Read Aloud

Read Aloud

  • Domestication is an evolutionary, rather than a political, development. They were more likely to survive and prosper in an alliance with humans than on their own. Humans provided the animals with food and protection, in exchange for which the animals provided the humans their milk and eggs and their flesh.

Sample Answer

  • Akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in part because it doesn’t seem to have any relatives. What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility or contempt.

Sample Answer

  • The problem begins with the alphabet itself. Building a spelling system for English using letters that come from Latin

Sample Answer

    • Modern buildings have to achieve certain performance requirements, at least to satisfy those of building codes, to provide a safe, healthy, and comfortable environment. However, these conditioned environments demand resources in energy and materials, which are both limited in supply, to build and operate.

Sample Answer

    • Three professors from Hamburg University’s medical faculty travelled last month to Ingeborg’s sitting room in East Berlin to test her on the work she carried out in pre-war Germany.
    • This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability.
    • The numbers on US student debt, after all, are truly staggering. The average 2015 US university graduate who took out loans to help pay for tuition enters the workforce with $35,000 in student debt.
    • The insults and criticism were not unexpected. What was surprising was people’s enthusiasm about the competition. Thousands have participated in the discussion.
    • Who do you think is the most glamorous person? A biotechnologist who led his company in international research, an ordinary welder who gained international fame through his work, or a photographer complimented widely for a series of photos?
    • In the photo, the wild cat’s huge paws are clamped onto the side of the white safari Jeep in which Chappell was a passenger. Almost as tall as the Jeep on her hind legs, she appears to be forcing her muzzle into the back window.
    • The Office of Personnel Management was the target of the attack, but data from nearly every government agency was stolen. U.S. investigators say they believe Chinese hackers were behind the breach.
    • While the Republican field is packed with male candidates, so far, some of the sharpest Clinton critiques have come from women.
    • Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere. This trend began in the middle of the 20th century and is one of the major environmental concerns of scientists and governmental officials worldwide. The changes in temperature result mostly from the effect of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.
    • As far as politics go, the responses are just as varied. Mitigation is common and calls for a reduction of emissions and less reliance on fossil fuels. Coal burning power plants are now replaced with hydraulic power plants and electrical cars are replacing some gasoline efficient cars. Many people, however, feel that this is not enough.
    • The border itself between Mexico and United States is fraught with a mix of urban and desert terrain and spans over 1900 miles. Both the uninhabited areas of the border and urban areas are where the most drug trafficking and illegal crossings take place. Crime is prevalent in urban cities like El Paso, Texas and San Diego, California.
    • Free trade is an economic policy under which the government does not interfere with trade. No tariffs are applied to imports or exports, and people are allowed to trade goods and services as they please. Supply and demand dictates the prices for which goods and services sell and are the only factors that determine how resources are allocated in society.
    • Unlike the United Kingdom, which has taken a relatively restrictive approach to the possession of arms, the United States has taken a more lenient approach. In the United States, three models have evolved regarding the interpretation of the meaning of the right to bear and keep arms as delineated in the Second Amendment.
    • Trade unions originated in Europe during the industrial revolution. Because of the machinery that had become commonplace, skilled labor became less in demand so employers had nearly all of the bargaining power. Employers mistreated the workers and paid them too little for the work they did. Trade unions were organized that would help in the improvement of working conditions.
    • Unions take the power out of the employer’s hands on many issues. There are examples of cases where workers were engaging in sexual or racial harassment, but were protected by their unions and allowed to keep their jobs. Poor workers and excellent workers often receive the same pay and raises, giving no reason for a person to work harder than necessary at their job.
    • Another administration option is to bake marijuana at a relatively low temperature to kill any dangerous microorganisms and then allow that patient to eat it or drink it. Both of these methods of administration make smoking the drug unnecessary. However, criticism of medical marijuana has also been raised because as a natural plant, it cannot be patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies and is unlikely to win widespread medical acceptance.
    • Smoking ban is a public policy that includes criminal laws and health regulations that prohibit smoking in certain public places and workspaces. There are varying definitions of smoking employed in this legislation. The strictest definitions define smoking as being the inhalation of any tobacco substance while the loosest define smoking as possessing any lit tobacco product.
    • Welfare has a special political meaning to the United States because it refers to how the poor receives financial aid. In comparison, welfare services are regarded as a universal right in other regions like Europe, where it is believed that all citizens should be able to obtain a minimal level of social support and well-being.
    • We acknowledge all the information and memory notes provided by students. We also acknowledge open source from various books and journal articles. All questions and answers are prepared and annotated by the Australian Institute of Language. All rights reserved. Not for any commercial purposes, for personal study only.
    • We have attempted to provide as accurate information as possible to assist all students with the exam preparation. Please note, however, that due to the accuracy of the memory, there may be subtle differences in words and phrases. When in actual exams, please carefully read the questions before using any of the sample answers.
    • Yellow is the most optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies cry more in them. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest color on the eye. On the other hand, it speeds metabolism and enhances concentration; think of yellow legal pads and post-it notes.
    • Cheerful sunny yellow is an attention getter. While it is considered an optimistic color, people lose their tempers more often in yellow rooms, and babies will cry more. It is the most difficult color for the eye to take in, so it can be overpowering if overused. Yellow enhances concentration, hence its use for legal pads. It also speeds metabolism.
    • Since Plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate or we “blink” and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind’s black box with the latest tools of neuroscience, they’re discovering that this not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason – and the precise mix depends on the situation.
    • Moods may also have an effect on how information is processed, by influencing the extent to which judges rely on pre-existing, internal information, or focus on new external information. Positive moods promote more holistic and top-down processing style, while negative moods recruit more stimulus – driven and bottom- up processing.
    • The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytical side of brain.
    • Introverts (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tend to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.
    • A young man from a small provincial town – a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connection and without a university education – moved to London in the late 1580’s and, in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright not of his age alone but of all time. How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare?
    • Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to collect, study, exchange and display plants for research and for the education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are primarily engaged in the breeding, preservation, study and display of native and exotic fauna in captivity.
    • Although introvert and extrovert personality types differ from one another on various grounds, the major difference between the two is their source of rejuvenation. While for extroverts, this may mean interaction or excursions with friends and family, the same may mean reading a book or listening to music for introverts.
    • In the fast-changing world of modern healthcare, the job of a doctor is more and more like the job of a chief executive. The people who run hospitals and physicians’ practices don’t just need to know medicine. They must also be able to balance budgets, motivate a large and diverse staff and make difficult marketing and legal decisions.
    • All cells share some common characteristics that make them living things. All organisms are composed of cells, the basic fundamental unit of life. They contain DNA as a heritable genetic material, and they can reproduce. They transcribe DNA into RNA and translate RNA into proteins on ribosomes. They can also regulate transport across a cell membrane and require chemical energy for some cellular processes.

 

