hotspots. Counsellors and social workers conducted teacher training courses in conflict resolution and bullying prevention. Parent education included mailings with information about bullying, an explanation of the new school policy, and a discussion about what could be done at home to address the problems. Finally, student education included classroom discussions between homeroom teachers and students, as well as assemblies conducted by the SRO. The SRO also opened a substation next to a primary hotspot. The Ohio Department of Education contributed by opening a new training centre to provide a non-traditional setting for specialized help.

 

 

The results from the various responses were dramatic. School suspensions decreased 40 percent. Bullying incidents dropped 60 percent in the hallways and 80 percent in the gym area. Follow-up surveys indicated that there were positive attitudinal changes among students about bullying and that more students felt confident that teachers would take action when a problem arose. Teachers indicated that training sessions were helpful and that they were more likely to talk about bullying as a serious issue. Parents responded positively, asking for more information about the problem in future mailings. The overall results suggest that the school environments were not only safer; but that early intervention was helping at-risk students succeed in school (South Euclid (Ohio) Police Department, 2001).

 

  1. Disabled people were among the early adopters of personal computers. They were quick to appreciate that word processing programs and printers gave them freedom from dependence on others to read and write for them. Some of these disabled early adopters became very knowledgeable about what could be achieved and used their knowledge to become independent students at a high level. They also gained the confidence to ask that providers of education make adjustments so that disabled students could make better use of course software and the web, rather than just word processing.

 

For some disability groups, information in electronic format (whether computer-based or web- based) can be more accessible than printed information. For example, people who have limited mobility or limited manual skills can find it difficult to obtain or hold printed material; visually impaired people can find it difficult or impossible to read print, but both these groups can be enabled to use a computer and, therefore, access the information electronically.

 

Online communication can enable disabled students to communicate with their peers on an equal basis. For example, a deaf student or a student with Asperger’s syndrome may find it difficult to interact in a face-to-face tutorial, but may have less difficulty interacting when using a text conferencing system in which everyone types and reads text. In addition, people’s disabilities are not necessarily visible in online communication

 

 

 

systems; so disabled people do not have to declare their disability and are not perceived as being different.

 

  1. The 1920’s movie goers experience was largely dominated by silent movies but saw the introduction of synchronized sound. In the 1920’s movie stars were really stars – with huge salaries, the fashions and activities of the Hollywood greats echoed around the world and 100,000 people would gather in cities all over the world, including such diverse cities as London and Moscow, to greet Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks when they toured of Europe. Early silent movies were often accompanied by live piano or organ music and provided enormous entertainment value to audiences captivated by the experience of watching moving pictures on the silver screen. Although the had been previous attempts to introduce sound, it wasn’t until 1923 that a synchronized sound track was photographically recorded and printed on to the side of the strip of motion picture film and made it on to a commercially distributed movie. It would still be seven long years before taking pictures gained total supremacy and finally replaced the silent film era.

 

 

The first movie theatres were called Nickelodeons, and were very basic compared the luxurious picture palaces that followed but what an aura of excitement, of laughter, fun and tears surrounded them! Before the introduction of movie soundtracks, movies were often accompanied by scripted music from a piano.

 

  1. The National Oceanography Center

 

The National Oceanography Center (NOC) is engaged in research into the potential risks and benefits of exploiting deep-sea mineral resources, some of which are essential for low-carbon technology, as well as using ocean robots to estimate the environmental impact of these potential deep-sea mining activities.

 

Late last year the NOC led an expedition on the RRS James Cook that found enough of the scarce element Tellurium present in the crust of a submerged volcano that, if it were all to be used in the production of solar PV panels, could provide two-thirds of the UK’s annual electricity supply. Recently, the NOC also led an international study demonstrating deep-sea nodule mining will cause long-lasting damage to deep-sea life, lasting at least for decades.

 

These nodules are potato-sized rocks containing high levels of metals, including copper.

 

manganese and nickel. They grow very slowly on the sea-bed, over millions of years.

 

Although no commercial operations exist to extract these resources, many are planned.

 

Professor Edward Hill, Executive Director at the NOC commented, – By 2050 there will be nine billion people on earth and attention is increasingly turning to the ocean, particularly the deep ocean, for food, clean supplies of energy and strategic minerals. The NOC is undertaking research related to many aspects and perspectives involved in exploiting ocean resources. This research is aimed at informing with sound scientific evidence the decisions that will need to be taken in the future, as people increasingly turn to the oceans to address some of society’s greatest challenges’

ESSAYS AND SOME IDEAS:

 

  1. Whether travel is a necessary component of a quality education.

Discuss and give your own experience.

 

  1. In the education system, assessments through formal

written examinations are still valid. Discuss your opinion with

your own experiences.

 

3.Some people believe law changes human behaviors. Do you agree or disagree?

 

 

4.Television has many useful functions to play in everyone’s life, for some its relaxation, for some it is the companion. Discuss your viewpoint and support your answer with examples and discussion point.

 

 

5.The way many people interact with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships that people make? Has this been a positive or negative development?

 

6.It is argued that getting married before finishing school or getting a job is not a good choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

7.In underdeveloped countries, tourism has disadvantages and can be said the opposite as well. Discuss your opinions and give examples.

 

 

8.Some people could stay effective in their lives by doing the repetitive routine, such as eating the same diet and doing exercise.

 

Do you think it can apply to everyone?

 

9.In the past 100 years, there are many important inventions such as antibiotics, airplanes and computers. What do you think is the most important invention for the past century? Why?

 

10.Information revolution has changed the way of mass communications and had some negative and positive effects on individual lives as well as on society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

11.Some people think that life experience is more important than the formal education provided is schools and universities. How far do you agree with this statement, and provide examples?

 

12.Younger employees have more skills, knowledge and more motivated than older employees. To what extent do you agree or disagree, support your argument with your own experience?

 

13.Medical technology can increase life expectancy. Is it a blessing or curse?

 

14.In a cashless society, people use more credit cards. Cashless society seems to be a reality, and how realistic do you think it is? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this phenomenon?

 

15.The time people devote in job leaves very little time for personal life. How widespread is the problem? What problem will this shortage of time causes?

 

16.Effective learning requires time, comfort and peace so it is impossible to combine study and employment. Study and employment distract one from another. To what extent do you think the statements are realistic? Support your opinion with examples?

 

  1. Do you think the design of building affects positively or negatively where people live and work?

 

 

 

  1. It is important to maintain the balance between work and other aspects of one’s life such as family and leisure activities. Please give your opinion about how important to maintain the balance and why some people think it is hard to do?

 

  1. Global problems are related to governments and international organizations, what are the problems and what is your opinion?

 

  1. Governments promise continuous economic growth, but it’s actually an illusion. Some people think that governments should abandon this. Please talk about the validity and the implications.

 

  1. The lazy journalism has become commonplace in today’s digitalized world. Explain what is it and the cause of it. How do you define “lazy” journalism and what is the cause?

 

  1. Government should allocate sources prior to the technology research, do you agree or disagree? Give your own experience and examples.

 

  1. What do you think of bidding to host sports events? Is it a blessing or a curse? Give your opinions.

 

  1. The only way to reduce air pollution is to increase the prices of fuels for vehicles. What is your opinion and explain with your own experiences and examples?

 

  1. Some people see prisons as the place where criminals should be punished, while some people think their primary function should be to teach them how to lead better lives. What is your opinion about the main function of time spent in prison, punishment or rehabilitation?

 

  1. When you look for a job, some people think salary is more important while others think work condition is more important. Which one do you agree with?

 

  1. Governments should allocate sources prior to the technology research, do you agree or disagree? Give your own experience and examples.

 

  1. With the increase of digital media available online, the role of the library has become obsolete. Universities should only procure digital materials rather than constantly textbooks. Discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of this position and give your own point of view.

 

 

REORDER PARAGRAPH:

 

1.Unprecedented opportunity

 

  1. We live in an age of unprecedented opportunity: with ambition, drive. and talent, you can rise to the top of your chosen profession regardless of where you started out.

 

  1. But with opportunity comes responsibility.

 

  1. Companies today aren’t managing their knowledge of workers’ careers.

 

  1. Instead, you must be your own Chief Executive Officer.

 

  1. That means it’s up to you to carve out your place in the world and know when to change course.

 

 

  1. The Glow Worms

 

  1. The Newnes railroad was closed in 1932 after 25 years of shipping oil shale.

 

  1. The rails were pulled out of the 600-meter tunnel, which had been bored through the sandstone in the Wollemi National Park, and the tunnel was left to its own devices

 

  1. For Newnes. that meant becoming home to thousands and thousands of glow worms.

 

  1. The glow worm is a catch-all name for the bioluminescent larvae of various species, in this case. the Arachnocampa richardsae, a type of fungus gnat.

 

  1. Found in massive numbers in caves, the fungus gnat larvae cling to the rocky walls of the abandoned tunnel and hunt with long, glowing strings of sticky mucus.

 

  1. Experiment on Calves

 

  1. To gauge optimism and pessimism, the researchers set up an experiment involving 22 calves.

 

  1. Before they started the experiment, they trained the calves to understand which of their choices would lead to a reward.

 

  1. In the training, each calf entered a small pen and found a wall with five holes arranged in a horizontal line, two-and-a-half feet apart.

 

  1. The hole at one end contained milk from a bottle, while the hole at the opposite end contained only an empty bottle and delivered a puff of air in calves’ faces.

 

  1. The calves learned quickly which side of the pen held the milk reward.

 

  1. Unprecedented Opportunity

 

  1. We live in an age of unprecedented opportunity: with ambition, drive, and talent, you can rise to the top of your chosen profession regardless of where you started out.

 

  1. But with opportunity comes responsibility.

 

 

  1. Companies today aren’t managing their knowledge of workers’ careers.

 

  1. Instead, you must be your own Chief Executive Officer.

 

  1. Advertising [Exam Memory]

 

  1. Advertising is sponsored by the identical company.

 

  1. This allows the company to present its product to channel members

 

  1. The less costly is digital media such as social media

 

  1. Marketers also consider other media: cinema. station …etc.

 

 

 

  1. Teacher’s Report [Exam Memory]

 

 

  1. When teachers doing reports, they think the level of the audience is the same as teachers’.

 

  1. Students in the same file would be interested in the topic.

 

  1. You can’t expect that students would be interested in reading the paper.

 

  1. As writing would be only interested in a special audience.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts.

 

  1. The study includes painting, sculpture, architecture, ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects.

 

  1. Art history is the history of different groups of people and their culture represented throughout their artwork.

 

  1. Art historians compare different time periods in art history.

 

  1. As a term, art history (its product being history of art) encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to works of art and architecture.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Many young children are inexperienced in dealing with emotional upheaval.

 

  1. As a result, they lack the coping strategies that many adults have.

 

  1. In particular, many young children lack the verbal skills to express their emotions and to effectively communicate their need for emotional support.

 

  1. The frustration of not being able to effectively communicate may manifest itself in alternative behaviors.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. We know infinitely more about the wealthy people of Egypt than we do about the ordinary people, as almost all the monuments were made for the rich and influential.

 

  1. Houses in which ordinary Egyptians lived have not been preserved, and when most people died they were buried in simple graves with few funerary goods.

 

  1. Most of our traditional sources of information about the Old Kingdom are those concerned with death and the rituals surrounding death: these include pyramids, tombs and graves, but also statues, reliefs and paintings.

 

  1. Even papyri come mainly from pyramid temples.

 

  1. But this does not mean that death was the Egyptians’ only preoccupation.

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Weill likely have two billion more mouths to feed by mid-century –more than nine billion people.

 

  1. But sheer population growth isn’t the only reason well need more food.

 

  1. The spread of prosperity across the world, especially in China and India, is driving an increased demand for meat, eggs, and dairy, boosting pressure to grow more corn and soybeans to feed more cattle, pigs, and chickens.

 

  1. If these trends continue, the double whammy of population growth and richer diets will require us to roughly double the amount of crops we grow by 2050.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. The European Union has two big fish problems.

 

  1. One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.

 

  1. The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.

 

  1. The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.

 

  1. As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Conferences have played a key role in guiding the work of the United Nations since its very inception.

 

  1. In fact, the world body was born when delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco in April 1945 for the United Nations Conference on International Organization.

 

  1. The recent high-profile conferences on development issues, which have continued a series that began in the 1970s, have broken new ground in many areas: by involving

 

 

 

Presidents, Prime Ministers and other heads of state – as pioneered at the 1990 World Summit for Children.

 

  1. These events have put long-term, difficult problems like poverty and environmental degradation at the top of the global agenda.

 

  1. These problems otherwise would not have the political urgency to grab front-page headlines and command the attention of world leaders.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Hip hop emerged as a reaction to the gang culture and violence of the South Bronx in the 1970s, and daily experiences of poverty, racism, exclusion, crime, violence, and neglect.

 

  1. It necessarily embodies and values resilience, understanding, community and social justice.

 

  1. Without these, Hip Hop culture would never have been, and it is because these values remain at its core that Hip Hop is such a powerful agent of positive social change around the world.

 

  1. Yet, the hip hop project is not yet free from these difficult circumstances.

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Historical records, coins, and other date-bearing objects can help – if they exist. But even prehistoric sites contain records – written in nature’s hand.

 

  1. The series of strata in an archaeological dig enables an excavator to date recovered objects relatively, if not absolutely.

 

  1. However, when archaeologists want know the absolute date of a site, they can often go beyond simple stratigraphy.

 

  1. For example, tree ring, Dendrochronology (literally, ―tree time‖) dates wooden artefacts by matching their ring patterns to known records, which, in some areas of the world, span several thousand years.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. A person or company located in New South Wales may not supply by wholesales any substance which is for their therapeutic use and included in Schedule 2 of the Poisons List.

 

  1. Unless they are licensed or authorised to do so under the Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Regulation 1001, no one may supply these Schedule 1 substances.

 

  1. Additionally, wholesales have an obligation to ensure that the persons or companies they supply are licensed or authorised, to obtain, use. supply or possess the substance.

 

  1. Any breach of these regulations will result in immediate termination employment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. In Montana as elsewhere, companies that have acquired older mines respond to demands to pay for clean-up in either of two ways.

 

  1. Especially if the company is small, its owners may declare the company bankrupt, in some cases conceal its assets, and transfer their business efforts to other companies or to new companies that do not bear responsibility for clean-up at the old mine.

 

  1. If the company is so large that it cannot claim that it would be bankrupted by clean-up costs (as in the case of ARCO that I shall discuss below), the company instead denies its responsibility or else seeks to minimize the costs.

 

  1. In either case, either the mine site and areas downstream of it remain toxic, thereby endangering people, or else the U.S. federal government and the Montana state government (hence ultimately all taxpayers) pay for the clean-up through the federal Superfund and a corresponding Montana state fund.

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Fibers suitable for clothing have been made for the first time from the wheat protein gluten.

 

  1. The fibers are as strong and soft as wool and silk, but up to 30 times cheaper.

 

  1. Narendra Reddy and Yiqi Yang, who produced the fibers at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln.

 

  1. He says that because they are biodegradable, they might be used in biomedical applications such as surgical sutures.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. International Economics: Theory and Policy is a proven approach in which each half of the book leads with an intuitive introduction to theory and follows with self-contained chapters to cover key policy applications.

 

  1. The Eighth Edition integrates the latest research, data, and policy in hot topics such as outsourcing, economic geography, trade and environment, financial derivatives, the subprime crisis, and China’s exchange rate policies.

 

  1. New for the Eighth Edition, all end-of-chapter problems are integrated into MyEconLab, the online assessment and tutorial system that accompanies the text.

 

  1. Students get instant, targeted feedback, and instructors can encourage practice without needing to grade work by hand. For more information, visit MyEconLab.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. A logical candidate for such a species is the chimpanzee, which shares 98.4% of the human genetic code.

 

  1. Chimpanzees cannot speak because, unlike homo sapiens, their vocal cords are located higher in their throats and cannot be controlled as delicately as human vocal cords.

 

 

 

  1. It does not follow from their lack of speech, however, that chimpanzees are incapable of language. Perhaps they can acquire grammar like humans if they could only express it some other way.

 

  1. The obvious alternative is sign language, since all primates have extremely dexterous hands and sign language is a language. You have probably already read about the regular chimpanzees Was hoe and NimChimpsky, and the lowland gorilla Koko, all of whom learned to sign and interact very naturally with their trainers.

 

  1. All of these animals were taught to sign in order to get food, tickling, grooming, toys, and to get out of their cages. The question, then, is: is chimpanzee and gorilla signing language?

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees.

 

  1. In order to accomplish this, the manager should be able to motivate employees.

 

  1. That is, however, easier said than done.

 

  1. Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, encompassing various disciplines.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Experts especially journalists, inevitably find difficult to be objective because of their culture background.

 

  1. Journalists tried their best not to be biased.

 

  1. However, including every aspects of an issue are as easy as calling for every candidate to participate in presidential debate.

 

  1. Some aspects are not included in the reporting.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. There is a growing consensus that, if serious action is to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, a price must be applied to those emissions.

 

  1. There are, however, challenges associated with the political acceptability of carbon pricing.

 

  1. If Canada implements a carbon price on its own, there are worries that Canadian factories will relocate to other countries to avoid the regulation.

 

  1. Even if other countries act in concert with Canada to price carbon, the effects will be uneven across sectors, and lobbying efforts by relatively more-affected sectors might threaten the political viability of the policy.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. I think we should be wary of the reporting of science — it is often over-dramatized in order to secure an audience — but not of science itself.

 

 

 

  1. Of course, there are rare extremely scientific dishonesties, which will be seized upon by the news organizations.

 

  1. The role of science in modern society remains valuable.

 

  1. Mobile phones, for example. Can cause incidents if drivers insist on talking on the phone instead of looking at roads.

 

  1. But no one would argue that mobile phones cannot help to make a phone call when we are in a crisis.

 

24.

 

  1. Humans are able to make sense of sounds at a much higher pitch than previously thought.

 

  1. A note has a fundamental tone- the pitch we hear- and a series of overtones that occur at higher frequencies. Overtones are what give a sound its timbre, and enable us to distinguish an oboe from a trumpet from its sound alone.

 

  1. Previous studies have shown that humans are unable to recognize melodies whose notes have a fundamental tone above 5 kilohertz.

 

  1. It was thought that, at frequencies this high, the rapidly cycling sound wave was too fast for the auditory nerve to cope with. To test this theory, Andrew Oxenham and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis asked a group of six students whether two four-note melodies were identical or not. As in previous studies, the volunteers could not recognize melodies with fundamental tones above 5 kHz.

 

  1. The team then took a fundamental tone pitched below 5 kHz and digitally filtered it to leave just the overtones above 6 kHz. Surprisingly, the volunteers were able to distinguish these melodies.

 

 

25.

 

  1. The expanding influence of Copernicanism through the seventeenth century transformed not only the natural philosophic leanings of astronomers but also the store of conceptual material accessible to writers of fiction.

 

  1. During this period of scientific revolution, a new literary genre arose, namely that of the scientific cosmic

 

  1. In so doing, they discover that these once remote worlds are themselves earth-like in character.

 

  1. Descriptions of these planetary bodies as terrestrial in kind demonstrate the seventeenth-century intellectual shift from the Aristotelian to the Copernican framework.

 

26.

 

  1. The European Union has two big fish problems.

 

  1. One is that, partly as a result of its failure to manage them properly, its own fisheries can no longer meet European demand.

 

 

 

  1. The other is that its governments won’t confront their fishing lobbies and decommission all the surplus boats.

 

  1. The EU has tried to solve both problems by sending its fishermen to West Africa. Since 1979 it has struck agreements with the government of Senegal, granting our fleets access to its waters.

 

  1. As a result, Senegal’s marine ecosystem has started to go the same way as ours.

 

 

 

[The below is the first question appears in exam with the same order, means no change!]

 

 

27.

 

  1. A major review of antidepressants has found they are largely ineffective and may even be harmful for children and teens’ depression in the Amazon.

 

  1. The true effectiveness and risk of serious harms is found in the borders of Amazon such as suicidal, thoughts remain unclear because of the small number of trials and the selective reporting of findings in published trials and clinical study reports.

 

  1. The study authors recommend that “children and adolescents taking antidepressants should be carefully monitored closely and permanently, however, prohibits the study of children’s antidepressants.

 

  1. This was widely opposed by multi-billion companies that have already invested antidepressants.

 

  1. It is therefore recommended a child could self-reproach starting with a low dose and build up gradually to prevent the side effects.

 

28.

 

  1. Road safety analyses of driver behavior have traditionally concentrated on the role of the male driver.

 

  1. While this is in keeping with the fact that the majority of drivers involved in fatal crashes are male, the relative proportion of fatal crashes involving female drivers has been steadily increasing over many decades.

 

  1. In view of this situation, this report examines differences between male and female drivers in terms of travel characteristics, fatal crash risk, fatal crash characteristics and factors affecting injury outcome.

 

  1. Thus, while virtually all drivers killed 45 years ago were male, the percentage of female driver fatalities had risen to 13% in 1970 and in recent years’ females have accounted for between 22% and 27% of all driver deaths.

 

29.

 

 

 

  1. International Economics: Theory and Policy is a proven approach in which each half of the book leads with an intuitive introduction to theory and follows with self-contained chapters to cover key policy applications.

 

  1. The Eighth Edition integrates the latest research, data, and policy in hot topics such as outsourcing, economic geography, trade and environment, financial derivatives, the subprime crisis, and China’s exchange rate policies.

 

  1. New for the Eighth Edition, all end-of-chapter problems are integrated into My Econ Lab, the online assessment and tutorial system that accompanies the text.

 

  1. Students get instant, targeted feedback, and instructors can encourage practice without needing to grade work by hand. For more information, visit My Econ Lab.

 

 

 

30.

 

  1. During the school year, we had the benefit of being both un-accountable and omnipotent.

 

  1. We could engage in impassioned debates about how as chief executive of a certain company we would have done this, or if we had been the banker on that deal we would have structured it like that.

 

  1. Insulated from the consequences of such decisions, and privy to all critical information about the case, we were able to solve complex business problems with relative ease.

 

  1. We knew that once we began our internships, this would no longer be the case.

 

  1. The information would be more nebulous and the outcomes of our decisions would be unpredictable. Any seriously bad choices could cost a lot of money.

 

  1. So in approaching this impending summer period, what lingered in the back of our minds was a collectively felt, unspeak-able thought: “Were we really up to the challenge?”

 

31.

 

  1. Hip Hop culture emerged as a reaction to the gang culture and violence of the South Bronx in the 1970s, and daily experiences of poverty, racism, exclusion, crime, violence, and neglect.

 

  1. It necessarily embodies and values resilience, understanding, community and social justice.

 

  1. Without these, Hip Hop culture would never have been, and it is because these values remain at its core that Hip Hop is such a powerful agent of positive social change around the world.

 

  1. Yet, the Hip Hop project is not yet free from these difficult circumstances.

 

32.

 

  1. Your first draft is complete, but your paper is far from finished.

 

 

 

  1. The next step is to revise your paper — strengthen the content.

 

  1. Start this at least a week before your paper is due.

 

  1. In fact, you don’t need to wait until you have a complete first draft to start revising.

 

  1. You can revise individual paragraphs as you finish them as well.

 

33.

 

  1. We’ll likely have two billion more mouths to feed by mid-century—more than nine billion people.

 

  1. But sheer population growth isn’t the only reason we’ll need more food.

 

  1. The spread of prosperity across the world, especially in China and India, is driving an increased demand for meat, eggs, and dairy, boosting pressure to grow more corn and soybeans to feed more cattle, pigs, and chickens.

 

  1. If these trends continue, the double whammy of population growth and richer diets will require.

 

 

  1. [EXAM MEMORIES]

 

  1. Many years ago, humans had been eating raw meat only. (to be confirmed)

 

  1. Then they learned how to light a fire.

 

  1. Since then humans started eating cooked meat.

 

  1. And they also learned to cook many other foods.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Heart attack is the caused by the sudden blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot.

 

  1. When the clot is formed, it will stay in the blood vessels.

 

  1. The clot in blood vessels will block blood flow.

 

  1. Without the normal blood flow, it will cause muscle contraction.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. There are more than 100 schools in the country.

 

  1. Do not ever choose a school without going to the place and having a look. You should go and see once you have a chance.

 

  1. You can see the facilities and accomodations around the school.

 

  1. Because you might be living there.

 

  1. And they can be helpful to your study as well.

 

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

 

  1. Vegetarians eat only vegetables. They do not eat meat.

 

  1. The school cafeteria provides food according to these vegetarian requirements.

 

  1. Many non-vegetairans also like vegetarian food.

 

  1. This improvement is highly relevant to the increasing population of vegetarians.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Roads of rails called Wagonways were being used in Germany as early as 1550.

 

 

  1. These primitive railed roads consisted of wooden rails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than over dirt roads. Wagonways were the beginnings of modern railroads.

 

  1. By 1776, iron had replaced the wood in the rails and wheels on the carts.

 

  1. In 1789, Englishman, William Jessup designed the first wagons with flanged wheels.

 

  1. The flange was a groove that allowed the wheels to better grip the rail, this was an important design that carried over to later locomotives.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. The environmental revolution has been almost three decades in the making, and it has changed forever how companies do business.

 

  1. In the 1960s and 1970s, corporations were in a state of denial regarding their impact on the environment.

 

  1. Then a series of highly visible ecological problems created a groundswell of support for strict government regulation

 

  1. In the United States, Lake Erie was dead. In Europe, the Rhine was on fire. In Japan, people were dying of mercury poisoning.

 

  1. Today many companies have accepted their responsibility to do no harm to the environment.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. With regard to defence, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do battles with its enemy.

 

  1. How do you do battle with your enemy?

 

  1. The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic foundation, that the productive capacity is different in each case.

 

  1. So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to do is bum his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.

 

 

 

  1. But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories which are located in the cities.

 

  1. Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the information infrastructure.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. According to experts, feeding birds is probably the most common way in which people interact with wild animals today. More than 50 million Americans engage in the practice, collectively undertaking an unwitting experiment on a vast scale.

 

  1. 2. Is what we’re doing good or bad for birds?