  • The number one biggest difference between the bacteria in your body and the cells making up your body are these tiny cellular components called organelles. You’ve actually learned a lot about organelles in other lessons without knowing it. Organelles are simply membrane-bound compartments within a cell, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum.
  • In the second quarter of the 19th century, a rapidly growing middle class created a great demand for furniture production. Yet at this stage, while machines were used for certain jobs, such as carved decoration, there was no real mass production. The extra demand was met by numerous woodworkers. Mass Production came later and the quality of domestic furniture declined.
  • “There are, of course, intercultural difficulties as well as language difficulties,” he said. “There are, of course, also many Australian students who don’t speak such fantastically good English either.
  • “I’ve seen no evidence to suggest that students are not able to complete their courses because they’re failing in
  • English yet they’re being passed by the universities,” she said. “I’ve not seen any evidence to back that up.”
  • International education is one of our largest exports, it’s our fourth largest export and it’s in the interest of our universities to maintain very high standards because their reputation is at stake.”
  • Solar energy is an excellent source of supplying power to homes and companies and by utilizing solar power you’re not merely protecting the environment from becoming polluted but also you are saving the rest of the earth’s natural resources. Capturing solar energy does not contribute any pollution and does not harm the atmosphere. One of the factors why many individuals are still hesitant to make use of solar power is because it is expensive. The need of big location of space is another reason why people aren’t taking into consideration solar power.
  • Living room is the most used part that withholds most of the traffic coming in and out of the house. It is highly recommended that the flooring should be strong enough that it can endure all such amendments done with your furniture or to the increasing and decreasing ratio of visitors. For this purpose you can opt for hardwood flooring. Being classy and sophisticated in look it is the perfect choice for your living room whenever you are remodeling your home.
  • If you do experience a motorcycle crash, be aware the other driver will most likely blame you for the accident. This includes the road, road conditions, any skid marks, road signs, construction, and anything else that may have contributed to the accident. Not every accident requires an attorney but a knowledgeable local attorney can help you make sense of the process, as well as insure that the other drivers insurance doesn’t unfairly blame you for the accident.
  • Many people are under the impression that the water which comes out of a plant is clean. This is a common misconception: the function of a plant is to make the water cleaner, but it’s not clean enough to drink. It could be used in irrigation. What a plant is trying to do is to simply speed up a process which would naturally occur given more time. This means that a plant can create water which is safe to enter back into the water system as it’s so heavily diluted. The river then continues the water purification, acting as a form of fourth stage.
  • Another virtue that both propagate is that the present is meant to be enjoyed to the fullest. It is no use fretting about the past for it cannot be undone or overturned and no use pondering too much, about the future for it remains unseen. The day being thought about may never dawn on you. The ultimate service, however, remains the one done for your fellow men.
  • The Ford Company provides plenty of opportunities for its employees. It guarantees not only comfortable and appropriate working conditions, but also many other advantages. Therefore, becoming a part of the Ford Motor company is always profitable and beneficial. Moreover, it is important to mention that Ford Motors provides its employees with effective and useful services and takes care of their well-being.
  • Intangible assets perform a number of distinctive functions in the life of each company. Firstly, they witness the prosperity of the firm and its good name. Such a position allows human resource management to employ professional workers and increase the labor productivity. Moreover, intangible assets guarantee future value for the firm. And although it is difficult to destroy intangible assets, they can lose their importance in case of carelessness or business failure.
  • On practice, M. Kent tries to develop a worldwide campaign in order to expand the scope of activities and invite new customers. He tries to spread the Coca-Cola production throughout the globe in order to achieve a good place on the global market. Moreover, he always pays attention to the work of the competitors in order to remain on top. Finally, M. Kent knows how to organize the work within the company and motivate employees to do their best.
  • The southerners did not accept Lincoln as a president because of certain reasons, based on historical grounds. Southerners wished to protect their rights in the government and become more independent from the north. They considered president elections to be unfair. Moreover, they thought that their own rights will be ignored and limited. All this caused the separation of the southern states and marked the beginning of the Civil War.
  • Therefore, the working unions in modern society are not very important. They preserve their functions only in the underdeveloped countries. On the contrary, in the developed states, workers refuse to join the unions, preferring individual work. Thus, working unions cannot survive the assault of modern economic trends and slowly move to a complete decline. Their initial purposes have little to do with the hectic pace of modern life.
  • The most important issue is concerned with the problem of funding. Social services receive different donations or grants from the government. However, these sums are not sufficient for the solution of all problems. The second most important issue consists in the huge spending. The money social services achieve, is not enough for normal functioning. The third problem, affecting human services is the lack of skilled and experienced employees.
  • The asteroid that slammed into the moon 3.8 billion years ago creating the Imbrium Basin may have had a diameter of at least 150 miles, according to a new estimate. The work helps explain puzzling geological features on the moon’s near side, and has implications for understanding the evolution of the early solar system.
  • For any marketing course that requires development of marketing plan, such as marketing management, marketing strategy and segmentation support marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guide students through the step by step creation of customized marketing plan. While offering commercial software to aid in the process.
  • As we progress into the 21st century, communications are becoming faster and faster and faster. Think of the millions of different media images you are bombarded with every day. It is as important now to be able to read and make sense of those images, as it has been to be able to read ordinary text.
  • Electronic discourse is one form of interactive electronic communication. In this study, we reserve the term for the two-directional texts in which one person using a keyboard writes language that appears on the sender’s monitor and is transmitted to the monitor of a recipient, who responds by keyboard.

 

  • Although it hails from a remote region of the western Himalayas, this plant now looks entirely at home on the banks of English rivers. Brought to the UK in 1839, it quickly escaped colonized river banks and damp woodlands. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, and Canada. In the Himalayas the plant is held in check by various pests, but take these away and it grows and reproduces unhindered.

 

  • The quest for a user-friendly copyright regime began a decade ago when the Hong Kong government launched a public consultation on “Copyright Protection in the Digital Environment” in December 2006. Although this consultation initially sought to address Internet-related challenges, such as those caused by peer-to-peer file-sharing technology, the reform effort quickly evolved into a more comprehensive digital upgrade of the Hong Kong copyright regime.

 

 

  • How quickly is the world’s population growing? In the United States and other developed countries, the current growth rate is very low. In most developing countries, the human population is growing at 3 people per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, human population is grown to reach 9 billion within your lifetime.

 

 

  • Surprisingly, despite what appear to be infinite variations, all difficult conversations share a common structure. When you’re caught up in the details and anxiety of a particular difficult conversation, this structure is hard to see. But understanding that structure is essential to improving how you handle your most challenging conversations.

 

 

 

  • It isn’t rare for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of business school, he said, but 9 times out of 10, the students who nab these jobs are the ones who had private equity experience under their belt before even starting their MBA program.

 

 

 

  • The founding fathers established constitutional protections for the press because they understood that leaving the watchdog function to partisan politicians wouldn’t necessarily serve the public interest; both sides have too many incentives to preserve the status quo and ignore problems that elude quick fixes.

 

 

  • Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three categories, retailers enjoyed healthy increases across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers were also revised higher.

 

 

  • Where there are effects, there are often side effects. The car is a boon to mobility, but can lead to obesity, injuries, deaths and pollution. Burning fossil fuel may keep economies going, but wrecks the climate in the long run. In a similar way, there are side effects to information technology in education settings – from childcare to the classroom to the lecture hall and beyond.

 

 

  • There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don’t bother themselves with aesthetics; others see it as essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room – in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art.

 

 

 

 

  • Integration Currently, Integration is increasingly needed in the business environment. This need emerges from the efficiency and synergy requirements necessary in a complex and turbulent environment. In other words, integration is needed to facilitate coordination, which is again related to the building of competitive advantage.

 

 

 

  • The English Revolution has been interpreted in several ways by historians: as a fight between the aristocratic Cavaliers, who were open to life, and the serious Puritans; as a battle for power between parliament and the monarchy over the rights of Englishmen that had been going on for centuries; and as a class war similar to the French Revolution, of which it was a forerunner.

 

 

  • A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or movies. One argument is that this is to everyone’s benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have, but is rarely done successfully.

 

 

  • A university is a lot more than just classes and exams, university is a concept that offers you a host of possibilities to develop both academically and personally. Find out about the different projects, clubs and societies that are in your university. You will definitely find something you are interested in.

 

 

  • Japan is the world’s calculator superpower. Japanese manufacturers have led sales of calculators for over thirty years in many countries. Even in the age of personal computers, calculators are still essential in accounting jobs. In addition, calculators with graphing capabilities have begun to be used in education.

 

 

  • Whether salamander frog or toad, amphibians are some of the most diverse and far-flung animals on the planet. However, they’re disappearing, and experts are worried since frogs are considered bellwethers for the environment.

 

  • Their double life makes them unique. It’s through their skin that they breathe and drink water because their skin is so permeable.

 

 

  • The Executive Residence in The White House, in the United States of America, where the president resides is divided in several wings. It also includes the vice-president’s and president’s staff’s offices. This government building is a national heritage.

 

 

  • Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is a way of attempting to change the amount of precipitation that comes from clouds. Cloud seeding is carried out by dispersing substances into the air, but it also occurs due to ice nucleates in nature, most of which are bacterial in origin.

 

 

  • Many families are fleeing their native countries due to sectarian repression and political uprisings. Consequently, thousands of people have been stranded in foreign lands for months; other families have gone missing in the sea, marooned in small boats, as the neighboring foreign countries refuse to take them in.

 

 

  • Countries bordering the Mediterranean have built up a solid reputation for sunshine, great tasting food, as well as impressive health statistics, featuring some of the lowest rates of heart disease, and increased life expectancy. This has created a lot of attention towards the Mediterranean diet, which is not a typical weight loss diet, but more of a set of habits.

 

 

  • As a historian, if you really want to understand the sensibilities of those who lived in the past, you must be like a novelist and get into the skins of your characters and think and feel as they do. You are asked to imagine what it’s like to be a peasant in medieval times, asking the sort of questions a peasant might ask. What the writer is saying is that a historian needs imaginative sympathy with ordinary people in the past.

 

 

  • Trump has threatened to declare China a currency manipulator, but experts say he has little legal or economic basis to take such a step. He has also threatened to impose a tariff of up to 45 percent on Chinese imports if Beijing doesn’t “behave” a move that could lead to a trade war and damage the economies of both nations.

 

 

  • Do something you are very passionate about and do not try to chase what is considered the hot passion of the day.

 

  • People say you have to have a lot of passion for what you’re doing, and it’s totally true. You have to do it over a sustained period of time. So, if you don’t love it, you’re going to give up.

 

 

  • Charlie Parker noticed that the solos were only improvised through the melodies, but that he could also improvise them through the chords, thus creating new variations over the structure of the songs, and also playing more notes and faster.