 

 

  1. Recently, researchers at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology sought to answer this question, analysing nearly three decades’ worth of data from a winter-long survey called Project FeederWatch.

 

  1. Preliminary results suggest the species visiting our feeders the most are faring exceptionally well in an age when one-third of the continent’s birds need urgent conservation.

 

  1. Still, what are the consequences of skewing the odds in favor of the small subset of species inclined to eat at feeders? What about when the bird we’re aiding is invasive, like our house finch?

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Majority of Walmart customer have less money ‘at the end of the month.’

 

  1. This was cause from lending of U.S.

 

  1. This trend if confirmed will cause more trouble.

 

  1. This damage is manageable.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Fruit and vegetable intake is important for the prevention of future chronic disease. So it’s important to know whether intakes of teens are approaching national objectives for fruit and vegetable consumption.

 

  1. Larson and colleagues from the University of Minnesota undertook the study to examine whether or not teens in the state were increasing their intake of fruits and vegetables.

 

  1. The study gathered information about fruit and vegetable intake among 944 boys and

 

  • 161 girls in 1999 and again in 2004.

 

  1. Teens in middle adolescence are eating fewer fruits and vegetables than in 1999. Larson and colleagues found.

 

  1. This is giving us the message that we need new and enhanced efforts to increase fruit and vegetable intake that we haven’t been doing in the past.

 

 

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

 

  1. The ‘Festival in The Desert’ is a celebration of the musical heritage of the Touareg, a fiercely independent nomadic people.

 

  1. It is held annually near Essakane, an oasis some 40 miles north-west of Timbuktu, the ancient city on the Niger River.

 

  1. Reaching it tests endurance, with miles of impermanent sand tracks to negotiate.

 

  1. The reward of navigating this rough terrain comes in the form of a three-day feast of music and dance.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

 

  1. Australia used to have a generous immigration policy for refugees fleeing violence and conflict.

 

  1. We took even more than our share of refugees on a population-weighted basic.

 

  1. With the election of a new administration, all refugees were subject to detention while waiting for a decision on their application.

 

  1. At the same time, a raft of changes was introduced to alter Australia’s migration law and policy.

 

  1. The rate of refugee arrivals has indeed slowed; but, as some argue, at the expense of our human rights reputation.

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. Because of great demand, more and more employees are putting themselves into limit.

 

  1. They go to work very early, from 7:00 to 8:00.

 

  1. And they went home very late, some even overwork.

 

  1. Many managers find the employee’s performance column is decreasing.

 

  1. They (manager) should avoid this phenomena, because this is not good for the company.

 

  1. [EXAM MEMORIES]

 

  1. Psychologists measure results in terms of validity and reliability.

 

  1. Validity is defined as …

 

  1. For example, when a survey is asking about someone’s personality, it shouldn’t ask him chemistry questions.

 

  1. Meanwhile, a survey also values reliability.

 

  1. [EXAM MEMORIES]

 

 

 

  1. Amino acid, which is also known as Leucine, is a fundamental element in the muscle’s formation…

 

  1. Animals’ protein has a x% of the Leucine, which is higher than those in plants’ protein.

 

  1. Plants’ protein….

 

  1. However, there are also some exceptions exist.

 

  1. [EXAM MEMORIES]

 

  1. To see whether diversity matters on the land and in the sea, …… join the forces.

 

  1. These researchers will test the full resources of …

 

  1. The data range from … and a database, to kitchen’s recorders and archaeologists.

 

  1. The results of this research will be published in science.

 

 

  1. [EXAM MEMORIES]

 

  1. Many people face serious financial crisis when they are only 20-30 years old.

 

  1. This is because they do not really pay attention to their daily spending, and has poured their spending on buying.

 

  1. This will lead to them paying piling credit card loan and monthly payments.

 

  1. Although they can have student loan, people should…(giving suggestion)

 

  1. (Correct Order)

 

  1. For more than 30 years, the prevailing view of the formation of our moon has been the “giant impact hypothesis”.

 

  1. The precursors to the current four rock planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars – appear to have been dozens of smaller bodies known as “planetary embryos”.

 

  1. According to the giant impact hypothesis, our moon formed as the result of the last of a series of “giant impact” mergers between planetary embryos that eventually formed the Earth.

 

  1. In this last collision, one embryo was nearly Earth-sized and the other approximately Mars-sized.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




READING FILL IN THE BLANKS:

 

 

  1. If consciousness comes in degrees, then how far along on the spectrum is the

 

octopus? Octopuses almost certainly feel pain. They nurse and protect injured body parts, and slow a preference not to be touched near wounds. In addition to feeling pain, octopuses also have sophisticated sensory capacities: excellent eyesight, and acute sensitivity to taste and smell. This, together with their large nervous systems and complex behavior makes it all but certain. The question of what subjective experience might be like for an octopus is complicated by the odd relationship between its brain and body.

 

  1. McLuhan’s preeminent theory was his idea that human history could be divided into four eras: the acoustic age, the literary age, the print age and the electronic age. He outlined the concept in a 1962 book called The Gutenberg Galaxy, which was released just as the television was starting to become popular. He predicted the world was entering the fourth, electronic age, which would be characterized by a community of people brought together by technology. He called it the ‘global village’, and said it would be an age when everyone had access to the same information through technology. The ‘global village’ could be understood to be the internet.

 

  1. You may well ask why science did not warn us of global warming sooner; I think that there are several reasons. We were from the 1970s until the end of the century distracted by the important global problem of stratospheric ozone depletion, which we knew was manageable. We threw all our efforts into it and succeeded but had little‐ time to spend on climate change. Climate science wa also neglected because twentieth

Century science failed to recognize the true nature of Earth as a responsive self regulating entity. Biologists were so carried away by Darwin’s great vision that they failed to see that living things were tightly coupled to their material environment and that evolution concerns the whole Earth system with living organisms an integral part of it. Earth is not the Goldilocks planet of the solar system sitting at the right place for life. It was in this favourable state some two billion years ago but now our planet has to work hard, against ever increasing heat from the Sun, to keep itself habitable. We have chosen the worst of times to add to its difficulties.

 

  1. despite transport problems being a topic of frequent dinner table conversation, comprehensive assessment of policy directions for transport has been the subject of remarkably little academic analysis. This chapter introduces the scope of the book, which is intended to help redress this The primary focus is on

 

 

urban transport policy, with the emphasis being on policy analysis rather than analysis of the policy process. Importantly, the chapter sets out some key propositions that have been important in shaping the authors’ approach to the particular matters that are considered in subsequent chapters.

 

  1. On average, Iceland experiences a major volcanic event once every 5 years. Since the Middle Ages, a third of all the lava that has covered the earth’s surface has erupted in Iceland. However, according to a recent geological hypothesis, this estimate does not include submarine eruptions, which are much more extensive than those on the land surface.

 

  1. A mini helicopter modeled on flying tree seeds could soon be flying overhead. Evan Ulrich and colleagues at the University of Maryland in College Park turned to the

 

 

 

biological world for inspiration to build a scaled-down helicopter that could mimic the properties of full-size aircraft. The complex design of full-size helicopters gets less efficient when shrunk, meaning that standard mini helicopters expend most of their power simply fighting to stay stable in the air. The researchers realized that a simpler aircraft designed to stay stable passively would use much less power and reduce manufacturing costs to boot. It turns out that nature had beaten them to it. The seeds of trees such as the maple have a single-blade structure that allows them to fly far away and drift safely to the ground. These seeds, known as samaras, need no engine to spin through the air, thanks to a process called autorotation. By analyzing the behavior of the samara with high-speed cameras, Ulrich and his team were able to copy its design. The samara copter is not the first single-winged helicopter — one was flown in 1952, and others have been attempted since — but it is the first to take advantage of the samara’s autorotation. This allows Ulrich’s vehicle to perform some neat tricks, such as falling safely to the ground if its motor fails or using vertical columns of air to stay aloft indefinitely. “We can turn off the motor and auto rotate, which requires no power to sustain,” says Ulrich.

 

 

  1. Three degrees does not sound like much but it (undermines/ predicts/ represents / proves/ explores) a rise in temperature compatible with the global heating that occurred between the last ice age, some 15,000 years ago, and the warmth of the eighteenth century. When Earth was cold, giant glaciers sometimes extended from the polar-regions as far south as St Louis in the US and the Alps in Europe. Later this century when it is three degree hotter glaciers everywhere will be melting in a climate of often (particular/ unbearable/ historic/ temperate/ comfortable) heat and drought, punctuated with storms and floods. The (achievements/ consequences/ phenomena/ dreams/ considerations) for humanity could be truly horrific; if we fail to act swiftly, the full impact of global heating could cull us along with vast populations of the plant and animals with whom we share Earth. In a worst case scenario, there might – in the 22nd century – be only a remnant of humanity eking out a (old-fashioned/ economical/ successful/ diminished/ peculiar) existence in the polar-regions and the few remaining oases left on a hot and arid Earth.

 

  1. The fall of smallpox began with the realization that (survivors/ people/ victims/ patients) of the disease were immune for the rest of their lives. This led to the practice of variolation – a process of exposing a healthy person to infected material from a person with smallpox in the hopes of producing a mild disease that (contributed/ provided/ gave/ transferred) immunity from further infection. The first written account of variolation describes a Buddhist nun practicing around 1022 to 1063 AD. By the 1700’s, this method of variolation was (same/ common/ usual/ frequent) practice in China, India, and Turkey. In the late 1700’s European physicians used this and other methods of variolation, but reported “devastating” results in some cases. Overall, 2% to 3% of people who were variolated died of smallpox, but this practice decreased the total number of smallpox (fatalities/ patients/ diseases/ victims) by 10-fold.

 

  1. It is the assertion of this article that students who use visual art as a pre-writing stimulus are composing their ideas both in images and in words. The result of the art creation process allows students the distance to (understand/ elaborate/ extravagant/ build up), add details, and create more coherent text. The process of writing is more than putting words on a piece of paper. Effective authors are able to create imagery and to communicate ideas using well-chosen words, phrases, and text structures. Emergent writers struggle with the (structures/ mechanics/ procedures/ ways) of the writing

 

 

 

process, i.e., fine motor control for printing legibly, recall of spelling patterns, and the use of syntax and grammar rules. As a result, texts written by young writers tend to be simplistic and formulaic. The artwork facilitates the writing process, resulting in a text that is richer in sensory detail and more intricate than the more traditional writing-first crayon drawing-second (way/ approach/ technique/ method)

 

  1. Gas drilling on the Indonesian island of Java has (triggered/explored/led/resulted) a “mud volcano” that has killed 13 people and may render four square miles (ten square kilometers) of countryside uninhabitable for years. In a report released on January 23, a team of British researchers says the deadly upwelling began when an exploratory gas well punched through a layer of rock 9,300 feet (2,800 meters) below the surface, allowing hot, high-pressure water to escape. The water carried mud (to/on/into/from) the surface, where it has spread (to/toward/across /in) a region 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) in diameter in the eight months since the eruption began. The mud volcano is similar to a gusher or blowout, which occur in oil drilling when oil or gas squirt to the surface, the team says. This upwelling, however, spews out a volume of mud equivalent to a dozen Olympic swimming pools each day. Although the eruption isn’t as (weak/violent /strong/mild) as a conventional volcano, more than a dozen people died when a natural gas pipeline ruptured. The research team, who published their findings in the February issue of GSA Today, also estimate that the volcano, called Lusi, will leave more than 11,000 people permanently displaced.

 

  1. It’s probably one of the most overused phrases in job-hunting, but also one of the most underutilized by jobseekers: dress for success, in job-hunting, first (feeling/ impression/ impact) are critical. Remember, you are marketing a product — yourself — to a potential employer, and the first thing the employer sees when greeting you is your attire; thus, you must make every effort to have the proper dress for the type of job you are seeking. Will dressing properly get you the job? Of course not, but it will give you a competitive edge

 

 

and a (absolute/ negative/positive) first impression. Should you be judged by what you wear? Perhaps not, but the reality is, of course, that you are judged. Throughout the entire job- seeking process employers use short-cuts – heuristics or rules of thumb – to save time. With cover letters, it’s the opening paragraph and a quick scan of your qualifications. With resumes, it is a quick scan of your accomplishments. With the job interview, it’s how you’re dressed that sets the (intonation/ accent/ tone/ rhythm) of the interview. How should you dress? Dressing conservatively is always the safest route, but you should also try and do a little investigating of your (prospective/ coming/ approaching/ expected) employer so that what you wear to the interview makes you look as though you fit in with the organization. If you overdress (which is rare but can happen) or underdress (the more likely scenario), the potential employer may feel that you don’t care enough about the job.

 

  1. The presentation will cover copyright’s position as one of the intellectual property rights and now it (differs/ similar/ similarity/ different/ encompasses) from other intellectual rights it will give (a conclusion/ a summation/ the answer/ an overview/ an objective) of what copyright protects as well as what may be done with copyright protected works without permission under permitted acts (sometimes or so-called exception). It is by manipulating the restricted acts through licensing arrangements that rights owners (determine/establish/ confirm/ prove/ verify) and exploit commercial markets in contrast to commercial markets, the growth of open source and open content

 

 

 

licensing models has(challenged/ opposed/ supported/ objected) established business models. The presentation gives a brief commentary on two of the more (insignificant/prominent / trivial/ main/ major) open licensing frameworks the GNU Creative Common licenses.