 

 

 

 

  • The discovery of universal gravitation displays all the features of the new way of scientific reasoning which is now so familiar to us. The discovery starts off with Newton associating the Moon’s behavior with the behavior of rocks falling on the ground.

 

 

  • They controlled for the birds’ age, sex, body size and species. And they found that the hunted specimen’s brains were actually five percent smaller, on average, than the brains of birds that died by other means. “The surprising thing is that, if you make a smaller kind of analysis of liver or heart size, there is absolutely no difference there. So this is specific to the brain. ”

 

 

  • Generally, students who stay off campus resort to campus buses, for it not only costs less, but also helps reach the college campus on time. However, there are separate dormitories for students who wish to stay back in the campus for any activity.

 

 

  • Polar bears are born on land, but they spend most of their days’ time in the cold sea, enjoying swimming and hunting seals. Though aggressive in nature, they do not easily become pugnacious and defer their reactions as much as they can.

 

 

  • Straddling Asia and Europe across the strait, the old city of Istanbul, Turkey, has embraced diverse cultural influences. Known for its monumental architecture, Istanbul has become a cherished travel destination.

 

 

  • Any animals deprived of their basic sheltering, food, and health rights must be handed over to an NGO. After bringing them back to health, they can be put up for adoption, following substantial background check rules before providing them with new owners.

 

 

  • It was in 1927 when Mercedes Glitzed swam across the English Channel and Rolex became associated with excellence in the watch industry. She was wearing an Oyster wristwatch when she accomplished this achievement, fact that ignited the brand value of Rolex for uniting human spirit with endeavor.

 

  • The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things – so he began to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.

 

 

  • Jazz is an African American music genre popular in the United States that has an enchanting effect on the young and intellectuals. Scintillating performances by many bands across the globe have also helped this music style become widely popular.

 

 

  • The Kepler spacecraft has found hundreds of planets and thousands of additional candidates. Exploration of our solar system leads to a view of planets that emphasizes diversity rather than similarity. However, with so many planets out there, yes, some must be like Earth.

 

 

  • Reiss took a stab at settling the argument with a meta-analysis — a study of studies — on whether people can really perceive better-than-CD quality sound. He analyzed data from 18 studies, including more than 400 participants and nearly 13,000 listening tests. Overall, listeners picked out the better-than-CD-quality track 52.3 percent of the time. Statistically significant, if not all that impressive.

 

 

  • Researchers gathered 160 un-caffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you’d get from two cups of coffee.

 

 

  • The term supernova was coined in the 1930s by a memorably odd astrophysicist named Fritz Zwicky. Born in Bulgaria and raised in Switzerland, Zwicky came to the California Institute of Technology in the 1920s and there as once distinguished himself by his abrasive personality and erratic talents. He didn’t seem to be outstandingly bright, and many of his colleagues considered him little more than “an irritating buffoon”

 

 

  • Rites of Passage are one deep avenue to experience this love in our bones. Once realized, the care for the earth, the connection and experience of nature, and our part and place in the whole, will inform our future, our care for all of life. Without this care, and a true understanding of interdependence, our actions and lives may well be fragmented, divisive, and destructive.

 

 

  • At the end of this year, we will launch the Cup Class boats. So these will be about twice the power. The sailors are down in cockpits, unlike today. A lot of the power is being generated by these four grinders that are providing hydraulic power, and that energy is being used to control the flying surface, the hydrofoil is also being used to control the wing and the flaps, effectively the engine, of what we have.

 

 

 

  • Kinder Mann says he thinks the compound could be a win-win for the planet and the animals. “You know the methane is kind of a waste product. And this energy, instead of losing it for the animal, it can be reused for the animal in terms of performance, and at the same time we are doing something for greenhouse gas emission and climate change.” The products not on the market yet toxicology tests are ongoing.

 

  • What we found is that the plant is actually damaged by herbivores like most plants are in nature. And in response to that it secretes sugar from the wound edges where the herbivores have damaged the plant.” Tobias Lortzing is a graduate student at Freie University Berlin and one of the study authors.

 

 

  • In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel, and hail.

 

  • You may have heard of the new fad known as ecotourism. This means tourism which is environmentally friendly, and conscious about conserving the environment. The key is to minimize the physical, social and behavioral impacts of overseas travel. Tour groups will often work with local and indigenous communities to design respectful and memorable programs for visitors.

 

 

  • Tesla actually worked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison’s machines and when he asked for the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say, Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor.

 

 

 

  • Tesla came over from Graz and went to work for Thomas Edison. Nonetheless Edison offered him a job, promising Tesla fifty thousand dollars if Tesla could redesign Edison’s breakdown-prone DC generator designs. The new generator designs were a vast improvement over Edison’s originals. Upon completing the job Tesla went to Edison to collect the$50,000 promised for the task. Tesla, Edison replied, you don’t understand our American humor. And

 

  • Tesla was never paid.

 

 

  • How do we imagine the unimaginable If we’re asked to think of an object say, a yellow tulip a picture immediately forms in our mind’s eye? But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of negative number?

 

 

  • While blue is one of the most popular colors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study objects, they lose appetite.

 

 

  • Blue is the most popular color. Food researchers disagree –when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose their appetite.

 

 

  • When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bushfires are not included presumably, because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has ever been over 1 million hectares.

 

 

  • The beginning of the twenty-first century will be remembered, not for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole new age of globalization – a ‘flattening’ of the world. The explosion of advanced technologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources have connected all over the planet, levelling the playing field as never before.

 

 

  • The one-year program of the master in global management is designed only for those who have the graduate degree in the thesis, increasing temporary skill of new managers in an international capacity, something that recruiters are looking for more and more.

 

 

  • At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University’s financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.

 

 

  • In an attempt to lure new students, leading business schools – including Harvard, Stanford, the university of Chicago and Wharton – have moved away from the unofficial missions and prerequisite of four years’ work experience and instead have set their sights on recent college graduates and so-called early career professionals with only a couple years of work under their belt.

 

 

  • Marriage is a big step in anyone’s life and there is an argument to be made against getting married too early. As any newlywed couple knows, there is a huge amount of financial pressure associated with marriage. Firstly, the wedding reception and honeymoon will cost you an arm and a leg. Then there’s the matter of home loans, rent and energy bills. If you’re looking to start a family, your child’s education is another thing you need to save up for. Teenagers should probably find a proper job before deciding to tie the knot.

 

 

  • Charles Darwin published his paper “On the Origin of Species” in 1859. It is one of the most well-known pieces of scientific literature in human history. In the paper, Darwin proposes the theory of natural selection. He states that for any generation of any species, there will always be a struggle for survival. Individuals who are better suited to the environment are “fitter”, and therefore have a much higher chance of surviving and reproducing. This means that later generations are likely to inherit these stronger genetic traits.

 

 

  • Many people believe that many employers discriminate against older people because youths have more energy and creativity. This is not true. The main reason for hiring younger workers is payroll. In most countries, your salary is dependent on how many years of work experience you have. It is far more cost efficient to hire postgraduates, fresh out of university, than senior staff with over twenty years of industry knowledge.

 

 

  • The researchers think that long-distance fliers such as the American golden-plover and the white-rumped sandpiper picked up the spores while lining their nests. Then when the birds arrive in new places they molt, leaving behind the feathers and their precious cargo-to start growing again at the other end of the world.

 

 

  • The situation is similar to a pregnant woman that has twin babies in her belly,” says Avi Loeb of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He’s proposing the idea in a paper that’s been accepted for publication in the
  • Astrophysical Journal Letters.

 

 

  • Roman writers and orators began to expand their imaginative and intellectual horizons and refine the Latin language through the study of Greek literature .Early Roman literature had two kinds; the recording and examination of public life and behavior through life stories of famous men, and the particularly Roman art of satirical comedy and drama.

 

 

  • Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century. Most people these days will live for over 70years. This is more than double the lifespan of the average human in the seventeenth century. We can attribute our longevity to advances in medicine and lifestyle. While everyone agrees that living longer is wonderful, overpopulation is becoming a serious environmental concern.

 

 

  • The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon is the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17million years ago.

 

 

  • The development of easy-to-use statistics is being taught and learned. Students can make transformations of variables, create graphs of distributions of variables, and select among statistical analyses all at the click of a button. However, even with these advancements, students sometimes find statistics to be an arduous task.

 

  • Lincoln’s apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate Slaves was caused by the escalating

 

  • Scope of war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.

 

 

  • Food is one of the most important things you’ll ever buy. And yet most people never bother to think about their food and where it comes from. People spend a lot more time worrying about what kind of blue jeans to wear, what kind of video games to play, what kind of computers to buy.