 

  1. Over the last ten thousand years there seem to have been two separate and conflicting building sentiments throughout the history of towns and cities. (one/It/What/This) is the desire to start again, for a variety of reasons: an earthquake or a tidal wave may have demolished the settlement, or fire destroyed it, or the new city (does/marks/is/causes) a new political beginning. The other can be likened to the effect of a magnet: established settlements attract people, who (tend to/are used to/ought to/had to) come whether or not there is any planning for their arrival. The clash between these two sentiments is evident in every established city (unless/whenever/whereas/until) its development has been almost completely accidental or is lost in history. Incidentally, many settlements have been planned from the beginning but, for a variety of reasons, no settlement followed the plan. A good example is Currowan, on the Clyde River in New South Wales, which (was surveyed= to measure and record the features of an area of land /has been surveyed/ could be surveyed/had surveyed) in the second half of the 19th century, in expectation that people would come to establish agriculture and a small port. But no one came. Most country towns in New South Wales started with an original survey, whose grid lines are still there today in the pattern of the original streets.

 

  1. (Beside/Outside/without /Under) water people, animals & plants cannot live. Although a few plants and animals can make do with saltwater, all humans need a constant supply of fresh water to stay (fit/good/well/happy) & healthy. Of the total supply of water on the Earth, only about 3% of it is fresh, & most of that is stored as ice & snow at the poles, or is so (deep/much/long/dirty) under the surface of the Earth that we cannot get to it. Despite so much of the water being out of reach, we still have a million cubic miles of it that we (can/might/may/will) use. That’s about 4,300,000 cubic kilometers of fresh water to share out between most of the plants, animals & people on the planet!

 

 

15.Washington, Jan. 14 — By 2025, government experts say, Americas skies will swarm with three (times/meters/ turns) as many planes, and not just the kind of traffic flying today. There will be (thousands/many/ enormous) of tiny jets, seating six or fewer, at airliner altitudes, competing for space with remotely operated drones that need help avoiding midair (bumps/ collisions/ hits), and with commercially operated rockets carrying (satellites/ planets/ space-crafts/ rockets) and tourists into space. To keep passengers moving safely and on schedule, the Federal Aviation Administration needs to replace a half-century of outmoded technology with a new air traffic control system. But almost everything about the proposed new system is unsettled, not only its digital nuts and bolts, but also the leadership, the financing and the staffing of a modern aviation network.

 

  1. After an absence of more than 50 years, the gray wolf (Canis lupus) once again runs beneath the night skies of Yellowstone National Park. At 3:45 pm on March 21st 1995, the first of three groups of gray wolves (also known as the timber wolf) were released from (fenced/restricted/contained/confounded) acclimation pens at Crystal Creek within Yellowstone National Park. The wolf release plan, (involved/calculated/ evaluated/concealed) in an environmental impact statement (EIS) in 1992-1994, is to

 

 

 

restore wolves to Yellowstone and central Idaho by establishing experimental populations of gray wolves in both areas. The goal for Yellowstone is to establish 10 packs wolves reproducing in the area for three (following/chronological/consecutive /alternate) years by the year 2002. Restoring wolves to Yellowstone is in keeping with national park goals to perpetuate all native species and their natural interactions with their environment. As with other park wildlife programs, management emphasizes (exaggerating/introducing/ appreciating/minimizing) human impact on natural animal population dynamics. Yellowstone National Park is a wilderness and wildlife refuge in the United States.

 

  1. To invest, you need to draw up a clear plan, do your own research, build in a margin of safety by always thinking about the valuation and, ultimately, be patient. By all means include some speculative picks if you wish, but ensure they are only a small part of your portfolio. Looking for an oil explorer whose shares double, treble and double again is exciting but such firms are very There are a lot more which have a consistent record of paying out the dividends which really make the markets work for you, once they are reinvested.

 

  1. As the economic depression deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in town, banks began to fail at alarming During the 20s, there was an average of 70 banks failing each year nationally. After the crash during the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed – 10 times as many. In all, 9,000 banks failed during the decade of the 30s. It’s estimated that 4,000 banks failed during the one year of 1933 alone. By 1933, depositors saw $140 billion disappear through bank failures.

 

  1. The Classic era of Mayan civilisation came to an end around 900 AD. Why this happened is unclear; the cities were probably over-farming the land, so that a period of drought led to famine. Recent geological research supports this, as there appears to have been a 200-year drought around this time.

 

 

The cities seem to have disappeared slowly, rather than all at once. There is no sign of conquest from outside, although there was a period of increased warfare among the city-states – possibly over farming land or prisoners to sacrifice to the gods. It is likely that this had a cumulative effect; warfare over resources was itself a further drain on resources, encouraging further warfare.

 

  1. Snails are not traditionally known for quick thinking, but new research shows they can make complex decisions using just two brain cells in findings that could help engineers design more efficient robots.

 

Scientists at the University of Sussex attached electrodes to the heads of freshwater snails as they searched for lettuce.

 

They found that just one cell was used by the mollusc to tell if it was hungry or not, while another let it know when food was present.

 

Food-searching is an example of goal-directed behaviour, during which an animal must integrate information about both its external environment and internal state while using as little energy as possible. Lead researcher Professor George Kemenes, said: “This will eventually help us design the “brains” of robots based on the principle of using the fewest possible components necessary to perform complex tasks.

 

 

 

  1. Language comes so naturally to us that it is easy to forget what a strange and miraculous gift it is. All over the world members of our species fashion their breath into hisses and hums and squeaks and pops and listen to others do the same. We do this, of course, not only because we like the sounds but because details of the sounds contain information about the intentions of the person making them. We humans are fitted with a means of sharing our ideas, in all their unfathomable vastness. When we listen to speech, we can be led to think thoughts that have never been thought before and that never would have occurred to us on our own. Behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. Man is born free, and everywhere he is in

 

  1. New book on kiwi launched A Massey ecologist has teamed up with a leading wildlife photographer to produce the definitive book on New Zealand’s national bird, the kiwi. Kiwi: A Natural History was written by Dr Isabel Castro and _______ photographs by Rod Morris. Dr Castro has been working with kiwi _______ 1999, with a focus on their behaviour. “I’ve specifically been looking at the sense of smell that kiwi uses when foraging, _______ in their interactions with their environment and other kiwi,” she says. The book covers all aspects of kiwi, from their evolution, prehistory and closest relatives to their feeding and breeding behaviour and current conservation issues, making this the perfect ______ for anyone with an interest in these fascinating birds. The book is the second title in a new ____on New Zealand’s wildlife, targeted at a family readership.

 

 

Option: Conclusion, features, introduction, but also, provided in, series, but, industry, since

 

Answer: features, since, but also, introduction, series

 

  1. Fingerprints can _____ that a suspect was actually at the scene of a crime. As long as a human entered a crime scene, there will be traces of DNA. DNA can help the police to _____ an individual to crack a case. An institute in London can help ______ DNA and be used to match with the ____ taken from the crime scenes.

 

Option: reserve, evidence, determine, samples, identify, demonstrate, retain, recognize, prove, pieces

 

Answer: prove, identify, reserve, samples

 

  1. Linguistic ideologies an important corollary of this focus on language as the window to legal epistemology is the central role of two law and other sociocultural processes. In particular, the _______ that people hold about how language works ( ____ ideologies) combine with linguistic structuring to create powerful, often unconscious effects. In recent years, linguistic anthropologists have made much progress in developing more precise analytic _____ for tracking those effects.

 

Option: ideas, disclosure, implements, facts, discourse, tools, linguistic, gigantic

 

Answer: discourse, ideas, linguistic, tools 25. State schools

A big rise in state schools rated among the best institutions in the country is revealed in the latest edition of the Good Schools Guide. Middle-class parents facing financial pressures in the__________ are increasingly looking beyond the private__________ to educate their children.

 

 

 

The 23-year-old Good Schools Guide – a__________ reference book for fee-paying

 

families set on the best private school – has increased the number of state schools in this year’s edition to 251, pushing the figure to more than a quarter of its 1,000 entries for the first time.

 

___________why the guide has more than doubled the number of schools it features

 

outside the private sector in only five years, Sue Field man, regional editor, told the Financial Times: “The parents we speak to want more information on the state sector and the best it has to offer.

 

Answer: downturn; sector; popular; Explaining 26. Lake Turkana

 

Lake Turkana is a large lake in Kenya, East Africa. This___________ of Africa was home

 

to some of the first humans. Here, archaeologists have found piles of _______ (both

 

human and animal) and collections of stones that humans used as_________. By

 

carefully uncovering and_________ these remains, scientists have started to put

 

together the story of our earliest ancestors. In 2001, a 4-million-year-old skeleton was uncovered in the area. Although a link between it and modern-day humans has not been established, the skeleton shows the species was walking upright.

 

Answer: part: bones; tools; examining

 

 

 

  1. Under-nutrition

 

Under-nutrition and related diseases kill between 15 and 18 million people a year, the

 

________are children. At least 500 million are chronically hungry. The tragic paradox of

 

massive suffering________ global plenty traces in part to widespread poverty, which

 

denies access to food__________ where it piles high in village market.

 

Answer: majority; amid; even

 

  1. One distinguishing feature of business is its economic character. In the world of business, we interact with each other not as family members, friends, or neighbours, but as________ and sellers, employers and employees, and the like. Trading, for example, is often_________ by hard_________, in which both sides conceal their full hand and perhaps_________ in some bluffing. And a_________salesperson is well-versed in the art of arousing a customer’s attention (sometimes by a bit of puffery) to_________ the sale. Still, there is an “ethics of trading” that prohibits the use of false or deceptive claims and tricks such as “bait-and-switch” advertising.

 

Answer: buyers; accompanied; bargaining; engage; skilled; clinch 29. Antarctic

At the height of summer, the Antarctic, tourist ships move gently around the coast. Even 30 years ago such sights would have been unthinkable, but today people are willing to pay large sums of money to see the last real wilderness in the world. In the Arctic, careless human exploitation in the__________ has damaged the fragile ecosystem.

 

Today concerned governments are trying to find ways to develop the region________

 

caring for the very special natural environment___________ the Antarctic is less

 

 

 

accessible AC than the Arctic, it; is still largely undamaged by humans, although holes in the ozone AC layer above the Antarctic have already been discovered. Many people believe that one way to preserve the area is to make the whole region into a world park, with every form of exploitation internationally__________.

 

Answer: past; while; because; banned

 

  1. Good sense

 

Good sense appears to have__________ at last. With a fresh set of draft rules to replace

 

last year’s poorly conceived ones, the Centre has sought to withdraw the ban on sale of cattle for slaughter in animal markets. The draft rules are now open for comments and suggestions. When the Union Ministry for Environment, Forests and Climate Change notified the rules under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act on May 23, 2017, there was__________ that in the name of preventing cruelty to animals and regulating

 

livestock markets the government was surreptitiously throttling the cattle trade and furthering the BJP’s cow protection agenda. The rules were criticized for restricting legitimate animal trade and interfering with__________ habits.

 

Answer: prevailed; concern; dietary

 

  1. 31. Challenging or rewarding employment

 

Finding challenging or__________ employment may mean retraining and moving from a

 

stale or boring job in order to find your____________ and pursue it. The idea is to think

 

long range and anticipate an active lifestyle into later years—perhaps into one’s 80s or 90s. Being personally productive may now mean anticipating retiring in stages. This might indicate going to an alternate_________ should a current career end by choice or economic chance.

 

Answer: rewarding; passion; plan

 

  1. The Australian Maritime College:

 

The Australian Maritime College at the university of Tasmania, in____________with

 

CSIRO and University of Queensland, have been awarded $2.48 million funding______from Australian Renewable Energy Agency.

 

Answer: partnership; support

 

  1. The Roman people

 

The Roman people had at first been inclined to regard the French Revolution with either indifference or___________. But as the months went by and the émigrés who remained

 

in the city were less and less_________of an early return home, the mood of the

 

Romans became increasingly_______ towards the `assassins of Paris’.

 

Answer: derision; hopeful; antagonistic

 

  1. Build your network

 

Researchers suggest the following tips as you begin to network, seek common ground,

 

________ with your network regularity (rather than only when you have crisis), and

 

consistently___________ yourself to making your network work or it will wither. It is a

 

skill that you need to_________, not a talent.

 

 

 

Answer: engage; apply; practice.

 

 

  1. Trees:

 

Trees, as ever, are or should be at the heart of all ______or climate change. The

 

changes in carbon dioxide, in temperature, and in patterns of rainfall will each affect them in ways- and each parameter _________ with all the others, so between them

 

these three main ______ present a bewildering range of possibilities.

 

Answer: discussion; interacts; variables

 

  1. The International Journal of Design

 

The International Journal of Design is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted to publishing research papers in all fields of design, including industrial design, visual communication design, interface design, animation and game design, architectural design, urban design, and other design related fields. It aims to provide an international forum for the____________ of ideas and findings from researchers across different

 

cultures and encourages research on the impact of cultural factors_________ design

 

theory and practice. It also seeks to promote the __________ of knowledge between

 

professionals in academia and industry by emphasizing research in _________ results

 

are of interest or applicable to design practices.