 

 

 

  • Parents need to take control of the television viewing of Pre-schoolers and children of early school age. A workable techniques is to make a simple but firm weekly plan as to what programs will be permitted and how much time overall may be spent in viewing. Any child’s weekly schedule normally involves a certain amount of time for school, naps, outdoor play and indoor play. There should not, therefore, be great amounts of unfilled time when the child gravitates towards the TV set.

 

 

  • Parents can communicate their personal feeling about undesirable programs both by discouraging their children from watching them and by writing to their local television station or to the programs sponsors. The public does have a voice. Clearly, not all programs need please everybody. We do have a choice of programs and we also have a choice, for ourselves and at least for our younger children, of watching or not watching. There is an off button on every set.

 

 

  • Pluto lost its official status as a planet yesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there had been passionate debate at the IAU General Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet-and whether Pluto met the specifications- the audience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.

 

 

  • Environment problems caused by hard rock mining involve water pollution by metals themselves, chemicals used in processing, acid drainage, and sediment. Metals and metal-like elements in the ore are toxic and prone-to cause trouble by ending up in nearby streams and water tables as a result of mining operations.

 

 

 

  • The core of the problem was the immense disparity between the country’s productive capacity and the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S farmers and earners.

 

 

  • Ever since I remembered, father woke up at five thirty every morning, made us all breakfast and read newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realize he did this for a living.

 

 

  • Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups; cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to describe a cloud “in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow”. It is by observing how clouds change color and shape that weather can be predicted, and as long as the first three types of cloud keep their normal shape there won’t be any rain.

 

 

  • It is difficult to tell whether the speaker approves of Hemingway lifestyle or not. He was famously macho and spent a lot of time hunting wild animals, going to wars and getting into fights. All these things got into his books, and the speaker thinks that this is not necessarily a good thing as it means that too many people prefer to read about his life than read his books.

 

 

  • The second group that is particularly vulnerable are night shift workers…and the third group that is particularly vulnerable are people with sleep disorders, particularly sleep apnea. One out of three men and one out of six women have sleep apnea. And yet, 85 percent are undiagnosed and untreated. And it more than doubles the risk of crashes.

 

 

 

  • Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. Our parents were very lenient.

 

 

  • MBA is one of fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be sustainable benefit against form in one pain. Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone’s experience of doing MBA is, of course, different through denying that it’s hard and demanding work whichever course you do.

 

 

  • Tesla’s theoretical work formed the basic of modern alternating current electric power systems. Thomas Edison promised him almost one million dollars in today’s money to undertake motor and generator improvement. However, when Tesla unethical serbs asked 7 about the money, Edison reported reply “Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor,” The pair become arched rivals.

 

 

  • A study found that the research funded by the soft drinks industry have different results from research funded by other sources and went on to suggest that there may have been biased by the research itself. The whole point of the scientific methods is to ensure the research results are not influenced by the source of funding.

 

 

  • Studying abroad is a very popular option for students who come from a wealthy family. Most people believe that overseas experience provides a deeper understanding of cultures and develops communication skills. While this may be true, not all of these new experiences are useful for finding a job. Employers tend to value interpersonal skills and industry knowledge more than cultural background.

 

 

 

 

  • Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.

 

 

  • The primary application we’re targeting at first is to give people a decision aid during rehabilitation, following an acute knee injury, to help them understand when they can perform particular activities, and when they can move to different intensities of particular activities.” A useful thing to take a crack at.

 

 

  • Such cross-protection is usually seen between two animals. But Gore studies the same sort of mutualism in microbes. He and his team demonstrated the first experimental example of that cross-protective relationship in drug-resistant microbes, using two strains of antibiotic-resistant E. coli bacteria: one resistant to ampicillin, the other to chloramphenicol.

 

 

  • Written examinations are a fact of life for most high school and university students. However, recent studies have shown that this traditional form of assessment may not be an accurate indicator of academic performance. Tests have shown that many students experience anxiety during exam weeks, which leads to poorer results. As a result, some learning institutions are replacing exams with alternative assessments such as group work and oral presentations.

 

 

  • One of the unidentifiable objects in this study lies just outside Centaurus A (NGC 5128), an elliptical galaxy located about 12 million light-years from Earth. The other is in a globular cluster of stars found just outside NGC 4636, another elliptical galaxy located 47 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Virgo.

 

 

 

 

  • Student helps and counsellor services including male and female staffs from a variety of background such as clinical, sociology, educational psychology, social work. All the counsellors are trained at a master of doctoral level are registered with their professional organizations.

 

  • By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work having been finished in good time, he has a long interval of rest in the evening before the timely hour when he goes to bed. After a sound night’s rest, he rises early next morning in good health and spirits for the labors of a new day.

 

  • To understand the past you have to be able, as far as possible, to think as the people in the period you are studying thought. The example of what it must have been like to be a peasant in the Middle Ages is used. However, sensibilities change over time and we can’t completely throw off the mentality of the present. Therefore, every age will have a slightly different perspective on the same period of the past, no matter what the facts are.

 



 

  • Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe: France had one long before – indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign – that is, French – and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.

 

  • A university is not a business. More precisely, a not-for-profit college or university is significantly different than a for-profit business. A university has no owners; it is a public trust. Without owners it has no one to pay dividends to, and no one for whom it must maximize its profits. A business has a single overriding goal: the maximization of return for the owners. A university has a multiplicity of goals: to foster learning, to create knowledge, and to serve its community.

 

 

 

  • This study marks the first time scientists have linked dike formation to large, damaging earthquakes, and Wauthier is looking back through history for more examples. She says researchers will never be able to predict exactly when an earthquake might strike after a dike intrusion. But at least now, researchers and rift zone residents know they’re not just in for bangs—they may also be in for shudders.

 

 

  • The caterpillars that feed on trees are trying to match the hatching of their eggs to the timing of bud burst. The caterpillars want to feed on the juiciest and least chemically protected leaves. And it’s not just the caterpillars, of course, that are important. But the knock-on effect is on nesting birds, which are also trying to hatch their chicks at the same time that there’s the maximum number of caterpillars.”

 

 

  • The initial thud comes from when those dorsal bursae collide. And the reverberation results from the vibrations that linger when the tissues pull apart. But Thode the younger says the bursae have to be somewhat sticky for the clapping together and snapping apart to produce a noise with the correct loudness and pitch. That stickiness comes courtesy of the mucus.

 

 

  • But they did find something that had a much bigger impact on wildlife: habitat quality. The best predictor of wildlife abundance was not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity, nearby housing density, and the amount of adjacent agriculture. The results were published in the Journal of Applied Ecology.

 

 

  • Historically what has been used to estimate bats has been photographic estimates, visual estimates, mark-recapture estimates, and those have been highly prone to bias.“ Newer technology, like thermal imaging cameras is accurate, but expensive. So at a time of epic bat mortality-due to, for example, the fungal white nose syndrome that’s wiping out bats in Canada and the U.S”

 

 

 

 

 

  • The student’s reading in his own subject slows down, and his comprehension becomes less secure. He expresses himself slowly and often fails to convey his ideas exactly. He is disappointed to find that under pressure he makes a lot of unnecessary mistakes in areas where he knows the correct language forms. His social relations are difficult as he cannot find the right phrase quickly enough to keep a conversation going, so his language often betrays him into dullness, coldness, or worst of all, rudeness. Instead of the students being in control of the language, the language seems now to be in control of the students.

 

 

 

  • In the past, Naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction, however, all this has changed. Unknown items of grammar and vocabulary appear in texts which attempt to explain new and often difficult information. Difficulties with the language interact with difficulties as regards the subject matter.

 

 

  • IT may well change the way you live, yet again. Welcome to the world mobile commerce, where your hand-held device, it a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or any other wireless application will soon be used for commercial transactions. Skeptical? Consider these facts In Japan, mobile phones are used for location based services where the mobile service provider tie up with a host of other players such as restaurants, car rental companies etc. When the mobile use enters that zone, messages from all these players are flashed on the mobile device. Location base services are proved in several other countries as well.

 

 

 

 

 

  • The coastal wetlands have environmental and economic importance. Wetlands provide natural wealth. They have important filtering capabilities. As the runoff water passes, they retain excess nutrients and some pollutants. They maintain water flow during dry periods. Thousands of people depend on groundwater for drinking. They act as natural sponges of flood waters and contain soil erosion. They control floods and save the buildings from collapsing during heavy rains. The hardwood-riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River can store sixty days of floodwater.

 

 

  • The tsunamis could provide crucial information about the habitability of ancient Mars. The first one occurred when the planet must have been relatively warm and amenable for life, because it carved out backwash channels as it returned to the sea. By contrast, the planet had become much cooler by the time the second tsunami hit—the waters apparently flash-froze after flowing onto the surface.