 

Answer: exchange; on; transfer; which

 

  1. Deforestation

 

Deforestation can disrupt the lives of local communities, sometimes with

 

devastating___________. Forests provide a vast array of______________to all of us,

 

including doors, wood, medicine, fresh water, and the air we breathe. Without the trees, species can disappear, the natural water balance can become disrupted and the ecosystem that supports the human population can__________.

 

Answer: consequences; resources; fallapart 38. Flowers and nectar

Most people assume, correctly, that flowers look the way they do to attract insects that pollinate them. But that’s not the whole story. Scientists have now discovered that plants have another “trick up their leaves” to make themselves ________to even the choosiest

 

insect solar power. Cambridge University’s Beverly Glover and her __________ recently

 

set up some fake flowers filled with a sugar solution, which they kept at different temperatures. Unleashing a team of bumblebees on their floral _________, they

 

watched as the insects visited the flowers to drink the surrogate nectar. Very quickly, it became obvious that the bees were concentrating on the flowers with the warmest nectar. Just in case it was something to do with the color of the fake flowers, the scientists also tried a different color combination and got the same __________.

 

Options: Inevitable, irresistible, relatives, offerings, thing, colleagues, result, group.

 

Answer: irresistible; colleagues; offerings; result.

 

  1. North Richmond Community Health Centre

 

 

 

When that happens, staff will help the person -___________out and now a little stressed

 

— fish their drugs out of the rubbish. On their way out, they might have a blood test, their first ____________ check-up in years, or just a hot cup of Milo. “We enable people to inject in the center because that’s what they do,” the medical director, Nico Clark, tells Guardian Australia during a recent visit to the North Richmond Community Health Centre. “The majority are dependent on their ____________. The purpose is not to be a place that ____________ injection per se, the _________of to keep people alive.”

 

Options: Dental, strung, point, conduct, substances, purpose, content, facilities, facilitates, intention

 

Answer: strung; dental; substances; facilitates; purpose

 

 

 

  1. Research

 

Research is a process of investigation leading to new insights effectively shared and is central to the purpose of any university. Students have the right to be taught by acknowledged ________in their field, which requires that staff members operate at the

most advanced level appropriate to their ________ and level. Research is, therefore,

 

crucial to a __________ student experience from further education to doctoral

 

development.

 

Options: Principles, experts, staff, discipline, indifferent, positive

 

Answers: experts; discipline; positive.

 

  1. The phenomenon of globalization

 

The differences in _________ are so great that one wonders, are the protestors and the

 

policy makers talking about the same _________? Are they looking at the same data?

 

Are the visions of those in power so clouded by special and particular ____________?

 

What is this phenomenon of globalization that has been subject, at the same time, to such vilification and such praise? Fundamentally, it is the closer integration of the countries and the peoples of the world which has been __________ about by the

 

enormous reduction in the costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of the artificial barriers to the flow of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and, (to a lesser extent), people across borders.

 

Options: Interests, phenomena, view, lead, phenomenon, taken, fields, brought

 

Answer: view; phenomena; interests; brought

  1. Mass-communications

Traditionally, mass-communications research has conceptualized the process of communication in terms of a circulation circuit or loop. This __________ has been

criticized for its linearity – sender/message/receiver -for its concentration on the level of message exchange and for the absence of a structured conception of the different moments as a complex structure of relations. But it is also possible and __________ to

 

think of this process in terms of a structure produced and sustained through the articulation of linked but distinctive moments – production, circulation, distribution/consumption, reproduction. This would be to think of the __________ as a

 

 

 

‘complex structure in dominance’, sustained through the articulation of connected practices, each of which, however, retains its distinctiveness and has its own modality, its own _______ forms and conditions of existence.

 

Options: Possess, specific, exact, model, structure, process, impractical, useful

 

Answer: model; useful; process; specific 43. The Natural Capital Project

 

Capital has often been thought of narrowly as physical capital- the machines, tools, and equipment used in the production of other goods, but our wealth and wellbeing also

_______on natural capital. If we forget this, we risk degrading the services that natural

 

ecosystems provide, which _________our economies and sustain our lives. These

 

services include purifying our water, ________ our climate, reducing flood risk, and

 

pollinating our crops.

 

The Natural Capital Project—a partnership among WWF, The Nature Conservancy, University of Minnesota and Stanford University—works to provide decision makers with

 

_______ways to assess the true value of the services that ecosystems provide.

 

Options: Support, eligible, managing, reliable, work, relies, regulating, stimulate

 

Answer: relies; support; regulating; reliable 44. Event management

Event management is particularly challenging from an operational viewpoint. In many cases, events are staged on sites where everything has been set up over a 24-hour period, with all elements carefully _________. In contrast, many events are years in the

 

planning: large convention bids are often won five years before the event is held. For the very ________bidding process, budgets need to be developed and prices quoted,

 

requiring a good understanding of market, economic and political trends, as well as consumer choices. This long-term view is the basis of strategic management, which is covered in Part 1, and focuses on the event concept, feasibility of the event, legal compliance and financial management. Marketing is a critical __________ factor and

 

other important topic of this first section, many events (sporting, cultural and arts) involving long-term sponsorship ________ with key industry players. Relationship

building is particularly since there are so many stakeholders involved in events, including government agencies at many levels. Part 1 will look at all these aspects, including strategic risk, before moving on to the second part where operational planning and/ C implementation will be covered in detail.

 

Options: Competitive, different, settled, candidates, challenging, synchronized, intense, arrangements, unique, success

 

Answer: synchronized; competitive; success; arrangements; challenging

  1. Helping other people

There are many different ways of helping other people. Perhaps the most common of these involves giving others _______ help. In our society there are many individuals who

 

spontaneously help others in this way. Additionally, there are people who belong to organizations which have been set up to provide help to specific groups such as the

 

 

 

elderly, individuals with a disability and those with physical or __________ health

 

problems. Most importantly, there are many _______ such as nursing, involve

 

professionals who are trained to provide or organize practical help for others.

 

___________ helping other people in a practical way, many volunteer and professional

 

helpers also make use of some counselling skills.

 

These skills can be very useful in enabling people to feel better as described in this book and our book, counselling skills in everyday life. However, it needs to be ________ that

 

just being able to make use of some counselling skills does not qualify a person as counsellor.

 

Options: Practical, infinite, By, mental, occupations, recognized, serious, real, jobs, While

 

 

Answer: practical; mental; occupations; while; recognized

  1. Giant exoplanets

Giant exoplanets, like the so-called ‘hot Jupiter’s’ that are similar in ________ to the

 

solar system’s biggest planer and orbit very close to their host stars, are excellent targets for __________ in their search doe extrasolar worlds. The size and proximity of

these planets is easy to ______ as they create a large decrease in brightness when

 

passing in front of their parent stars.

 

Options: Astronomers. Characteristics, find, detect, professionals.

 

Answer: characteristics; astronomers; detect

  1. Active video games

There has been increased research interest in the use of active video games (in which players physically interact with images onscreen) as a means to _______ physical

 

activity in children. The aim of this review was to assess active video games as a means of increasing energy expenditure and physical activity behavior in children. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The last search was conducted in December 2008. Eleven studies focused on the quantification of the energy cost associated with playing active video games, and eight studies focused on the utility of active video games as an ________ to increase physical

activity in children. Compared with traditional non-active video games, active video games _______ greater energy expenditure, which was similar in intensity to mild to

 

moderate intensity physical activity. The intervention studies indicate that active video games may have the potential to increase free-living physical activity and improve body

 

___________ in children; however, methodological limitations prevent ____________

 

conclusions. Future research should focus on larger, methodologically sound intervention trials to provide definitive answers as to whether this technology is effective in promoting long-term physical activity in children.

 

Options: Encourage, component, elicited, composition, promote, barrier, Final, definitive, intervention, activity

 

Answer promote; intervention; elicited; composition; definitive

 

  1. The process of delegation comprises the decision to delegate, the briefing, the follow-up. At each of these points, ________ the potential problems. When you

 

 

 

delegate, you are not delegating the right to perform an _________, you are delegating

 

the right to make decisions, it is important to be___________, as the person to whom

 

you delegate may have a better and faster way of completing a job than you. Despite all these, you retain the _________ responsibility. It helpful to others if you can provide

 

_________ feedback on their performance.

 

Options: Predict, constructive, conservative, overall, general, operation, flexible, predictable, anticipate, action.

 

Answer: anticipate; action; flexible; overall; constructive.

 

  1. Effective recruitment tool

 

The six programs represented here report that word of mouth is by far their most

 

_______ recruitment tool, particularly because it typically yields candidates who are

 

similar to previously successful candidates. Moreover, satisfied candidates and school systems are likely to spread the word without any special __________ on the part of

their program. Other, less personal advertising approaches, such as radio and television spots and local newspaper advertisements, have also proven fruitful, ________ for

 

newer programs. New York uses a print advertising campaign to inspire dissatisfied professionals to become teachers. Subway posters send provocative messages to burned-out or disillusioned professionals. “Tired of diminishing returns? Invest in NYC kids” was just one of many Madison Avenue- inspired invitations. News coverage has also proven to be a ____________ to alternative programs. When the New York Times, for

 

example, ran a story about the district’s alternative route program, 2,100 applications flooded in over the next six weeks.

 

Options: Effort, effective, preparation, especially, benefit, work, boon, unpragmatic

 

Answer effective; effort; especially; boon 50. The environment policy

Thus the environmental policy does not contribute to the profitability in any real sense at all. In practice it is companies that are well organized and efficient, or that are already comfortable profitable, that have _________ to establish and police environmental

policies. However, if profitable companies are the ones most likely to _________

 

“environmental best practice” this is confusing cause with effect. It is not that environmental best practice causes profitability, but that being profitable allows for___________ the environment.

 

Options: Time, chance, effort, establish, equip, concern, protect, set

 

Answer: time; establish; concern.

 

  1. Social reforms

 

Social reforms are normally _____________as a result of statistical analyses of factors

 

such as crime rates and poverty levels etc. Large-scale population can result from projections devised by statisticians. Manufacturers can provide better products at lower costs by_______- statistical control tools, ________ as control charts. Diseases are

 

controlled through analyses designed to anticipate epidemics. Endangered species of fish and other wildlife are protected through regulations and laws that react to statistical estimates of changeling population sizes. __________ statistical analyses of fatality

 

 

 

rates, legislators can better justify laws, such as those governing air pollution, auto inspections, sea belt and airbag use, and drunk driving.

 

Options: Developed, such, referred, initiated, referred, determining, Through, after, using, by

 

Answer: initiated; using; such; Through

 

  1. Driver Behaviours

 

In the UK, it is recommended that drivers should turn off their car engines when they expect to be stationary for more than 1 minute. To _________ drivers to turn off their

engines while waiting at rail crossings, the Kent city council placed a _________sign at

 

the crossing asking drivers to “please switch off your engine when barriers are down to help improve air quality.” On average, drivers had to wait between 2 and 3 minutes to cross after the barrier had gone down. _________, the sign didn’t seem to be convincing

 

the majority of drivers to switch off their engines. “Although some research suggests that signs alone can change ________, the message, on this sign was designed simply

 

to be an informational request and was not guided by any particular behavioral theory,” the researchers explain. So the research explains. So the research team, led by Rose Meleady of the University of East Anglia, designed an intervention study.

 

Options: Temporary, encourage, However, encourage, moreover, permanent, routine, behavior.

 

Answer: encourage; permanent; however; behavior 53. The Nature Conservancy:

A new report by environmental _________The Nature Conservancy lays out how trees

 

could pave the way to cleaner air and cooler cities. Using _______ information on forest

 

cover paired with air pollution data and population ____ for 245 cities, researchers found

 

that tress have the biggest health ________ in densely populated, polluted cities like

 

Delhi, Karachi and Dhaka. The Conservancy sand the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group presented the findings of their global survey this week at the American Public Health Association meeting in Denver, Colorado.

 

Options: Sources, predictions, non- profit, sources, geospatial, forecasts, plans, payoffs.

 

Answer: non-profit, geospatial; forecasts; payoffs.

 

  1. Pesticide management

 

As demand for food and competition for land rises, it is vital that crop losses are limited. Chemical protection has ________effective control of crop losses in the recent past;

 

alongside chemical fertilizers and improved crop genetics, it has helped to increased crop yields dramatically over the last 60 years __________, there is now crop genetics, it has

 

helped to increase crop yields dramatically over the last 60 years,____________, there

 

is now a need to develop complementary alternatives, and researchers from the Rural Economy and Land Use Programmer have been exploring the potential of – and barriers to – alternatives pest management approaches. “Alternatives to chemical pesticides are

 

_______because overuse of them leads to pesticide resistance and affects biodiversity

 

and water quality.” Says Dr Alastair Bailey, “Heightened EU regulations are also leading to the withdrawal of many pesticide products, ___________, Complementary

 

 

 

approaches are required to reduce use and preserve the efficacy of those valuable pesticides that are still available to sustain food production systems.”