 

 

  • First discovered in 2007, “fast radio burst” continue to defy explanation. These cosmic chirps last a thousandth of a second. The characteristics of the radio pulses suggested that they came from galaxies billions of light-years away. However, new works points to a much closer origin-flaring star within our own galaxy.

 

 

  • The climate for doing business improved in Egypt more than in any other country last year, according to a global study that revealed a wave of company-oriented reforms across the Middle East. The World Bank rankings, which look at business regulations, also showed that the pace of business reforms in Eastern Europe was overtaking East Asia.

 

 

 

 

  • Analysts were impressed by the improvement in margins reported across all regions, apart from the United Kingdom, and said that this reflected a clear effort to improve profitability across the business. Although the turnaround is still in its early stages and the valuation looks full, given the challenge of turning around such a large and complex business, this is certainly an impressive start.

 

  • In a genuine republic the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States make it dependent on the will of the society.

 

  • In 2005, donor countries agreed on an accord to harmonize their practices. Since then, aid officials have complained that too little has Changed ort the ground. Conferences of donors in developing countries still tend to be dominated by a small group of north European governments, with the US often absent.

 

 

  • Avalanche, rapidly descending large mass of snow, ice, soil, rock, or mixtures of these materials, sliding or falling in response to the force of gravity. Avalanches, which are natural forms of erosion and often seasonal, are usually classified by their content such as a debris or snow avalanche.

 

 

  • The elaborate and refined Japanese tea ceremony is meant to demonstrate respect through grace and good etiquette as demonstrated here by Genshitsu Sen, 15th Grand Master of the Urasenke Tea School.

 

  • Dolphins, whales and porpoises are all social animals, but some species are more sociable than others. This depends on the environment because a species adopts the lifestyle most suitable for this. Among dolphins, forming groups makes it easier for them to find food, reproduce and gain knowledge. They are safer, too, because dolphins can communicate danger when there are threats around.

 

 

 

  • It’s not that human activities didn’t impact wildlife at all of course. Heavily hunted species, like white-tailed deer, grey squirrels, and raccoons, were photographed somewhat less often in hunted areas. Coyotes showed up more often in hunted areas. While most species didn’t avoid hiking trails, the predators actually preferred them.

 

 

  • For the purposes of argument, culture is divided into material and non-material, and the speaker’s aim is to show how they both affect each other. Material developments in tools and technology can affect non-material culture, our customs and beliefs, and the other way around. Genetics is used as an example as it has changed the way we think about life, but also our beliefs have affected its rate of development.

 

 

  • Usually, age is determined by physical characteristics, such as teeth or bones. Great—if you have a body. Researchers have tried unsuccessfully to use blood. But in this study, the scientists used immune cells called T-cells. T-cells recognize invaders through receptors that match molecules on bacteria, viruses, even tumors. The cellular activity that produces these receptors also produces a type of circular DNA molecule as a by-product.

 

 

  • There are three main interpretations of the English Revolution. The longest lasting interpretation was that the Revolution was the almost inevitable outcome of an age-old power struggle between parliament and crown. The second sees it as a class struggle, and a lead-up to the French and other revolutions. Finally, the third interpretation sees the other two as too fixed, not allowing for unpredictability, and that the outcome could have gone either way.

 

 

  • A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or movies. One argument is that this is to everyone’s benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have, but is rarely done successfully.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Hundreds of millions of people eat fast food every day without giving it much thought, they just unwrap their hamburgers and dig in. An hour or so later, when the burgers are all gone and wrappers were tossed in the bin, the whole meal has already been forgotten.

 

 

  • New research shows that during the global financial crisis, workers who stayed in the jobs did not reduce their working hours, despite claims that cuts in hours have to prevent job losses, the study found that life of people who remained same employers stayed relatively unchanged.

 

 

  • The Royal Institution is an organisation that has been around for 209 years. Many of the people that have worked here have been scientists themselves, including Michael Faraday. He made the discoveries that may generating a using electricity much easier, making it possible for us all to switch on lights, cook for dinner, play games consoles much much more.

 

 

  • Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.

 

 

  • As to the Industrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that it has succeeded in inaugurating in a number of countries a level of mass prosperity which was undreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of Industrial Revolution, there were substantial divergences among writers.

 

 

 

 

  • The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.

 

 

  • If bonus or incentive pay schemes work so well for chief executive and bankers, why does everyone not get them? After all, many jobs involve making important decisions or taking risks is there anything about corporate decision and financial risks that makes these categories of work special in terms of how they need to be incentivised and rewarded?

 

 

  • This is what needs to happen on climate change: the world needs to put a price on carbon emissions and let the market respond. If politicians pretend this can be done without pain, it will probably result in another five to ten years of pretending to take action.

 

 

  • In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. The information that they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher say.

 

 

 

  • Once you’ve picked a general topic for your paper, you need to come up with a thesis. Your thesis is the main focal point of your paper and it’s the position you’ll take on your particular topic. Formulating a strong thesis is one of the most important things you need to do to ace your paper.

 

  • Many papers you write in college will require you to include quotes from one or more sources. Even if you don’t have to do it, integrating a few quotes into your writing can add life and persuasiveness to your arguments. The key is to use quotes to support a point you’re trying to make rather than just include them to fill space.

 

 

  • Networking is easy and fun because it taps into this human predilection to talk about ourselves when asked. Consider successful networking as little more than the process of guiding a person to tell you about his life, what he’s doing, the company that employs him, and his current industry.

 

 

  • Although Botswana’s economic outlook remains strong, the devastation that AIDS has caused threatens to destroy the country’s future. In 2001, Botswana has the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. With the help of international donors it launched an ambitious national campaign that provided free antiviral drugs to anyone who needed them, and by March 2004, Botswana’s infection rate has dropped significantly.

 

 

  • Over the centuries, the holiday evolved, and by the 18th century, gift-giving and exchanging handmade cards on Valentine’s Day had become common in England. Handmade Valentine’s cards made of lace, ribbons, and featuring cupids and hearts eventually spread to the American colonies. The tradition of Valentine’s cards did not become widespread in the United States, however, until the 1850s.

 

 

 

  • “Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride,” write Judith A. Adams in the American Amusement Park Industry. “His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights.”

 

  • For centuries, Atlantis has been one of the western world’s favourite legends, a tantalizing blend of fantasy and mystery. Stories tell of a rich and glorious empire that was lost to the sea – where some hope its ruins still lie, waiting to be discovered.

 

 

  • Just about everyone on the planet wears at least one article of clothing made from cotton at some point during the day; inevitably by-products of the plant show up as well in something that person is doing. The source of cotton’s power is its nearly terrifying versatility and the durable creature comforts it provides.

 

 

  • Using more than fifty interviews, award-wining writer Danny Danziger creates a fascinating mosaic of the people behind New York’s magnificent Metropolitan Museum of Art – from the aristocratic, acerbic director of the museum, Philippe de Montebello, to the curators who have a deep knowledge and passionate appreciation of their collections, from the security guards to the philanthropists who keep the museum’s financial life blood flowing.

 

 

  • Most words have experienced several changes in meaning throughout their history, so that it is impossible to say which stage in their meaning is the “true” meaning. And if we attempt to go back to “the beginning,” we find it is impossible, for the origins of many words are difficult to trace back.

 

 

 

 

 

  • So, as much as this is a book about the experience of traveling – the contemplation of cities that are vast in scale and villages that are as remote and strange as anything Westerners are ever likely to encounter – it is also a book that tries to describe another kind of journey.

 

 

  • Much of what people do today disguises a desperate search for meaning, the result of the crisis of belief that has become a major problem of the western world. On the one hand, the elites and their high culture suffer a loss of confidence, and aimless consumerism is widespread; on the other, powerful new myths arise, as with sporting heroes.

 

 

 

  • Programming is the art of expressing solutions to problems so that a computer can execute those solutions. Much of the effort in programming is spent finding and refining solutions. Often, a problem is only fully understood through the process of programming a solution for it.

 

 

  • The definition of a disaster varies by organization. Various entities have different “pain thresholds” that define when an incident becomes a disaster. A bank, for example, will have different criteria than a poison-control hotline. With this fact in mind, any organization should begin the process of implementing “first alert” and response teams after it has completed a business impact analysis.

 

 

  • Margaret Simons explains the changes taking place in the Australian media. She analyses audiences, our major media organizations, the role of government – and the implications of all these for our society and our democracy. Her examination leads her to the conclusion that the challenges facing the content providers in the modern world are part of a broader striving, a very old struggle – we might call it the search for meaning.

 

 

 

  • 389     Today’s technological market is dominated by two contrasting business models: the generative and the non-generative models-the PCs. Windows and Macs of this world – allow third parties to build upon and share through them. The non-generative models is more restricted; appliances might work well, but the only entity that can change the way they operate is the vendor.