 

Options: Hence, provided, so, however, preliminary, needed, shown, optional.

 

Answer: provided; however; needed; hence

  1. Houston

Houston is the fifth- largest metropolitan area in the united states and has an outsized

 

_______on the U.S economy. More than 90% of U>S offshore oil and gas

 

________takes place in the Texas Gulf coast area, and the Houston is home to 25% of

 

the country’s petroleum refining capability, 40% of the nation’s capacity for downstream chemical production, and the fastest- growing liquefied natural gas industry in the nation.

 

 

Options: Overwhelming’ consequence, impact, group, production, manufacturer, concertation, omission

 

Answer: impact; production; concentration

  1. Earth’s magnetic field

What do birds and bees, worms and wolves, fruit flies and fish all have in _________?

 

The answer: a magnetic sense that helps them navigate. Now it seems we might do as well. Joseph Kirschvink at the California Institute of Technology in the US and colleagues found that altering the __________ of nearby magnetic fields caused temporary changes in human brain activity.

 

While sitting still in a dark room, participants’ brain activity was___________ using

 

electroencephalography (EEG), _______________electromagnetic coils were used to

 

create magnetic fields. The experiment mimicked the magnetic field changes we are subject to when we move about in the real world, says Kirschvink.

 

The direction and intensity of Earth’s magnetic field varies by geographical location. For example, at the magnetic north pole, one of two poles where the magnetic field is the strongest, the direction of the field points vertically downwards, into the ground. In the wider northern hemisphere, this vertical angle ____________ but the magnetic field is always skewed downwards.

 

Options: Question, while, common, changes, as, screenshotted, shape, share, recorded, directions

 

Answer: common; directions; recorded; while; changes 57. Psychoanalytic and Behaviorist

Elements of both the psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories _________ in modem

 

approaches to personality Advances in neuroscience have begun to __________the gap

 

between biochemistry and behavior, but there is still a great deal that needs to be explained. Without a consistent understanding of personality, how can we begin to

 

________risk takers? If we cannot, we will be unable to ________ their genes with

 

those of others.

 

Options: Media, arrange, confront, sort, set, bridge, compare, categorize

 

 

 

Answer: arrange; bridge; categorize; compare

 

 

  1. National Well-being

 

Measuring National Well-being: Life in the UK 2012 provides a unique overview of well-being in the UK today. The report is the first snapshot of life in the UK to be delivered by the Measuring National Well-being programme and will be ___________and published

 

annually. Well-being is discussed in ___________of the economy, people and the

 

environment. Information such as the unemployment rate or ____________ of crimes

 

against the person are presented alongside _____________on people’s thoughts and

 

feelings, for example, satisfaction with our jobs or ______________time and fear of

 

crime. Together, a richer picture on ‘how society is doing is provided.

 

Options: Range, updated, data, set, ideas, leisure, terms, number, busy, hordes

 

 

Answer: updated; terms; number; data; leisure 59. White paper

Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper __________, of all

 

characters, without any ideas: — How comes it to be ____________? Whence comes it

 

by that vast store which the busy and __________fancy of man has painted on it with

 

an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of mason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from ___________.

 

Options: Experience, furnished, extreme, cover, void, ended, consist, boundless

 

Answer void; furnished; boundless; experience 60. Gauss

Gauss was a child prodigy. There are many___________ concerning his precocity as a

 

child, and he made his first ground-breaking mathematical ___________his while still a

 

teenager.

 

At just three years old, he ___________________an error in his father payroll

 

calculations, and he was looking after his father’s accounts on a regular basis by the age of 5. At the age of 7, he is reported to have amazed his teachers by summing the integers from 1 to 100 almost instantly (having quickly spotted that the sum was actually 50 pairs of numbers, with each pair summing to 101, total 5,050). By the age of 12, he was already attending gymnasium and criticizing Euclid’s geometry.

 

Options: Corrected, anecdotes, reputation, researchers, reviewed, discoveries

 

Answer anecdotes; discoveries; corrected

  1. Durkheim’s career

Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting ___________, his attention from

 

psychology and philosophy to ethics and eventually, sociology. He graduated with a degree in philosophy in 1882. Durkheim’s views could not get him a major academic appointment in Paris, so from 1882 to 1887 he taught philosophy at several provincial schools. In 1885 he left for Germany, where he studied sociology for two years. Durkheim’s period in Germany resulted in the publication of numerous articles on

 

 

 

German social science and philosophy, which _____________ ____________ in France,

 

earning him a teaching appointment at the University of Bordeaux in 1887. Options: Received, reputation, gained, recognition, famous, turning, changing, gain

 

Answer: turning; gained; recognition

 

  1. Octopus

 

If consciousness comes in degrees, then how far along on the spectrum is the octopus? Octopuses almost certainly feel pain. They nurse and protect _________body parts, and

 

slow a preference not to be touched near wounds. In addition to feeling pain, octopuses also have __________sensory capacities: excellent eyesight, and acute sensitivity to

 

taste and smell. This, together with their large nervous systems and _________

 

behavior makes it all but certain. The question of what subjective experience might be like for an octopus is ____________by the odd relationship between its brain and body.

 

Options: Complex, exquisite, hurting, complicated, injured, decent, sophisticated, made

 

Answer injured; sophisticated; complex; complicated

  1. Pullman Historic District

Built in 1880 on 4,000 acres ___________of outside of the Chicago city limits, Pullman,

 

Illinois, was the first industrial planned ______________in the United States. George

 

Pullman, of the Pullman (railroad) Car Company, built the south residential portion of the company town first, which contained 531 _______________, some of which stand today more or less as they did originally.

 

Options: Community, houses, land, soil, factories, workers

 

Answer: land; community; houses

 

  1. McLuhan’s preeminent theory

 

McLuhan’s preeminent theory was his idea that human history could be

 

__________acoustic age, the literary age, the print age and the electronic age. He

 

__________the concept in a 1962 book called The Gutenberg Galaxy, which was

 

_____________just as the television was starting to become popular.

 

He _________the world was entering the fourth, electronic age, which would be

 

characterized by a community of people brought together by technology.

 

He called it the “global village” and said it would be an age when everyone had _______

 

to the same information through technology. The “global village could be understood to be the internet.

 

Options: Divided, described, highlighted, access, released, predicted, will, closed, outlined, submerged

 

Answer: divided; outlined; released; predicted; access

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FILL IN THE BLANKS: SELECT FROM THE LIST:

 

 

  1. Hard work

 

It is important to _______________the need for hard work as an essential part of

 

studying law, because far too many students are tempted to think that they can succeed by relying on what they imagine to be their natural ability, without bothering to add the expenditure of effort. To take an analogy some people prefer the more or less instant

 

____________which comes from watching television adaptation of a classic novel to the

 

rather more _______________process of reading the novel itself. Those who

 

___________watching television to reading the book are less likely to study law

 

successfully, unless they rapidly acquire a _____________for text- based

 

 

  • notice/ emphasize/ remember/ note

 

  • gratification/ enjoyment/ satisfaction/ excitement

 

  • effortless/ laborious/ complex/ simple

 

  • prefer/ interest/ like/ enjoy

 

  • taste/ knowledge/ idea/ motivation

 

Answer: emphasize; gratification; laborious; prefer; taste 2. Dark energy

Arguably the greatest mystery facing humanity today is the prospect that 75% of the universe is made up of a ____________known as “dark energy”, about which we have

 

almost no knowledge at all. Since a further 21% of the universe is made from invisible “dark matter” that can only be __________through its gravitational effects, the ordinary

matter and energy making up the Earth, planets and stars is apparently only a tiny part of what exists. These ____________require a shift in perception as great as that made after Copernicus’s.

 

  • material/ matter/ substance/ fabric

 

  • detected/ identified/ found/ observed

 

  • discoveries/ findings/ inventions/ detection

 

  • revelation/ publication/ exhibition/ announcement

 

Answer: substance; detected; discoveries; revelation

 

  1. The emperor penguin

 

The emperor is the giant of the penguin world and the most iconic of the birds of Antarctica. Gold patches on their ears and on the top of their chest brighten up their black heads. Emperors and their closest relative, the king penguin, have unique breeding cycles, with very long chick-rearing periods. The emperor penguins breed the furthest south of any penguin species, forming large colonies on the sea-ice surrounding the Antarctic continent. They are true Antarctic birds, rarely ____________in the sub Antarctic waters.

 

 

 

So that the chicks can fledge in the late summer season, emperors breed during the cold, dark winter, with temperatures as low at -50°C and winds ___________to 200km

 

per hour. They trek 50-120 km (30-75 mls) over the ice to breeding colonies which may include thousands of individuals. The female lays a single egg in May then passes it over to her mate to incubate ___________she goes to sea to feed. For nine weeks the male fasts, losing 45% of his body weight.

 

The male balances the egg on his feet, which are ___________in a thick roll of skin and

 

feathers. The egg can be 70°C warmer than the outside temperature.

 

  1. have seen/ seen/ seeing/ see

 

  1. off/ on/ out/ up

 

  1. after/ during/ before/ whilst

 

  1. protecting/ covered/ covering/ protected

 

Answer: seen; up; whilst; covered

 

 

  1. Economic inequality

 

For the past thirty years, the United States has been conducting what one observer (Samuelson 2001) has called “a massive social experiment” regarding the political and social consequences of increasing economic inequality. The share of national income going to families in the bottom 40 percent of the income distribution ___________by

 

about one-fifth, from 17.4% in 1973 to 13.9% in 2001, while the share going to families in the top 5 percent increased by more than one-third, from 15.5% to 21.0%.

 

_______________, the share of income going to the top one-tenth of one percent

 

quadrupled between 1970 and 1998, leaving the 13,000 richest families in America with almost as much income as the 20 million poorest families. The economic causes of these trends—technological change? demography? global competition? — are a matter of some

___________controversy. But the important political point is that, whereas richest

 

democracies have significantly mitigated increasing economic inequality through government action, the United States has mostly been content to let economic trends take their course, doing “less than almost any other rich democracy to

___________economic inequality” through employment and wage policies, taxes, and

 

transfers.

 

  1. declined/ declining/ defined/ declined

 

  1. Because/ Meanwhile/ Thus/ besides

 

  1. scholar/ scholarliness/ scholarship/ scholarly

 

  1. cut/ improve/ limit/ increase

 

Answer: declined; Meanwhile; scholarly; limit 5. Cardona Salt Mountain

Formed two million years ago when low-density salt was pushed up through the much harder materials surrounding it, the Cardona Salt Mountain is one of the largest domes of its kind in the world, and unique in Europe. While small amounts of other minerals pervade the savory hill, the salt pile would have a near translucent quality if not for the

 

 

 

thin layer of reddish clay coating the exterior. The ___________of the mountain was

 

recognized as early as the middle ages when Romans began exploiting the mountain for its salt, which began to bolster the young Cardonian ___________. With the invention of

 

industrial mining techniques, a mine was built into the side of the mountain and a thriving facility formed at its base as excavators dragged enormous amounts of potash (water-soluble) salt from the innards of the hill. In addition to the mineral export, the locals of Cardona began making salt sculptures to sell and invented a number of hard, salty pastries unique to the area.

 

  1. vibration/ significance/ significant/ magnificent

 

  1. trend/ correspondence/ economy/ accordance

 

Answer: significance; economy

 

  1. Education for Global Leadership

 

 

To _______the twenty-first century challenges to our economy and national security, our

 

education system must be strengthened to increase the foreign language skills and cultural awareness of our students. America’s continued global leadership will depend on our students’ abilities to _________with the world community both inside and outside our borders.

 

  1. solve/ reduce/ confront/ eliminate

 

  1. interact/ relate/ talk/ speak

 

Answer: confront; interact 7. The Romans

 

Over many centuries and across many territories the Romans were able to win an astonishing number of military victories and their success was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool of fighting men to draw upon, a disciplined and innovative army, a centralized command and line of supply, expert engineers, effective diplomacy __________a network of allies, and an

 

inclusive approach to conquered peoples which allowed for the strengthening and broadening of the Roman power and logistical bases. ______________, her allies not

 

only supplied, equipped and paid for additional men but they also supplied vital materials such as grain and ships. On top of all this Rome was more or less in a continuous state of war or readiness for it and believed absolutely in the necessity of defending and imposing on others what she firmly believed was her cultural superiority.

 

  1. through/ on/ over/ across

 

  1. because/ so/ further/ recently

 

Answer: through, Further

 

 

 

LISTENING FILL IN THE BLANKS:

 

 

  1. Those of you who’ve never heard the term neo-Latin, may be forgiven for thinking it’s a new South American dance craze. If you’re puzzled when I tell you it has something to do with the language of Romans, take heart, over the years many classes who have confessed they are not really sure what it is either. Some have assumed that they are so-called ‘Late-Latin’, written at the end of the Roman Empire. Others have supposed it must have something to do with the middle ages. Or perhaps it’s that pseudo-Latin which my five and seven-year-old boys seem to have gleaned from the Harry Potter books, useful for spells and curses that they zip one another with makeshift paper ash ones. No, in fact, neo-Latin is more or less the same as the Latin that was written in the ancient world, classical Latin. So, what’s so new about it?

 

  1. Bruch and her colleague Mark Newman studied who swapped messages with whom on a popular online dating platform in the month of January 2014. They categorized users by desirability using PageRank, one of the algorithms behind search technology. Essentially if you receive a dozen messages from desirable users, you must be more desirable than someone who receives the same number of messages from average users. Then they asked: How far “out of their league” do online daters tend to go when pursuing a partner? “I think people are optimistic realists in other words, they found that both men and women tended to pursue mates just 25 percent more desirable than themselves. “So they’re being optimistic, but they’re also taking into account their own relative position within this overall desirability hierarchy.” And the study did have a few more lessons for people on the market: “I think one of the take-home messages from this study is that women could probably afford to be more aspirational in their mate pursuit

 

  1. In animals, a movement is coordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cord called the central contract patterns generator (CPG). This produces signals that drive muscles to contract rhythmically in a way that produces running or walking, depending on the pattern of pulses. A simple signal from the brain instructs the CPG to switch between modes such as going from a standstill to walking.

 

  1. For all his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personal history. There are just two primary sources for information on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived from Elizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gaps in this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespeare the man.

 

  1. The ocean has been getting bluer, according to a study published in the journal Nature. But that’s not really good news for the It means that the plants that give the ocean its green tint aren’t doing well. Scientists say that’s because the ocean has been getting warmer.

 

  1. Now that story’s been scotched, as only part of contingency planning. But it was a symptom of the dramatic turn of events in South Australia, and it flushed out other remarks from water academics and people like Tim Flannery, indicating that things were really much worse than had been foreshadowed, even earlier this year. So is Adelaide, let alone some whole regions of South Australia, in serious bother?

 

 

 

Considering that the vast amount of its drinking water comes from the beleaguered Murray, something many of us outside the State may not have quite realized. Is their predicament something we have to face up to as a nation?

 

  1. Laurence Stephen Lowry RBS RA was an English artist. Many of his drawings and paintings depict Pend Lebury, Lancashire, where he lived and worked for more than 40 years, and also Salford and its surrounding areas. Lowry is famous for painting scenes of life in the industrial districts of North West England in the mid-20th century. He developed a distinctive style of painting and is best known for his urban landscapes peopled with human figures often referred to as matchstick man. He painted mysterious unpopulated landscapes, brooding portraits and the unpublished “marionette” works, which were only found after his death.

 

  1. Along the way, we have built unashamedly beautiful buildings, two of which have won and been runner-up in the prestigious United Nations World Habitat Award: the first time an Australian building has received that international honour. We rely on older concepts of Australian architecture that are heavily influenced by the bush. All residents have private verandas which allow them to socialize outdoors and also creates some “defensible space” between their bedrooms and public areas. We use a lot of natural or soft materials and build beautiful landscaped

 

  1. That brings us to the CEO’s second duty: building everyone or more accurately, building the senior team. All the executives report to the CEO, so it’s the CEO’s job to hire fire, and manage the executive team. From coaching CEOs, I actually think this is the most important skill of all. Because when a CEO hires an excellent senior team, that team can keep the company running. when a CEO hire a poor senior team, the CEO is up spending all of their time trying to do with the team, and not nearly enough time trying to do with other elements of their job. The senior team can and often does develop the strategy for the company, but ultimately it’s always the CEO who has the final ‘go-no-go’ decision on strategy.

 

  1. Last year, astronomers observed two neutron stars collide. A crash transmitted in gravitational waves to detectors here on Earth. Represented in sound, you can hear a small upwards sweep in frequency, in the data, if you listen closely. Several seconds later, the first waves of electromagnetic radiation arrived here on Earth – the first time a collision has been detected by both light and gravitational waves. And it’s in studying the electromagnetic echoes of the collision that astrophysicists have gotten a far better glimpse of what really happened after those binary neutron stars merged, 130 million light years away. “Oh yeah, absolutely, so it gives us an understanding of basically all the nitty-gritty of what’s going on after the merger takes place.” Kunal Mooley, an astrophysicist at Caltech. First, he says, the stars collided, creating a massive, black hole

 

like object, which started sucking up the cloud of neutron-rich cosmic debris left over from the crash. But its appetite was limited. “It cannot eat all of it, so some bit of it basically escapes.” Those escaping leftovers spewed outward into space, as a powerful jet. But along the way, Mooley says, the jet appears to have interacted with that cloud of neutron- rich material, blowing up a sort of cocoon within the debris floating around the collision. Until finally, the jet burst out and slammed into interstellar space releasing yet more radiation we could detect here on Earth.

 

  1. To figure out these counterintuitive findings, the researchers conducted an experiment in a hotel room. They rounded up some lizards, gave them a perch, and used

 

 

 

a leaf blower to mimic the effects of high winds. They set up a net to catch any lizards that lost their grip. As the artificial wind blew, the lizards moved so the perch took most of the air flow. But their hind legs would stick out, and if those rear limbs stuck out too far, they acted as sails. “Eventually those back legs were blown off the perch, and the lizards were just holding on with their front two legs. And they could only hold on like that for so long as the wind speed increased further and further, until eventually they were blown off the perch and into the nets, So shorter back legs gave a survival advantage. A trait that might be passed on to the next lizard generation.

 

  1. Crows, she says, are what’s known as “partial migrants.” Every year, some members of the population migrate between breeding grounds and their overwintering grounds– like parking lots. But others just stay put. So Townsend and her colleagues wanted to know if that urge to migrate was something individual crows can turn on and off. To find out, they captured 18 crows from overwintering spots in California and New York. They fitted the birds with little backpack satellite tags, and tracked them for several years. Overall, three quarters of the birds migrated, an average of 300 miles. And more importantly, if they migrated once, they did it every year–suggesting traveling is not a habit they switch on and off. The researchers also found that migrating crows returned faithfully to the same breeding grounds every year–but were more flexible on where to overwinter. Which could be a good thing.

 

  1. Abandoned Pueblos are scattered throughout the south-western U.S. And at many, archaeologists have uncovered a curious artefact: the skeletons of scarlet macaws. The birds’ bright red feathers are known to have been an important status symbol, a signifier of prestige for people throughout the American tropics and the southwest, both in the ancient world and today. But macaws are a tropical bird, whose range never extended north of today’s U.S.- Mexico border. So how did the Pueblo people obtain the birds? To examine the birds’ origin, scientists sequenced mitochondrial DNA found within macaw bones from two sites in New Mexico: Chaco Canyon and the Members region. Turns out, nearly three quarters of the birds had identical mitochondrial genome sequences– meaning the ancient birds came from the same maternal line. That suggests they were all the products of a breeding operation, perhaps in modern-day northern Mexico, rather than a random collection of wild-caught birds.

 

 

 

SUMMARISE SPOKEN TEXTS:

 

 

  1. Lawyer:

 

Nowadays many people want to study law in university because they intend to be practicing lawyers.

 

However, there are some other people who don’t want to be lawyers also study law.

 

Law is just a subject in university, without … training, you have not sufficient … to be a lawyer.

 

The main reason why people study law is that it can help them think and read logically and clearly.

 

 

  1. New Zealand:

 

New Zealand is very diverse with most residents not born in this country.

 

50% of them are from Asia or Europe; definition of diversity 20% we are double.

 

Auckland is young, not ageing but democracy.

 

Benefits of diversity of financial capital not on social capital.

 

  1. Marketing Research:

 

This lecture is about the research in Marketing on customers.

 

In Marketing, we need to know how your customers look like including their ages and…

 

The research on Marketing can help to identify the target audience of your products( know who will buy your product, who not) and pricing, but you should clarify ideas, think about problems like competition, buy raw materials, in the practical process.

 

  1. Geography:

 

Geography is a study of the surface of the earth including atmosphere.

 

And we don’t concentrate on the inside study of the earth.

 

Moreover, it is a subject including some disciplines and you can become a natural scientist or cultural specialist by studying it.

 

In conclusion, you can pursue arguments from geography.

 

  1. Instinct:

 

Instinct is related to behavior and emotion.

 

Instinct is in relation to motivation which means using the internal drive to survive.

 

Differences between reflex are common among many species.

 

Species rely on instincts to search for food and survive.

 

Instinct is complex but a reflex is an interaction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Description:

There are two methods of description: symbolic language and body language.

 

The abstraction is an important layer of computers.

 

Computers use symbolic systems.

 

The origin of symbolic system was developed when people try to communicate with each other.

 

Sign language was developed, which means hand words in language.

 

Sign language and movements could help people ask for help when they encountered rhinoceros.

 

 

Hands were language.

 

Oral languages developed while people’s hands were busy in hunting.

 

  1. Wildlife as Food:

 

In my view, it’s impossible not to talk about wildlife, and not think about its role in livelihood. And I guess part of that is my own view, part of the research that I do in Africa. In most easternwest Africa. I look a role, all the humans rely on wildlife as the source of food, and also the source of income. And we talk about our wildlife, it seems we talk about fish, we are talking about what probably the single most important source of protein for human that across the globe. And, so, billions of, or more than a billion of people rely on fish as their primary source of animal protein, and most of these people living in poverty. So the management of fish resource of wildlife in that sense causing incredibly important to livelihoods and health. And also, wildlife tourism is the multiple billion dollars’ industry, and in many places, such as Africa, South America, it can be the No.1 source of income, it can be the No.1 source of foreign income for economies.

 

  1. Ugly Building:

 

The lecturer used to live in West London and every time he walked through the streets there, he saw many ugly buildings on the both sides.

 

Those ugly buildings last hundreds of years and had long-term negative impacts on beholders by causing frustration(and anger, unlike a bad book, which last just several years.

 

Architects should learn from some buildings in Rome, which are beautiful and have last since ancient times.

 

But architects say beauty is an arrogant word and do not think their works are ugly, because beauty is in the eye of the beholders.

 

  1. Australian Public Transportation:

 

Australian living patterns need cars as most Australians live in countryside and it will be inconvenient for them to work without a car.

 

Only 20% of people in Australia cannot drive, mainly the elderly, young students or the disabled.

 

 

Thus, Australian government should pay more attention to those who do not drive.

 

 

Australian public transportation system in rural areas is not yet satisfactory, but it may lead to other problems.

 

  1. Orgnisation Study:

 

The two speakers are talking about organisation study and how they appreciate it. Organisation study is about a whole family of disciplines, such as social science, psychology, sociology, history, and cultural studies. The speaker enjoys studying organisation study because of its broad range and its breadth. What organisation study has taught him is liberating ideas without disciplinary boundaries.

 

  1. Internet:

 

 

Internet, an innovation by graduate students and researchers who were good at programming, can achieve many things but has both advantages and disadvantages. Initially, internet didn’t take security into consideration because there was no suspicion between internet users at that time, such as the email system. Using email needs trust between the senders and the receivers as the authentication process was not originally built in this system.

 

  1. Water Demand:

 

Water demand exceeded supply in Los Angeles in 19th century, so Los Angeles derived water from Owens Valley in 1913. The farmers in the valley tried to destroy the aqueduct in 1924 until the valley was dried out. Then in 1941, Los Angeles derived water from Mono Lake which was a habitat for migration birds, until in 1992 litigation stopped the water flowing from Mono Lake to Los Angeles.

 

13.Architecture Design:

 

Architecture design is important to buildings. In the Victoria era, architects designed buildings based on bricks and other materials. The design of floors was based on lighting as it will not only affect appearance but also health conditions. In the 20th century, many buildings with design flaws were demolished or modified through a natural selection process, though it’s argued to be unfair for the buildings.

 

  1. IT Development:

 

The history of software is of course very very new. And the whole IT industry is really only 67 years old which is extraordinary and to be so close to the birth of a major new technology, a major new discipline is quite remarkable given where we got to in those 67 years. And the progression has been not so much a progression as a stampede because Moore’s Law, the rapid expansion in the power of computing and the rapid fall of the cost of computing and storage and communications has made it feasible for information technology to move into all sorts of areas of life that were never originally envisaged. What has happened is that there has been as | said a stampede for people to pick the low-hanging fruit. And that is what’s guided the development of software and information technology over the past decades and continues to do so with a number of consequences that we will explore.

 

 

 

  1. Industrial Revolution:

 

 

France, one thought that they were called them “retarded”, a word that was used, unfortunately, at that time. And then one tried to see why not. Now, that analysis has been really rejected greatly over the past years, because Industrial Revolution is measured by more than simply large factories with industrial workers and the number of machines. This is the point of the beginning of this. The more that we look at the Industrial Revolution, the more that we see that the Industrial Revolution was first and foremost an intensification of forms of production, of kinds of production that were already there. And thus, we spend more time looking at, you know, the intensification of artisanal production, craft production, of domestic industry, which we’ve already mentioned, that is people mostly women but also men and children, too, working in the countryside. The rapid rise of industrial production was very much tied to traditional forms of production. In Paris, for example, in 1871, alright, 1870, the average unit of production had only slightly more than seven people in it. So, if you only look for big factories and lots of machines, you’ll be missing the boat on the Industrial Revolution.