 

 

  • 390     Never has the world of journalism been so explosive, so global, and so competitive. Forget hourly news flashes; we live in a world of 24-hour breaking news with radio and TV stations and Internet sites updating stories by the minute and newspapers adjusting to stay fresh, in-depth, and relevant.

 

 

  • 391     Karl Marx is arguably the most famous political philosopher of all time, but he was also one of the great foreign correspondents of the nineteenth century. During his eleven years writing for the New York Tribune – their collaboration began in 1852 – Marx tackled an abundance of topics, from issues of class and the state of world affairs.

 

  • 392     When buying a house, for example, it’s best to let our unconscious mull over the many variables. But when we’re picking stocks and shares, intuition often leads us astray. The trick is to determine when to lean on which part of the brain, and to do this, we need think harder – and smarter-about how we think.

 

 

  • 393     The human animal’s status as the only clever tool-user who can talk about our feelings is crumbling. Prairie dogs can make up words for new animals. Crows are born with the ability to make tools. Elephants recognize and stroke the bones of a lost family member. As biologists delve into these subjects, they’re demonstrating that we’re not nearly as unique as we once thought. It’s the perfect time, scientifically speaking, to reassess our place in the animal kingdom.

 

 

 

 

  • 94     Market research is a vital part of the planning of any business. However experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field, if you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area, it is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.

 

 

  • 395     Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats travelled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes and objects made by hand.

 

 

  • 396     When the young artist was asked about his drawing, he explained that he had started by taking a photograph of himself sitting by a window at home. He then drew his face from the photograph and replaced the buildings which were outside the window with trees. This gave the picture a softer, more artistic background.

 

 

  • Humans need to use energy in order to exist. So it is unsurprising that the way people have been producing energy is largely responsible for current environmental problems. Pollution comes in many forms, but those that are most concerning, because of their impact on health, result from the combustion of fuels in power stations and cars.

 

  • Clearly, times are changing and while many people are saving for their retirement, many more still need to do so. Most countries have a range of pension schemes that are designed to provide individuals with an income once they stop working. People need to take advantage of these if they are to have sufficient money throughout their retirement years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • According to recent research, sunshine and warm weather have a positive effect on our moods. The British Journal of Psychology has published a report in which it claims that anxiety levels fall when temperatures rise, while increased exposure to sunshine makes us think more positively about our lives.

 

 

  • Statistics reflect vital information about the economy, the well-being of the population, and the environment. Society relies on statistics being visible, accessible and robust, and on statistically literate people making the best use of the information to determine future action. Statistical literacy, then, is the ability to accurately understand, interpret and evaluate the data that inform these issues.

 

 

  • Housing fulfils the basic needs that people have for security, privacy and shelter. While the adequacy of housing is an important component of individual well -being, housing also has great impact on the nation’s economy, with its influence on investment levels, interest rates, building activity and employment.

 

 

  • Being physically active benefits people’s health significantly, including reducing the risk of some chronic conditions, helping to control weight, and improving mental health. In recent decades, there has been a decline in physical activity because more people work in offices rather than in manual jobs.

 

 

  • Students who wish to take a break from their studies will need to put in an application for Leave of Absence. If your application is successful, you will be notified via email. At the end of your Leave of Absence, you must re-enrol at Student Services and in the subjects you intend to study.

 

 

 

  • There are a number of tests available which can suggest if a person is telling the truth, but knowing which ones are accurate is not easy. A newly created test is claimed to be the most accurate yet in lie detection. However, questions have been raised about its accuracy and ethics.

 

 

  • A student exchange program complements formal education, while promoting tolerance, maturity and independence – all highly sought after qualities in today’s competitive job market. Living in the host country, not as a tourist or guest but as a member of the community, is what makes the experience both challenging and rewarding.

 

 

  • Tidal energy, also known as tidal power, is a renewable source of energy and a form of hydropower used to generate electricity from the energy of the tides. Though not currently widely utilised, due to high costs and limited availability, it can be called the energy resource of the future given the current rate of depletion of energy resources.

 

 

  • Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research purposes.

 

 

  • Most countries are affected by labor migration. In many rural places, the traditional extended family has been undermined by the need for family members to migrate to towns as an economic necessity. Migration, therefore, presents a major challenge everywhere to social and economic policy.

 

 

 

  • One of the major factors influencing future home design will be the probable change in climate, with hotter summers, colder winters, and the possibility of floods. Consequently, houses will be built with better insulation and will also need ways of keeping cool in hot weather, whether that’s air conditioning or more shading of windows.

 

 

  • Until fairly recent times, the origin of birds was one of evolution’s great mysteries. This is no longer the case. Fossil evidence from China now conclusively proves that there is an evolutionary link between birds and several types of extinct prehistoric reptiles which lived millions of years ago, or in other words, dinosaurs.

 

 

  • Group work, is valuable because of the opportunities it provides for students to develop collaboration and communication skills. As an assessment task, it has the potential to pose difficulties in relation to appropriate acknowledgement of authorship of individual group members. These difficulties can be minimized by ensuring that the task is well designed, with the roles of individuals effectively identified.

 

 

  • The Italian alphabet has fewer letters in comparison with the English alphabet. Italian does not use the letters J. K, W, X or Y – except in borrowed words. However, young Italians are increasingly using the letter Kin words that.

 

 

  • Summerhill School was regarded with considerable suspicion by the educational establishment. Lessons were optional for pupils at the school, and the government of the school was carried out by a School Council, of which all the pupils and staff were members, with everyone having equal voting rights.

 

 

 

 

  • This term the University is running a series of workshops for final year students on how to do well in interviews. These sessions will help participants prepare effectively for – and perform at their best during – later job interviews. The workshop tutors have an excellent record of success in helping students acquire the positions they desire.

 

 

  • Tasmania is a large and relatively sparsely populated island off the south coast of Australia. The island is of particular interest to natural scientists, who go there to research the unique wildlife. Tasmania has, for example, twelve species of bird that are not found anywhere else in the world.

 

 

  • Honey has traditionally been credited with significant medical powers, and it has played a major part in many folk remedies. But it seems now its efficacy is not just an old wives’ tale. Recent research has shown there is scientific evidence to prove that honey contains elements that prevent bacteria from growing.

 

 

  • The College has a fascinating museum dedicated to archaeology and anthropology. It contains information about many of the studies which have been carried out by members of the College over the five hundred years of its existence. There are many unique exhibits brought back from excavations and explorations in all the continents.

 

 

  • History rubs shoulders and often overlaps with many other areas of research, from myths and epics to the social sciences, including economics, politics, biography, demography, and much else besides. Some histories are almost pure narratives, while others go in for detailed, tightly-focused analyses of, for example, the parish records of a Cornish village in the 16th century.

 

 

  • There are many kinds of pond, but nearly all are small bodies of shallow, stagnant water in which plants with roots can grow. Water movement is slight and temperatures fluctuate widely. The wealth of plants ensures that during daylight hours oxygen is plentiful. However, at night, when photosynthesis no longer takes place, oxygen supplies can fall very low.

 

 

  • Before the time of Alexander the Great, the only eastern people who could be compared with the Greeks in the fields of science and philosophy were from the Indian sub-continent. However, because so little is known about Indian chronology, it is difficult to tell how much of their science was original and how much was the result of Greek influence.

 

 

  • While far fewer people these days write letters and therefore have Jess use for stamps, there are still a few categories of stamp which attract collectors. Stamps in common use for an indefinite period – until the price goes up – are called “definitive” issues, while a more collectible type of stamp is the “commemorative” issue, honoring people, events and anniversaries.

 

 

 

  • In the middle ages, the design and use of flags were considered a means of identifying social status. Flags were, therefore, the symbols not of nations, but of the nobility. The design of each flag resembled the “devices” on the noble’s Coat of Arms, and the size of the flag was an indication of how high the owner stood in the nobility.

 

 

  • The ritual of the state opening of parliament still illustrates the basis of the British constitution. The sovereignty of the Royal Family has passed to the sovereignty of parliament, leaving the monarchy with the trappings of power, while prime ministers are still denied the kind of status that is given to American and French presidents.

 

 

  • Most peasants remained self-sufficient and skeptical about money – and with good reason: the triumph of capitalism probably made them worse off. They now had to deal with a centralized imperial state that was collecting tax more efficiently, giving more power to landlords, and slowly reducing customary peasant rights to land and produce.

 

 

  • Another method governments use to try and influence the private sector is economic planning. For a long time now, socialist and communist states have used planning as an alternative to the price mechanism, organizing production and distributing their resources according to social and strategic needs, rather than based on purely economic considerations.

 

 

  • Most succulent plants are found in regions where there is little rainfall, dry air, plenty of sunshine, porous soils and high temperatures during part of the year. These conditions have caused changes in plant structures, which have resulted in greatly increased thickness of stems, leaves and sometimes roots, enabling them to store moisture from the infrequent rains.