 

 

Version B:

 

Through the 1950s and into the 1960s, the idea of the Industrial Revolution was that it was the work of some genius inventors who created machines used primarily in the textile industry but also in mining that eliminated blocks to assembly line production. Then everybody was crowded into factories and the new brave world opened up. In fact, one of the most interesting books and great classics that is still in print was written by an economic historian at Harvard who’s still alive called David Landes. It’s a good book called The Unbound Prometheus, which was basically that. Some of the inventions that I briefly describe in your reading, the spinning Jenny, etc, refer to that. Well, and that kind of analysis led one to concentrate on England where the Industrial Revolution began, and to view industrialization as beginning a situation of winners and losers by not going as fast. Now, that analysis has been really rejected greatly over the past years, because Industrial Revolution is measured by more than simply large factories with industrial workers and the number of machines. This is the point of the beginning of this. The more that we look at the Industrial Revolution, the more that we see that the Industrial Revolution was first and foremost an intensification of forms of production, of kinds of production that were already there. And thus, we spend more time looking at, you know, the intensification of artisanal production, craft production, of domestic industry, which we’ve already mentioned, that is people mostly women but also men and children, too, working in the countryside. The rapid rise of industrial production was very much tied to traditional forms of production.

 

  1. The Republic:

 

Why should we read the Republic? I image lots of students asked this question to me when they’re given it as a set book at the beginning of their university course, but in fact there are many good reasons to read the Republic. And first one I would pick on is just that it is immensely readable. It’s not Plato did not write philosophy like a dry text book. He wrote it like a living conversation. The whole of the Republic which is fairly fat book is a living conversation written in short almost soundbite type answers, but nevertheless, developing some very important ideas so my first answer then we should read the Republic just because it is readable. It is readable it was written by a genius and it’s worth reading. It’s easy to read. It’s not difficult. But then there’s also obviously the

 

 

 

thoughts, the content of the book and he’s asking this absolutely fundamental question why should we bother to be good, what’s in it for us effectively. It seems when we look at the world, it looks as though injustice pays. It looks as though crime pays or as the good people get trodden down. So, Plato addresses this absolutely fundamental question why should we be good. I’m not going to tell you his answer. Read the book.

 

  1. Language Acquisition:

 

So language acquistion starts earlier than most people think and it also ends later than most people think. When does child language acquistion stop? Well, in a sense, you know we’re all children. We stay being children all our lives. There’s no obvious end point further learning sounds. Of course, there is, and for learning grammar, there is. But vocabulary, oh, I mean that goes on for the rest of our lives and million or more words in English and most of us only have a vocabulary of 50, 60, 70 thousand words or whatever it is. And so there’s always something more to learn. So, remember that the two ends of child language acquisition are wider apart than some people think, and that means there’s more scope for studying it than most people think.

 

 

  1. Travel Book:

 

The book Travels of Sir John Mandeville was popular in the 1300s and 1400s. The book is in the library as a guidance. The book describes his supposed travels to the Mid East, Africa and Asia. This is book is valuable although its descriptions about foreign lands were not true. It only shows how European people thought about foreign lands outside Europe as well as their imagination of the unknown.

 

  1. Population Change:

 

There are three types of changes happening in population. The first one is the change in population density, which means more and more people are living in urban areas. The second change is found in population distribution because migration patterns have changed. The third one is the change in aging structure as women have less children, which leads to serious aging problem. There will be as many old people as young people on this planet.

 

  1. Telescope:

 

The aperture of a telescope is several times larger than the aperture of human eye so that the objects that can not be normally seen by unaided eye can be seen. Light-gathering power of a telescope is proportional to the area of its aperture and hence depends on the square of the radius of the mirror. Therefore, a 20 cm diameter telescope collects four times more photons than a 10 cm diameter telescope. A telescope can be equipped to record light over a long period of time, by using photographic film or electronic detectors such as photometers or CCD detectors while the eye has no capability to store light. Along-exposure photograph taken through a telescope reveals objects too faint to be seen with the eye, even by looking through the same telescope. A third major advantage of large telescopes is that they have superior resolution, the ability to discern fine detail. Small resolution is good. The resolution is directly proportional to the wavelength being observed and inversely proportional to the diameter of the telescope.

 

 

 

  1. Human Minds:

 

 

The pace, the pace of which that the human minds have evolved over the last half million years and more recently the last 200,000 years has been so frighteningly rapid that the evolution of cognitive function and perception in different ways, can only happen to the actions of a small number of genes. If one needed to adapt dozens of genes changes and concert, in order to acquire the penetrating minds that we now have, which our ancestors 500,000 years ago didn’t have, the evolution could not have taken, could not have occurred so quickly. And for that reason alone, one begins to suspect that the genetic differences between people who lived 500,000 years ago sever that cognitive functions than ours are not so large.

 

Therefore, a rather small number of genes, maybe responsible for comforting us that powerful minds which we now, which the most of us now possessed.

 

 

  1. Children’s Life Quality:

 

Well educated families have well- educated children who have sufficient education resources and support since they were born.

 

According to studies, the life chance of a child has been set by 5 years old, which is a very disturbing fact.

 

There is no obvious way to address the problem of life quality in society.

 

  1. Traveling &Transport in Paris:

 

There are thousands of trips and too many travelers every day in Paris. The transportation network in Paris provides thousands of public services and links them together. A good network can help people with long-distance or multidestination trips. In cities with high- density population such as Paris, people would better carefully plan their journeys before travel to reduce the density of commuters at the same time.

 

  1. Government Tricks:

 

I suppose it’s the truism to point out that citizens need to be well informed. Maybe it’s something we take for granted in our liberal western democracies. But there will be plenty of societies, well, that is run counter to explicit government policy. Many areas of the world still suffer from the reverie of the deliberate missing information. Governments, especially the unelected ones, but also some elected ones, have denied the events that have ever taken place. They pretend that other events did take place. They would help spin what they cannot deny. Ensure they’ve used every trick of the book, to pull the eyes of the world, and in an attempt to cover up their mistakes.

 

  1. English Language:

 

English is not a pure language, influenced by other 350 languages in history.

 

English borrows vocabulary and phrases from other languages.

 

History and language are connected, so when you learn the language, you also learn the history.

 

People from different periods have had different views about this. In Shakespeare’s period, some people felt angry about the words which are not original English.

 

 

 

  1. Human Migration:

 

 

23,000 years ago, towards the end of the Old Stone Age, also known as the upper Paleolithic, the weather in Europe and in many parts of the world took a turn for the worse. Temperatures plummeted, rain levels fell and a massive ice sheet slowly advanced to cover most of northern Europe and stay there for the next few thousand years. We know that during this glacial period, many animal and plant species sought shelter in Europe’s three warmer southern peninsulas, Iberia, Italy, and the Balkans. But the question is, where did the people go? Archeological material recovered from this time period has shown that a large number of our ancestors retreated to Franco Cantabria, an area covering the southwest of France and the northeastern tip of Spain. But was this the only area where people traveled to escape the worst of the weather? Let’s go back to the growing ice sheet. In order to grow, the ice mass had to take up water, causing sea levels to fall. At its maximum when the ice reached as far south as Germany, sea levels were up to 120 meters lower than today. That’s approximately the same height as the London Eye. As a result, areas of the shallow sea became exposed and Europe’s shape was very different from the one we recognized. It could be that humans lived on these exposed shores during the Paleolithic, but we have no evidence of their settlements because it’s now we’re underwater.

 

 

  1. Stanford University Business School always promotes leadership in learning, management, and delivery of goods and services and also aims at delivering good services and making sure good quality. Students should realize that accomplishing assignments by themselves is their own responsibility. Profit or non-profit institutes, such as Stanford University, provide the opportunity of learning management and your accomplishment achieved by others cannot indicate what you are capable of.

 

  1. Worst weather:

 

The speaker doubted where our ancestors used to live and where they go.

 

Sea levels in that period of time were much lower than today’s sea levels.

 

People may used to live the on shallow shore where today is under water.

 

But, there is not archaeological evidence supporting this argument.

 

  1. Good Ideas:

 

To be a successful entrepreneur, you should have good ideas, but the definition of a good idea varies depending on who you ask.A great idea should have several features Firstly, the great idea should be various and novel.

 

Secondly, the great idea should be unique, which means no one has thought about it.

 

Thirdly, the great idea should be transformative and productive.

 

  1. Body Fat Experiment:

 

Now we would like to look at a recent survey conducted by Canadian researchers on diet. Total of 31 women volunteered in the survey. They have been told to participate in the exercise program without changing their diet. After careful observation, the researchers

found that some volunteers experience body fat change after six months from the day they have started the experiment. The findings further stated that some lost a significant amount of fat which leads to a decrease in body mass. On the other hand, there were others who did not lose fat at all. The study concludes there must be two explanations: those who did not lose weight must have eaten more and another factor is it is because their psychological reason not to believe in losing fat.



ALL NEW WRITE FROM DICTATION:

 

  1. The bank is hoping to tap into a fast growing market.

 

  1. Scholarship applications must be completed at the end of the month.

 

  1. Many universities’ lectures can now be reviewed on the Internet.

 

  1. Air pollution is a serious problem all over the world.

 

  1. New media journalism is an interesting area for study.

 

  1. We are rethinking the solutions for the society.

 

  1. Plagiarism in a test is very severe.

 

  1. There is an accounting assessment for finance students.

 

  1. Marine environment has been destroyed by pollution and unsustainable development.

 

  1. Calculators allow us to add numbers that we all made mistakes.

 

  1. We should never underestimate the power of creative design.

 

  1. Trees benefit the city by absorbing water run off road.

 

  1. This course aims to develop your knowledge of statistics.

 

  1. Many diseases on the list have been irritated.

 

  1. This advanced course requires a basic knowledge of economic theory.

 

  1. Eating fish twice a week is an accommodation on a health diet.

 

  1. There are many different styles of business management.

 

  1. The course covers architecture planning and construction on the international scale.

 

  1. There is no criterion passed for qualified journalists.

 

  1. Children start producing words before they are able to walk.

 

  1. The rising of the sea level indicates climate change.

 

  1. Packages are likely to be used in many computers.

 

  1. The food crops require a large amount of water and fertilizer.

 

  1. Academic libraries across the world are steadily incorporating social media.

 

  1. We are dealing with the most challenges that we face today.

 

  1. In written assignment, a detailed literature review is important.

 

  1. The goal of the company is to get investment.

 

  1. Designers need to keep up with the social trend.

 

  1. Practical experiments are essential parts of chemical classes.

 

  1. You will be tested via quiz and dissertation.

 

  1. The university provides different facilities for students and staff.

 

  1. New developments in manufacturing are constantly changing the way we live.

 

  1. The course involves pure and applied mathematics.

 

  1. Studying medicine is always with a wide range of opportunities.

 

  1. Classical mechanism is considered as a branch of mathematics.

 

  1. Renovation work is currently being undertaken throughout the whole building.

 

  1. A regional assembly was moved to the devolution of power.

 

  1. Studying history can help you better understand the present.

 

  1. Our study program equips students with essential skills for university.

 

  1. Americans have progressively defined the process of plant growth and. reproductive development in quantitative terms.

 

  1. The career service provides suggestions on how to pass the job interview.

 

  1. The study shows the sense of recent technologies.

 

  1. Artists need to make their works both original and accessible.

 

  1. You must hand in your essays by midday on Friday.

 

  1. Natures are defined as specific chemical compounds.

 

  1. Plants are able to continue growing throughout their lives.

 

  1. There are dedicated specialist librarians available all the time.

 

  1. People see stars that were billions of years ago.

 

  1. Castle was designed to intimidate both local people and the enemies.

 

  1. Biology involves the study of life of all levels.

 

  1. The stock market redesigned the market throughout the world.

 

  1. Technology is changing the way media is used and studied.

 

  1. You need to put these books on the table over there.

 

  1. Fruits containing too much sugar have little or no value.

 

  1. Scientists are unsure when the first man left Africa.

 

  1. The news is not received until the following week.

 

  1. Muscle cells bring parts of the body closer together.

 

  1. A series of the observations were carried out in the classroom.

 

  1. The task tomorrow will require higher level skills.

 

  1. Being bilingual does not mean to have the ability to analyse the language. You will study two courses and three modules.

 

  1. Journalism faces the crisis in the light of the digital revolution.

 

  1. The gravity is the force that attracts two bodies from one another.

 

  1. The academic tradition of the school ensures excellence.

 

  1. A series of lectures showed us in economics have been recorded.

 

  1. This book can be borrowed for a maximum of one week.

 

  1. Social psychology has been considered by human behavior.

 

  1. Purity is one feature that makes sold expensive.

 

  1. Those lectures begin promptly, so do not be late.

 

  1. The research has produced some other unexpected results.

 

  1. The shipwreck of this year ruined some artifacts which were interested by historians.

 

  1. His appointment as Minister of Culture was seen as a demotion.

 

  1. More graduate training is often needed after the university study is finished.

 

  1. Good nutrition is crucial to the general health and vitality.

 

  1. Employment figures are expected to be improved in the next few years.

 

  1. Food has become a political issue in the world.

 

  1. Banks charge interest for money they loan to their customers.

 

  1. Student shop has a range of stationery.

 

  1. As union members, we can influence the change of the university.

 

  1. Speed is defined as how quickly a person or an object moves.

 

  1. Our facilities include five items in the university.

 

81. Time and distance are used to calculate speed.



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