 

 

 

  • Line engraving on metal, which, to a great extent, was a development of the goldsmith’s craft of ornamenting armour and precious metals, did not emerge as a print-making technique until well into the 15th century. Copper, the metal mainly used for engraving, was expensive, and engraving itself was laborious and took a long time.

 

 

  • For the first two or three years after the Second World War, a new title would often sell out within a few months of publication. However, unless public demand for the book was unusually high, they were rarely able to reprint it. With paper stocks strictly rationed, they could not afford to use up precious paper or tie up their limited capital with a reprint.

 

 

  • The Atlantic coast of the peninsula can be thought of as the cold side, and the sea on this coast tends to be clear and cold, with a variety of seaweeds growing along the rocky shoreline. On a hot day, however, this cold water can be very refreshing and is said to be Jess hospitable to sharks, which prefer warmer waters.

 

 

  • All the works of art shown in this exhibition were purchased on a shoestring budget. The criteria that the curators had to follow were that works must be acquired cheaply, appeal to a broad range of tastes, and fit with unusual environments. Thus, many of our better known modern artists are not represented.

 

 

 

  • Foam-filled furniture is very dangerous if it catches fire, and foam quickly produces a high temperature, thick smoke and poisonous gases – including carbon monoxide. Therefore, set levels of fire resistance have been established for new and second-hand upholstered furniture and other similar products.

 

 

 

 

  • The starting point of Bergson’s theory is the experience of time and motion. Time is the reality we experience most directly, but this doesn’t mean that we can capture this experience mentally. The past is gone and the future is yet to come. The only reality is the present, which is real through our experience.

 

 

  • It is important to note that saving is not the same as investment. Saving is about cash, while investment is about real product. The difference is important because money, being liquid, can leak out of the economic system – which it does when someone who is putting aside unspent income keeps it under the mattress.

 

 

 

 

  • Historically, the low level of political autonomy of the cities in China is partly a result of the early development of the state bureaucracy. The bureaucrats played a major role in the growth of urbanization, but were also able to control its subsequent development and they never completely gave up this control.

 

 

  • Writers may make the mistake of making all their sentences too compact. Some have made this accusation against the prose of Gibbon. An occasional loose sentence prevents the style from becoming too formal and allows the reader to relax slightly. Loose sentences are common in easy, unforced writing, but it is a fault when there are too many of them.

 

 

  • There is a long history of rulers and governments trying to legislate on men’s hair – both the length of the hair on their heads and the style of facial hair. For practical reasons, Alexander the Great insisted his soldiers be clean-shaven, but Peter the Great of Russia went further, insisting no Russians had beards.

 

 

 

 

  • Early in the 19th century, Wordsworth opposed the coming of the steam train to the Lake District, saying it would destroy its natural character. Meanwhile, Blake denounced the “dark satanic mills” of the Industrial Revolution. The conservation of the natural environment, however, did not become a major theme in politics until quite recently.

 

 

 

  • In the distribution of wealth, America is more unequal than most European countries. The richest tenth of the population earns nearly six times more than the poorest tenth. In Germany and France, the ratio is just over three to one. The United States also has the largest proportion of its people in long-term poverty.

 

 

  • Chaucer was probably the first English writer to see the English nation as a unity. This is the reason for his great appeal to his contemporaries. A long war with France had produced a wave of patriotism, with people no longer seeing each other as Saxon or Norman but as English.

 

 

  • What can history tell us about contemporary society? Generally, in the past, even in Europe until the 18th century, it was assumed that it could tell how any society should work. The past was the model for the present and the future. It represented the key to the genetic code by which each generation produced its successors and ordered their relationships.

 

 

  • 241 The speaker reminisces about his views of the English Revolution when he was a student and how it seemed quite clear which side he was on – the aristocrats’, not the puritans’. Later he realized there was more to it than that and there were several ways of interpreting the Revolution: as a struggle between the king and parliament, as a class war or as an unpredictable situation without clear sides.

 

  • 242 DeLone and McLean’s model has been criticized by some authors. Indeed, this model is specific to contexts of voluntary use of information technology. The usage variable remains a success variable of information systems if the user himself decides to adopt or reject the technology. However, for mandatory uses, such as for ERP systems, the use of the technology is obvious. The success of information systems cannot, therefore, be measured by usage.

 

 

  • 243 Psychologist Saho Takagi, a graduate student at Kyoto University in Japan, strolls into one of Japan’s many cat cafes. These establishments allow customers to pay an hourly fee for the chance to cuddle some cats. They’re popular in Japan because so many apartment buildings forbid pet ownership. But Takagi isn’t a typical customer. She’s not there for feline affection, but to probe their minds.

 

  • 244 Some people object that in order for the eye to modify and still remain a useful instrument to its owner, many changes would have had to take place simultaneously. However, it is not necessary to suppose this if the modifications were extremely slight and gradual.

 

 

 

  • 245 The researchers enlisted real mothers and infants and quantified their interactions, which fell into four categories. One: babies wanted to maximize the amount of time smiling at their mothers. Two: they wanted to maximize the time the mothers smiled at them. Three: they wanted to experience simultaneous smiling, and four: no smiling at all.

 

  • 246 Clementson wanted to see if claims of question dodging actually held up, historically—not necessarily in the unique case of Trump. So Clementson analyzed the transcripts of 14 presidential debates, from 1996 to 2012. Overall, he found 51 accusations of question dodging— 26 by Dems, 25 by Republicans.

 

  • 247 Study author Samuel Shian, a materials scientist, says this smart glass is cheaper than others, and uses minimal power— much less, for example, than something like a curling iron. And since it’s flexible and foldable, he says it could even be used for things like camouflage uniforms, to switch, for example, from green and brown to white and gray. “This would be very useful when the background landscape suddenly changes, such as during early snowfall.”

 

  • 248 In comparing material with non-material culture – the first being the objects and technologies we create, and the second our customs, beliefs and attitudes – the speaker gives greater emphasis to the material culture. He gives the example of the development of genetic science and the benefits it has brought to mankind, despite a fair amount of opposition.

 

  • 249 Beauty contests, whether it’s Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. Opponents say that they are nothing more than symbols of decline. Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country.

 

 

  • 250 At random times throughout the day, the program asked some 2,200 participants what they were doing, what they were thinking about and how they felt. Turns out that people spend nearly half their waking hours thinking about something other than what they’re doing. And that whether and where their thoughts tend to stray is a better predictor of their feelings than what they’re actually up to.

 

  • 251 Pudritzl and Heller suggest that hunters of extraterrestrial life may want to listen particularly closely for signals originating at star systems within that narrow band of galactic sky. Advanced civilizations there may have already detected us using the transit method, they say, and may now be sending us a message. You might think of this paper, then, like a treasure map, for intelligent life.

 

  • 252 Each tube-shaped microbot is a sandwich of three materials. A graphene outer layer, which binds to heavy metals. A middle layer of nickel, which gives the bots magnetic polarity, so they can be pulled through wastewater with magnets. And platinum inside—for propulsion. Just add a bit of peroxide to the wastewater, and it’ll react with the platinum to form water and oxygen bubbles, which propel the tubes along.

 

 

  • 253 To examine what we really think about creativity, scientists asked students to present ideas for how airlines can get more revenue from their passengers. Half the students were told to come up with novel solutions, and the rest were asked to stick with something more tried-and-true. Other students who then listened to these pitches rated those who were innovative as having less leadership potential.

 

 

  • 254 Collins and Greg Stock, Yosemite’s park geologists, wanted to know if small rock movements, induced by changing temperatures, might weaken cracks and contribute to rock falls. So the researchers-who were both climbers-found a suitable fracture near the base of a 500-meter-tall cliff and installed instruments called crack meters, which monitored the width of the crack over time.

 

 

  • 255 Over time a split would have appeared in wolf populations, he says: those wolves that feared humans, and those that didn’t. “So this would have facilitated, I think, the domestication process. “At which point humans deliberately took wolves as pets. But that domestication process, Frantz says, may have happened more than once: first in the west, in Europe. And again in the Far East, in Asia.

 

 

  • 256 Nell says that, in order to seek protecting from their furry foes, birds actually prefer to build their nests in plots of swamp with a resident alligator. In fact, in one study a graduate student planted fake alligators. The birds seemed to prefer to build nests close to them. “Where there’s a water source, there are alligators, so it’s sort of this moat of protection around these colonies.”

 

 

  • 257 Such an agreement would include recognition that the world must aim as soon as possible to hold global warming to 1.5-degree Celsius; a long-term low-carbon future; 5-year updated action plans that recognize the developing climate reality; and aid to those countries that did little to cause climate change but are most at risk from it.

 

 

 

  • 258 Then the researchers thought, what if they could tap into this energy to develop a sort of sweat-powered “bio battery” Their proof-of-concept setup topped out at only about 4 micro Watts of juice-not even enough to run a watch. But with better electronics, exercising in the future could make dirty clothes and some clean energy.

 

 

  • 259 In 1998. James Thompson pronounced that he had isolated human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory. At last, these powerful cells were within the grip of scientists to experiment with, understand, and develop into fixes for the things that go wrong.

 

 

  • 260 Clichés are worn out, overused and over-familiar phrases, and the etymology of the word helps to explain this. Originally, a cliché or stereotype was a printer’s term for a pre-set block of type with phrases used frequently in the newspapers. The word has since adopted a negative meaning and careful writers avoid them where they can.

 

 

  • 261 The medical center issued a statement saying that patient care was not compromised while their data was unavailable. Still, it’s unsettling to hear that a hospital is shut out of parts of its own computer systems and unable to communicate electronically.

 

  • 262 Cooking certainly tenderizes food, making it easier to chew and digest. But evidence for human cook fires goes back only about 500.000 years, if that. Homo erectus had already evolved weaker jaws, and smaller teeth, more than a million years before that. So Lieberman and his colleague Katherine Zink began their investigation by recreating a Paleolithic dinner: yams, carrots, beets, And goat meat.

 

 

 

  • 263 In order to achieve the free flow of goods and services, with work and capital between the member countries, they needed to establish mutual politics in areas as diverse as agriculture, transport, and working conditions. When they had agreed on these policies, they became legal. Now, though, the EU is concerned with a far wider range of issues.

 

  • 264 Dolphins have adopted group living as a response to living in close contact with other animals in the ocean, some of which kill dolphins for food. Living in social groups makes it easier to hunt for food and, in a dangerous environment, it makes sense in terms of safety to move about in large numbers.

 

  • 265 Stem cells are the body’s master cells, the rare material from which we are built. Unlike normal body cells, they can reproduce an indefinite number of times and, when manipulated in the right way, can turn themselves into any sort of cell in the body. The most versatile stem cells are those found in the embryo at just a few days old. This ball of a few dozen stem cells eventually goes on to form everything that makes up a human.

 

 

  • 266 When the European Economic Community was established in 1957, its aim was, in broad terms, to move towards closer political and economic co-operation. Today, the much bigger European Union has a far-reaching importance on many aspects of our lives, from the conditions we work under, to the safety standards we must adhere to, and the environment in which we live.

 

  • 267 Aldina Franco of the University of East Anglia, is one of the scientists who studied the storks’ use of landfills in Portugal. GPS tracking devices on 17 birds showed that the landfill life might mean up to 100-kilometer round-trips to feed-healthy distances, but far shorter than their historic migration routes.

 

 

 

  • 268 The researchers think that this kind of coordination might have evolved because woodpeckers invest so much time and energy carving out their nest hole in a tree. If they were kicked out and had to start over, they might not get a chance to reproduce and fledge their offspring.

 

  • 269 The Roman state was tested almost to destruction by the defeat at Cannae by the Carthaginians led by Hannibal – and according to the historian Polybius it was only what he called the “peculiar virtues” of the Roman constitution that allowed it to survive this crisis.

 

  • 270 What we experience is processed by the brain into memories in three stages. First, there is the sensory input, which is momentary. This is then stored in the short term memory. If this experience is important or meaningful to us, we will reinforce the memory, possibly by repetition, and it will then be stored in the long-term memory.

 

  • 271 Florida’s Everglades are home to lots of large wading birds, like egrets and herons. But the Glades also have lots of raccoons and possums. For the mammals, the birds’ nests are an all-you-can-eat buffet. And when an invasion occurs,” sometimes thousands of birds will abandon their nests. And leave, and there’s littered remains of dead chicks and eggs that have been eaten.” Stated Lucas Nell, an ecologist at the University of Georgia.

 

  • 272 But the connection does suggest your photos and social media posts can be used for more than bragging about brunch. “Sharing this data could be so valuable for academic research. We can actually use this data to do something good in the world. ”Like giving local organizations and urban planners a better look at how and why cities change. All you ‘ve got to do, is add a few tags.

 

 

  • 273 The audio, which includes more than 1,000 separate data files, was captured in the early 1970s by the late Hetty van de Rijt. She recorded the various screams, barks, and hoo calls made by a group of chimps, including 17 youngsters, living in the Goombe National Park in Tanzania.

 

  • 274 Investigators also compared those microbes with those living in 52 other soil samples taken from all around the planet. The park had organisms that also exist in deserts, frozen tundra, forests, rainforests and prairies. Antarctica was the only area that had microbes that did not overlap with those found in Central Park. Only a small percentage of the park’s microbes were found to be already listed in databases.

 

  • 275 Some of the pain patients may become hooked. Or their meds may find their way to friends or relatives who take them recreationally. Or a prescription opioid user may transition to heroin. “Heroin is just another opioid drug, so the brain doesn’t distinguish whether it comes from a pharmacy or from a street drug dealer.

 

 

  • 276 So there’s tremendous availability of prescriptions. There are some 260 million prescriptions written in each year for opioids. That’s not tablets, that’s prescriptions. So it’s millions and millions of these and some of them are available for diversion and used inappropriately.

 

  • 277 It’s projected that, over the next hundred years, temperatures on Earth could rise an average of nearly five degrees Celsius. While some animals might be able to migrate north to escape the brunt of the heat, plants can’t uproot themselves quite so easily. Researchers wondered whether the creatures that disperse plant seeds might be able to help.

 

 

 

 

 

  • 278 The scientists say this is the first documented instance of nectar that attracts a particular animal assistant being produced outside of a nectary. In fact, the observed nectar bleeding might actually be an early system that evolved to include the nectaries found in other plants today. A process that, though not short, was certainly sweet.

 

  • 279 Investigations like this one have been plodding along for 40 years, and some studies-like one following the deadly Kobe quake in 1995- have found similar correlations. But study author Alasdair Skelton, a professor of geochemistry at Stockholm University, says the unpredictable study subject makes it tough to get funding, “because you can in no way guarantee a result. So l get three years of money, but if there’s no earthquake, there’s no result.”

 

  • 280 In 1861, Matthew Brady, a well- known portrait photographer, approached President Lincoln requesting permission to move freely about the country photographing the Civil War. Lincoln granted him permission to travel anywhere with the Union armies, and his record of this conflict brought home to millions the horrors of war.

 

 

  • 281 The most powerful among these were the Mthethwa under the leadership of Dingiswayo, who radically changed some aspects of traditional life during his reign. Formerly, military activity was based on local recruitment; men from a district would fight together under their chief.

 

  • 282 While clichés in writing reveal lazy thinking and are to be avoided at all costs, in the graphic arts they become essential, helping to get the message across quickly, clearly and with emotional force. This is especially true of advertising and propaganda where the impact must be immediate.

 

 

 

 

 

  • 283 A team of Johns Hopkins scientists study sodium channels responsible for electrical signaling in nerve cells from humans and from cockroaches. Spider venom protein messes with these sodium channels-which is why venom is dangerous. The researchers then use spider venom protein to disrupt the channels and thus clarify exactly how the channels function.

 

  • 284 Not all solar energy capture devices make electricity directly. For example, steam generated from solar energy can turn turbines, which then produce electricity. And, in what could be especially useful in remote regions, solar steam can desalinate water and be used in sanitation and equipment sterilization.

 

 

 

  • 285 Researchers tested water and sediment at the Cedars. Some samples got dosed with mercuric chloride to kill any life present. Those dosed samples produced no methane. But the samples in which microbes were allowed to survive did put out methane, confirming that at least some of the methane at the springs is indeed biological in origin.

 

 

  • 286 Chakraborty studied that process in large thunderstorm systems over the tropica, using data from geostationary and circumpolar satellites. He found that when more aerosols seed the air, like in places with lots of industrial or agricultural pollution, the same amount of water vapor gets absorbed by a larger number of aerosols. Meaning tinier-than usual cloud particle size.

 

  • 287 But that blockage can be cleared by applying an electric field of 1600 volts per centimeter, parallel to the chocolate’s flow. The effect would allow chocolatiers to cut cocoa butter by 10 to 20 percent and still not clog the pipes. The study appears in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

 

 

 

 

 

  • 288 The problem is, that increased immune vigilance has a side effect: allergies. “Our speculation is that this is some kind of trade-off. In the past you needed to resist some kind of pathogen, and the trade-off or sacrifice you have to make is increased responsiveness to nonpathogenic allergens.” So next time some of you get the springtime sniffles, blame your distant ancestor-the one with the heavy brow ridge.

 

  • 289 Nell and his colleagues took to the Everglades at night, hunting for gators near and far from nests.” You have to use a spotlight and you see the little demon eyes shining out of the marsh. ”They lassoed the gators, pulled them into the airboat, and took blood samples and body measurements.